2010 Atlantic hurricane season
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|Season summary map|
|First system formed||June 25, 2010|
|Last system dissipated||November 7, 2010|
|Strongest storm1||Igor – 924 mbar (hPa) (27.29 inHg), 155 mph (250 km/h)|
|Major hurricanes (Cat. 3+)||5|
|Total fatalities||287 direct, 27 indirect|
|Total damage||≥ $4.53 billion (2010 USD)|
|1Strongest storm is determined by lowest pressure|
2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
The 2010 Atlantic hurricane season was the third most active Atlantic hurricane season on record (behind only the 2005 and 1933 seasons), tying with the 1887, 1995, 2011, and 2012 Atlantic hurricane seasons. It had the most named storms since the 2005 season, and also ties with the 1969 season for the second-largest number of hurricanes. In addition, the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season was more active than the year's Pacific typhoon season, only the second time this is known to have occurred (the first being in 2005).
The season began with Hurricane Alex, a Category 2 storm on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, which struck the Yucatán Peninsula as a tropical storm and northeastern Mexico south of the Texas border at peak intensity. Following Alex, a series of relatively weak systems occurred into the month of July and early August. In the latter part of August and September, the season became much more active with the formation of eleven named storms in about 40 days, six of which were Cape Verde-type storms. Four of those Cape Verde storms (Danielle, Earl, Igor, and Julia) each reached Category 4 intensity and a fifth in the Bay of Campeche (Karl) also became a major hurricane. Danielle and Earl were back-to-back major hurricanes, followed by several weak tropical storms, and then another series of three consecutive major hurricanes. From August 21 to September 26, there was not a single full day without at least one tropical cyclone active for a total of 36 days, starting with the formation of Tropical Depression Six (which became Hurricane Danielle) and ending with the dissipation of Tropical Storm Matthew, the longest period since the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. In the month of September, eight named storms formed, which is the highest ever recorded, tying with the 2002 and 2007 seasons.
In addition, there were three occasions when three tropical cyclones were active simultaneously, with the first set being Danielle, Earl, and Fiona co-existing on August 30 – August 31. The second occasion was when Earl, Fiona, and Gaston co-existed on September 1 – September 2. The third and most notable was when Igor, Julia, and Karl were active September 14 – September 18. During a brief period, on September 15, Igor and Julia were simultaneously Category 4 hurricanes. Both were still hurricanes when Karl was upgraded to a hurricane on September 16, the first time since the 2005 season that there were at least three simultaneous hurricanes in the North Atlantic.
- 1 Seasonal forecasts
- 2 Season summary
- 3 Systems
- 3.1 Hurricane Alex
- 3.2 Tropical Depression Two
- 3.3 Tropical Storm Bonnie
- 3.4 Tropical Storm Colin
- 3.5 Tropical Depression Five
- 3.6 Hurricane Danielle
- 3.7 Hurricane Earl
- 3.8 Tropical Storm Fiona
- 3.9 Tropical Storm Gaston
- 3.10 Tropical Storm Hermine
- 3.11 Hurricane Igor
- 3.12 Hurricane Julia
- 3.13 Hurricane Karl
- 3.14 Hurricane Lisa
- 3.15 Tropical Storm Matthew
- 3.16 Tropical Storm Nicole
- 3.17 Hurricane Otto
- 3.18 Hurricane Paula
- 3.19 Hurricane Richard
- 3.20 Hurricane Shary
- 3.21 Hurricane Tomas
- 4 Storm names
- 5 Season effects
- 6 Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE)
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
|Record high activity||28||15||8|
|Record low activity||4||2||0†|
|CSU||December 10, 2009||11–16||8–9||3–5|
|CSU||April 7, 2010||15||8||4|
|NCSU||April 26, 2010||15–18||8–11||N/A|
|NOAA||May 27, 2010||14–23||8–14||3–7|
|FSU COAPS||June 1, 2010||17||10||N/A|
|CSU||June 2, 2010||18||10||5|
|UKMO||June 17, 2010||20*||N/A||N/A|
|NOAA||August 5, 2010||14–20||8–12||4–6|
|* July–November only.
