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- January 14 – Edward III of England instituted the Treason Act 1351 defining treason in English law. It is currently one of the earliest statues still in force under English law.
- March 26 – Combat of the Thirty: Thirty picked knights each from the Kingdoms of France and England fight to determine who will rule the Duchy of Brittany as part of the War of the Breton Succession; a Franco-Breton victory is assured by the squire Guillaume de Montauban.
- April 8 – Hundred Years' War: At the Battle of Taillebourg in Gascony, the French are defeated by the English.
- May 1 – Zürich joins the Swiss Confederation.
- King Ramathibodi I ascends the throne in Ayutthaya (now Thailand). He begins to propagate Theravada Buddhism as the state religion.
- King Gongmin ascends the throne in Goryeo.
- Emperor Go-Kōgon of Japan succeeds Emperor Sukō, making them the third and fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders, respectively.
- The Statute of Laborers is enacted by the Parliament of England, to deal with a labor shortage caused by the Black Death.
- Vantaa, Finland is first mentioned.
- Firuz Tughlaq succeeds Mohammad Tughlaq as Sultan of Delhi.
- The Mongolian-run Yuan dynasty of China is permanently weakened by an uprising known as the Red Turban Rebellion.
- The Samma Dynasty in Sindh (now part of Pakistan) breaks away from the Delhi Sultanate.
- The Turks cross the Dardanelles into Europe for the first time.
- October 16 – Gian Galeazzo Visconti, first Duke of Milan (d. 1402)
- November 1 – Leopold III, Duke of Austria (d. 1386)
- Princess Joan of France (d. 1371)
- probable – Władysław II Jagiełło, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland (d. 1434)
- February 13 – Kō no Morofuyu, Japanese general
- March 20 – Muhammad bin Tughluq, Sultan of Delhi
- March 25
- May 24 – Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Othman, Sultan of Morocco (b. 1297)
- June 20 – Margareta Ebner, German nun (b. 1291)
- November 15 – Joanna of Pfirt, duchess consort of Austria
- Rickard, J. (2000-10-03). "Battle of Taillebourg, 8 April 1351". Military History Encyclopedia on the Web. Retrieved 2015-03-26.