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|1451 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Architecture - Art|
|Political entities - State leaders - Colonial governors - Religious leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
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|Establishments - Disestablishments|
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|1451 in poetry|
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- February 3 – Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II.
- February 14 – Louis XI of France marries Charlotte of Savoy.
- April 11 – Celje acquires market town status and town rights by orders from Count Frederic II of Celje.
- April 19 – In the Delhi Sultanate, the Afghan Lodi dynasty succeeds the Turkish Sayyid dynasty.
- June 30 – French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture Bordeaux.
- August 20 – The French capture Bayonne, the last English stronghold in Guyenne.
- October – Petru Aron takes up the throne after assassinating Bogdan II of Moldavia.
- October 28 – Revolt of Ghent: Ghent takes up arms against Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
- The University of Glasgow is founded.
- Nicholas of Cusa invents concave lens spectacles to treat myopia.
- January 14 – Franchinus Gaffurius, Italian composer (d. 1522)
- January 29 – John, Prince of Portugal, Prince of Portugal (d. 1451)
- February 17 – Raffaello Maffei, Italian theologian (d. 1522)
- March 5 – William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, English Earl (d. 1491)
- April 22 – Queen Isabella I of Castile, Aragonese queen consort (d. 1504)
- May 2 – René II, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1508)
- May 17 – Engelbert II of Nassau, Count of Nassau-Vianden and Lord of Breda (1475–1504) (d. 1504)
- June 1 – Giles Daubeney, 1st Baron Daubeney (d. 1508)
- July 10 – James III of Scotland (d. 1488)
- September 5 – Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence, elder daughter of Richard Neville (d. 1476)
- November 29 – Elisabeth of Brandenburg, Duchess of Württemberg (d. 1524)
- date unknown – Christopher Columbus, Italian explorer (d. 1506)
- January 7 – Count Amadeus VIII of Savoy (b. 1383)
- February 3 – Murad II, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1404)
- June – ‘Abdullah, Timurid Empire ruler
- July 11 – Barbara of Cilli, Holy Roman Empress, queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia (b. 1392)
- October – Bogdan II of Moldavia, assassinated by Petru Aron
- date unknown