† Most recent of several such occurrences. (See all)
Philip J. Klotzbach's team at Colorado State University (formerly led by William M. Gray) defined the average number of storms per season (1950 to 2000) as 9.6 tropical storms, 5.9 hurricanes, 2.3 major hurricanes (storms reaching at least Category 3 strength in the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) and an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index of 96.1. NOAA defines a season as above-normal, near-normal or below-normal by a combination of the number of named storms, the number reaching hurricane strength, the number reaching major hurricane strength and the ACE index.
On December 9, 2009, Klotzbach's team issued their first extended-range forecast for the 2010 season, predicting average to above-average activity (11 to 16 named storms, six to eight hurricanes and three to five major hurricanes of Category 3 or higher and ACE Index of 100–162), citing that the 2009–10 El Niño event is likely to dissipate by the start of the season. On April 7, 2010, Klotzbachs's team issued an updated forecast for the 2010 season, predicting above-average activity (15 named storms, eight hurricanes and four major hurricanes of Category 3 or higher), citing the dissipating 2009–10 El Niño, the possibility of current weak to moderate La Niña and warming Atlantic sea surface temperatures as potential factors. North Carolina State University professor Lian Xie and a team of colleagues and students predicted that 2010 would see 15 to 18 named storms, with 8–11 potentially becoming hurricanes. Xie’s team predicts that 3–6 storms will make landfall in the Gulf of Mexico, with one storm making landfall at hurricane status. However, no prediction was made for the number of major hurricanes.
On May 27, 2010, NOAA released their forecast for the season, predicting an "extremely active" season (14 to 23 named storms, eight to fourteen hurricanes, and three to seven major hurricanes of Category 3 or higher). NOAA based its forecast on weaker wind shear, warmer temperatures in the region and the continuance of the "high activity era" (i.e. Atlantic multidecadal oscillation warm phase) which began in 1995. Gerry Bell, lead seasonal hurricane forecaster at NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center, added the main uncertainty in the outlook was how much above normal the 2010 season will be, and whether the high end of the predicted range is reached "depends partly on whether or not La Niña develops this summer. At present we are in a neutral state, but conditions are becoming increasingly favorable for La Niña to develop."
On June 1, 2010, the Florida State University Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (FSU COAPS) issued its second annual Atlantic hurricane season forecast. The FSU COAPS forecast predicted 17 named storms, including 10 hurricanes, and an ACE Index of 156. On June 2, 2010, Klotzbach's team issued their second updated forecast for the 2010 season, predicting 18 named storms, 10 hurricanes, and 5 major hurricanes. The university said it now believes there will be more storms than they believed earlier. The university also said the chance of a major hurricane hitting the U.S. coast is 76 percent, compared to an average of 52 percent for the last 100 years. The chance of a major hurricane hitting the Florida peninsula and the U.S. east coast is 51 percent, compared to an average of 30 percent for the last 100 years. On June 17, the UK Met Office (UKMO) issued a forecast of an above-average season. They predicted 20 tropical storms with a 70% chance that the number would be between 13 and 27. However, they do not issue forecasts on the number of hurricanes and major hurricanes. They also predicted an ACE Index of 204 with a 70% chance that the index would be in the range 90 to 319.
On August 5, NOAA released its mid-season forecast. It was revised slightly downwards, to 14–20 named storms, 8–12 hurricanes, and 4–6 major hurricanes. The agency noted that the new estimate was revised downwards from the initial estimate since the latter included the possibility of even more early season activity. However, NOAA indicated that a La Niña event had in fact developed, and that the conditions for an active season remained in place.
Most of the damage in the season occurred in Mexico. The first hurricane, Hurricane Alex, was the wettest tropical cyclone in the state of Nuevo León, producing 35.04 in (890 mm) on the mountains in the outskirts of Monterrey. Heavy damage was reported in the state, totaling $16.9 billion (2010 MXN; 1.35 billion USD). In Tamaulipas where it made landfall, Alex and its ensuing floods damaged at least 6,000 homes, 202 schools, and 500 businesses, leaving damage of around $1.084 billion (2010 MXN; 83.8 million USD). There were at least 12 deaths in the country.
Due to the prevailing atmospheric steering currents and the placement of the jet stream, most hurricanes remained away from the United States. No hurricanes struck the country, compared to the average of two, although several storms affected the country. In late June, Tropical Storm Alex moved through the area affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, causing tarballs as large as apples to wash onshore portions of the Gulf Coast from high storm tides created by the storm. Later it produced heavy rainfall in south Texas, causing flooding along the Rio Grande and $10 million in damage (2010 USD). About a week after Alex, Tropical Depression Two struck southern Texas, producing additional rainfall in the region. Tropical Storm Bonnie was one of two named storms to hit the country, striking south Florida in July and causing light rainfall and winds. A few weeks later, Tropical Depression Five developed in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, causing two indirect deaths off the west of Florida due to heavy surf. Along the east coast of the United States, Tropical Storm Colin caused one drowning death in early August, followed by Hurricane Danielle causing two deaths from rip currents later in the month.
Overall, the season's activity was reflected with a high accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 166, the highest since 2005. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h) or tropical storm strength. Subtropical cyclones are excluded from the total.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||June 25 – July 2|
|Peak intensity||110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min) 946 mbar (hPa)|
A disturbance developed within the Intertropical Convergence Zone on June 17 and remained distinct on its track west. An area of low pressure developed in association with the system over the northwestern Caribbean on June 24, and in conjunction with data from a reconnaissance aircraft, further organized into a tropical depression by 18:00 UTC the following day. Steered west and eventually west-northwest, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Alex by 06:00 UTC on June 26 and attained peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) before moving ashore near Belize City, Belize several hours later. Alex maintained tropical storm intensity as it crossed the Yucatan Peninsula, and upon executing a northward turn and a second westward bend, began to steadily intensify. The cyclone intensified into the season's first hurricane at 00:00 UTC on June 30 and attained peak winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) as it made landfall near Soto la Marina, Mexico, at 02:00 UTC on July 1. Once inland, Alex dove west-southwest and rapidly weakened over the mountainous terrain of Mexico. It dissipated by 06:00 UTC on July 2.
The precursor disturbance to Alex inundated hundreds of homes and prompted the evacuation of thousands of residents in the Dominican Republic. Damage to crops and hundreds of structures occurred across Central America. In southern Mexico, torrential rainfall led to numerous landslides and mudslides, while swollen rivers flooded countless homes and roads were collapsed. Near the track of Alex in northern Mexico, rainfall reached as high as 35.04 in (890.02 mm) in Monterrey, 13 ft (4 m) waves affected the coastline, hundreds of thousands of citizens lost power, and widespread infrastructure was damaged or destroyed. Although the hurricane did not directly move ashore the coastline of the United States, its spiral bands produced tropical storm-force sustained winds across the southern reaches of Texas, peaking at 51 mph (82 km/h) in Port Isabel. Heavy rainfall broke accumulation records, a storm surge of at least 3.5 ft (1.1 m) caused beach erosion, and embedded supercells produced nine tornadoes (all rated EF0). Along its track, Alex was responsible for 51 deaths (22 missing) and $1.89 billion in damage.
Tropical Depression Two
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 8 – July 9|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave emerged off the western coast of Africa on June 24, eventually emerging into the Gulf of Mexico on July 7. An area of low pressure became discernible, and with data from a reconnaissance aircraft, the system was upgraded to a tropical depression by 00:00 UTC on July 8. Steered west-northwest and then west, the depression failed to organize appreciably, instead moving ashore South Padre Island, Texas, with winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) by 14:00 UTC that day. The depression degenerated into a remnant low by 06:00 UTC on July 9 and dissipated over northern Mexico a day later.
In advance of landfall, the NHC issued a tropical storm warning from Baffin Bay, Texas to Rio San Fernando, Mexico; this was canceled once the storm failed to intensify. The Servicio Meteorológico Nacional warned residents of gusty winds and heavy rainfall in excess of 4–8 in (100–200 mm) capable of producing localized flooding and mudslides. Upon moving ashore, the depression produced a storm surge of 2–4 ft (0.6–1.2 m) along the southern coastline of Texas. Rainfall accumulations peaked at 5.16 in (131.06 mm) along the Guadalupe River, with lesser amounts elsewhere, including across areas affected by Hurricane Alex a week prior.
Tropical Storm Bonnie
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||July 22 – July 24|
|Peak intensity||45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave first emerged off the western coast of Africa on July 10. Once north of the Greater Antilles, convective growth and the development of a well-defined surface low led to the formation of a tropical depression just south of Acklins Island by 06:00 UTC on July 22. Amid a brief reprieve in strong upper-level winds, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Bonnie as it crossed Ragged Island around 23:15 UTC that day. It later traversed Andros Island at peak intensity, with sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h), and weakened slightly before moving ashore near Elliott Key, Florida, with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) on July 23. Bonnie weakened to a tropical depression as it crossed South Florida, and the persistent effects of strong wind shear prevented intensification in the Gulf of Mexico. The cyclone degenerated into a remnant low by 00:00 UTC on July 25 and later moved into southeastern Louisiana before dissipating later that day.
The precursor disturbance to Bonnie produced rainfall up to 4 in (100 mm) in the Dominican Republic, isolated towns due to bridge collapses and prompting the evacuation of thousands of residents. In neighboring Puerto Rico, one person drowned in a swollen river. Upon designation, tropical storm watches and warnings were issued along portions of the Florida coastline. Approximately 14,000 Florida residents lost power as Bonnie moved ashore. Minimal tropical storm-force winds affected Virginia Key, where a storm surge of 0.94 ft (0.29 m) was also reported, and rainfall up to 3.25 in (82.55 mm) across Miami-Dade County caused urban flooding. Despite degenerating into a remnant low, Bonnie produced more substantial rainfall totals across Louisiana and Mississippi, officially peaking at 5.75 in (146.05 mm) in Tylertown. Radar estimates of 8–9 in (203–229 mm) of rain prompted flash flooding which washed out more than 20 roads and bridges in Washington Parish, while about 110 homes were flooded in West Baton Rouge Parish. Remnant moisture combined with a cold front to produce damaging severe thunderstorms across portions of the Southeast in late July.
Tropical Storm Colin
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 2 – August 8|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)|
The interaction of two tropical waves and an upper-level trough led to the development of a tropical depression over the central Atlantic by 12:00 UTC on August 2. The depression steadily organized after formation, intensifying into Tropical Storm Colin by 06:00 UTC on August 3. An abnormally strong ridge to the storm's north steered Colin to the west-northwest; reaching a forward speed up to 30 mph (50 km/h), the system was unable to maintain a closed circulation and instead degenerated into a trough by 18:00 UTC that day. Over the coming days, the trough decelerated and recurved north into a weakness in the ridge while still producing tropical storm-force winds. Satellite imagery showed the reformation of a well-defined circulation by 12:00 UTC on August 5, and the system was once again classified as Tropical Storm Colin. After attaining peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h), an approaching trough sheared the cyclone and turned it northeast. Colin weakened to a tropical depression by 00:00 UTC on August 8 and degenerated into a trough for a second time twelve hours later; the trough dissipated early on August 9.
A tropical storm warning was raised for Bermuda as Colin approached but was later discontinued as it weakened. Average winds of 31 mph (50 km/h) were observed across the island, although peak winds fell just shy of tropical storm intensity at 37 mph (60 km/h). L.F. Wade International Airport received 0.16 in (4.06 mm) of rainfall. Although Colin steered well clear of the The Carolinas, swells from the storm caused at least 205 water rescues, and a rip current off Ocracoke led to the drowning of one man.
Tropical Depression Five
|Tropical depression (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 10 – August 11|
|Peak intensity||35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min) 1008 mbar (hPa)|
A non-tropical area of low pressure, first noted over the Gulf Stream on August 7, entered the southeastern Gulf of Mexico and organized into a tropical depression about 120 mi (190 km) west of Fort Myers, Florida, by 18:00 UTC on August 10. As the newly-formed cyclone moved west-northwest, a nearby upper-level low imparted high wind shear and dry air entrainment, and the depression degenerated into a remnant low twelve hours later without attaining tropical storm intensity. Upon degeneration, the low moved into the Gulf Coast of the United States and conducted a clockwise loop. It emerged into the Gulf of Mexico again on August 16, where the disturbance nearly regenerated into a tropical cyclone before making a second landfall in Mississippi the next day. The remnants dissipated over the southeastern portion of the state on August 18.
The depression produced waves up to 3 ft (0.9 m) around Anna Maria Island, where two people died of fatigue-related heart attacks after being caught in a rip current. Heavy rainfall in the New Orleans, Louisiana and Mobile, Alabama areas—aided by instability from the remnants of the depression—flooded streets, inundating an apartment complex in the former city and cutting power to 1,921 customers in the latter city. Forty homes and businesses were flooded in Avoyelles Parish. Rainfall accumulations peaked south of Natchez, Mississippi, where 13.9 in (353.06 mm) was documented.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 21 – August 30|
|Peak intensity||130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min) 942 mbar (hPa)|
The interaction of a vigorous tropical wave and a disturbance within the ITCZ led to the formation of a tropical depression about 520 mi (835 km) west-southwest of Cabo Verde by 18:00 UTC on August 21. Steered by a ridge to its north, the depression steadily organized as it moved west-northwest, intensifying into Tropical Storm Danielle by 06:00 UTC on August 22 and attaining hurricane intensity the following day. Influenced by moderate wind shear initially, Danielle maintained its status as a minimal hurricane for several days. Early on August 26, however, a more conducive environment led to rapid intensification, and by 18:00 UTC the next day, the storm attained its peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 130 mph (215 km/h). Danielle began to round the western periphery of the steering ridge after peak intensity, curving northeast as it began an eyewall replacement cycle. The inner core change, combined with progressively cooler waters, resulted in the system weakening to a tropical storm by 18:00 UTC on August 30 and degenerating into a remnant low six hours later. The low became extratropical on August 31 maintained distinct until dissipating well east-southeast of Greenland on September 3.
A tropical storm watch was issued for Bermuda on August 27 but swiftly canceled the next day as Danielle steered well clear of the island. Swells from the powerful hurricane reached the East Coast of the United States, leading to the rescue of 250 people in Ocean City, Maryland and an additional 70 people off the coast of Central Florida. The body of a man—whose death appeared to have been from drowning—was pulled from the waters of Satellite Beach, Florida; a second man went missing in Ocean City, but his body was never recovered and the search was eventually called off. Researchers examining the wreckage of the RMS Titanic were forced to seek refuge in St. John's, Newfoundland; swells as large as 10 ft (3 m) impacted the coastline of Newfoundland.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 25 – September 4|
|Peak intensity||145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min) 927 mbar (hPa)|
A vigorous tropical wave entered the Atlantic on August 23, developing into a tropical depression off the western coast of Africa two days later at 06:00 UTC. Steered by strong ridge to its north, the nascent depression steadily intensified amid a favorable environment, becoming Tropical Storm Earl six hours after formation and further strengthening into a hurricane by 12:00 UTC on August 29. A weakness in the steering ridge, created by leading Hurricane Danielle, caused Earl to narrowly miss the northern Leeward Islands as it strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane on August 30. Intensification was temporarily stunted as the cyclone underwent an eyewall replacement cycle, but Earl ultimately attained peak winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) by 06:00 UTC on September 2. Increased shear and a second replacement cycle caused the hurricane to rapidly weaken thereafter. It weakened to a tropical storm by 00:00 UTC on September 4, and although the system briefly re-attained hurricane intensity as it moved ashore near Liverpool, Nova Scotia, Earl transitioned into an extratropical cyclone twelve hours later. The extratropical low merged with another system over the Labrador Sea the next day.
Severe impacts from Earl in Antigua and Barbuda amounted to EC $34 million ($12.6 million USD), where one person was electrocuted trying to restore power. Wind gusts neared or surpassed hurricane threshold across Guadeloupe and the French islands, peaking at 105 mph (169 km/h) in Gustavia. Approximately 7,500 residents were left without power across Saint Martin, Saint Barthelemy, and Guadeloupe. Heavy rainfall and strong wind gusts battered Saint Kitts and Nevis, leaving streets flooded and many without power. In the British Leeward Islands, wind gusts up to 88 mph (142 km/h) damaged or destroyed dozens of structures, resulting in up to $7 million in damage. Substantial effects were also observed in the U.S. Virgin Islands, where total infrastructure losses were placed at $2.5 million and revenue losses from deterred vacationers reached $10.7 million. Flooding and downed power lines in Puerto Rico left 187,000 residents in the dark and an additional 60,000 without water access. As Earl paralleled the East Coast of the United States, it produced varying degrees of impact; North Carolina was hardest hit, with over $3.5 million in economic losses. Three people were killed in rough seas off Florida, one person was killed by rough seas off Maine, and two people were killed by rip currents off New Jersey. Approximately 940,000 people were left without power across Nova Scotia and surrounding areas, where one death occurred.
Tropical Storm Fiona
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||August 30 – September 3|
|Peak intensity||65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 998 mbar (hPa)|
A large and convective tropical wave moved off the western coast of Africa in late August, developing into a tropical depression by 12:00 UTC on August 30 about 1,035 mi (1,665 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. Satellite imagery and data from a research aircraft indicated the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Fiona six hours later. Dictated by an expansive mid-level ridge to its north, the cyclone moved west-northwest for several days, attaining peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) by 18:00 UTC on September 1 as it passed close to the northern Leeward Islands. Fiona's juxtaposition between the mid-level ridge and the large circulation of Hurricane Earl off The Carolinas turned the storm northwest and then north as it encountered increasingly strong wind shear and began to weaken. Expansive outflow from Earl caused Fiona's low-level circulation to become dislocated from its convection, and the system degenerated into a remnant low by 00:00 UTC on September 4. The remnant low passed near Bermuda, producing light winds and about 0.78 in (19.81 mm) of rainfall, before dissipating the next day.
Tropical Storm Gaston
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 1 – September 2|
|Peak intensity||40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)|
A vigorous tropical wave emerged from the west coast of Africa on August 28. Post-analysis data indicated that the ninth tropical depression of the season developed at 0600 UTC September 1, although the National Hurricane Center did not operationally initiate advisories until 1500 UTC that day. Nine hours thereafter, the National Hurricane Center upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Gaston, but post-analysis revealed that the system had been a tropical storm for twelve hours. In the Tropical Cyclone Report, the NHC noted that Gaston may not have attained tropical storm status, as ASCAT scatterometer data only supported an intensity around 35 mph (55 km/h). The tropical storm force winds for Gaston's peak were derived mainly from Dvorak intensity estimates.
In contrast to predictions, no further intensification occurred, and dry air began to impact Gaston, causing deep convection to start diminishing. The storm quickly weakened from dry air, and was no longer a tropical storm by 0000 UTC on September 2, however it was initially reported that the system deteriorated into a tropical depression fifteen hours later. Gaston further deteriorated from the effects of dry air, and dissipated back into a tropical wave on September 2. The system associated with the remnants of Gaston nearly re-developed as it tracked generally westward, but eventually dissipated in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles on September 8, without regaining a closed low-level circulation. Gaston had no effects on land as a tropical cyclone; however, the remnant system brought light rainfall to Puerto Rico, peaking at 3.03 inches (77 mm) in Naguabo.
Tropical Storm Hermine
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 5 – September 9|
|Peak intensity||70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min) 989 mbar (hPa)|
Hermine formed out of the remnants of the 2010 Pacific hurricane season's Tropical Depression Eleven-E in the Bay of Campeche. Organization continued and by the very early morning hours on September 6, a tropical depression formed. Later, during the morning hours, the system achieved enough organization to be classified as the eighth tropical storm of the season, and was named Hermine. Significant strengthening took place later that morning, then slow strengthening continued in the afternoon and evening. Before landfall, Hermine had an eye-like feature. Hermine made landfall that evening in northeastern Mexico, south of Matamoros, Tamaulipas, as a strong tropical storm with 70 mph (110 km/h) winds. After landfall, Hermine maintained an eye-like feature until shortly after weakening into a depression.
Damage was reported in the Rio Grande Valley region, primarily due to downed trees and power lines and scattered to widespread power outages. A woman drowned in a rip current related to Hermine in Jamaica Beach, Texas. On the evening of September 7, 2010, multiple Tornado Warnings were issued in Austin, Texas, with two confirmed touchdowns east of the city and one in the city. By 10:00 pm (CDT) the NHC issued its final advisory on Hermine as it weakened to a tropical depression. Hermine slowly weakened some more as it continued farther inland, and then it became extratropical over Oklahoma early on September 9. Hermine's remnants continued to produce heavy rain and tornadoes as it continued inland, with the circulation dissipating on September 10 over Kansas.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 8 – September 21|
|Peak intensity||155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min) 924 mbar (hPa)|
Following the pattern of a classic Cape Verde-type storm, a large and strong area of low pressure associated with broad tropical disturbance wave emerged off Western Africa on September 6. It quickly organized and became a tropical depression during the very early morning hours of September 8 and soon became the ninth tropical storm of the season, Tropical Storm Igor. It formed farther to the east than the previous tropical cyclones in 2010, being named while southeast of the Cape Verde islands.
Interaction with another vigorous tropical low and eastern wind shear weakened the storm on September 9. The interaction and weak steering currents brought the storm almost to a halt, meandering around the Cape Verde islands before weakening to a tropical depression as it absorbed the secondary low. The storm regained tropical storm status on September 10, and began to organize again. It rapidly deepened and briefly developed an eye-like feature early on September 11, which persisted for two hours. As Igor absorbed dry air, a process called entrainment, convection decreased, and much of the convection was displaced south of Igor. The storm strengthened into a hurricane, though, late on September 11.
After some slight strengthening, the storm rapidly strengthened early on September 12, and became a Category 4 hurricane that afternoon. Further intensification continued although at a somewhat slower rate in the evening before leveling out in intensity the next morning as a strong Category 4 storm. As Igor entered an eyewall replacement cycle, its winds decreased a little, but still maintained Category 4 status. However, almost a day later, the eye became better defined, and Igor continued its strengthening streak again, nearly reaching Category 5 intensity early on September 15. However, several hours later, Igor entered another larger eyewall replacement cycle, this time much more obvious, and weakened down to a lower-end Category 4 hurricane. On September 16, Igor reached a diameter of 505 miles (813 kilometres). As it headed toward Bermuda, the storm fluctuated between a moderate to strong Category 2 Hurricane. On September 19, the weakened storm battered Bermuda as a Category 1 hurricane. On September 20, the storm grew further to a size of 660 miles (1,062 kilometres). Prior to becoming fully extratropical the storm grew further to 865 miles (1,392 kilometres). During the day on September 21, Hurricane Igor made landfall in extreme southeastern Newfoundland, bringing tropical storm and hurricane-force winds, as well as extreme flooding across the island. The storms impacts on Newfoundland were devastating, with damage stated to be the worst ever seen in areas, with at least one person missing (suspected drowning – confirmed 4 days later with recovery of the body of an 80-year-old resident). Igor became extratropical east of Newfoundland on September 21. Hurricane Igor's extratropical remnants were completely absorbed by a larger extratropical storm in Baffin Bay on September 26, and the extratropical storm moved into the Greenland glacier at southern Davis Bay, and eventually crossed the Atlantic Ocean to impact Europe.
|Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 12 – September 20|
|Peak intensity||140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) 948 mbar (hPa)|
Continuing a run of Cape Verde-type storms, Tropical Depression Twelve formed on September 12 from a strong tropical wave which developed near the African Coast. It strengthened into Tropical Storm Julia early on September 13. That day Tropical Storm Julia hit the Cape Verde Islands with strong winds to the where forecasters expect the storm to drop 2 to 4 inches (50 to 100 mm) of rain in the south of the islands. It was the second storm to directly impact the Cape Verde islands in less than a week. During the night of September 14, an eye-like feature developed, and Julia intensified into a hurricane. Contrary to all of the anticipated forecasts and computer models, rapid intensification commenced early on September 15, and Julia strengthened into a Category 4 storm early that morning, with a peak intensity of 140 mph (220 km/h).
Upon reaching peak intensity at 31.8°W, Julia became the easternmost Category 4 hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin in the satellite era. However, Julia only maintained Category 4 status briefly, and a few hours later, the eye became ill-defined and the storm weakened to a Category 3. Slow weakening continued, and it weakened to a tropical storm on September 18. On September 20, Julia became an extratropical cyclone, which dropped south and then westward over succeeding days, occasionally developing a few thunderstorms near its center until dissipating on September 25.
|Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 14 – September 18|
|Peak intensity||125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min) 956 mbar (hPa)|
An area of low pressure stalled around the Northern Venezuela coast on September 11. It moved northward and then westward, bringing squally weather to Hispaniola and Jamaica. Convection fluctuated throughout these days. On September 14, the circulation became very well defined and NHC declared the disturbance Tropical Storm Karl, 315 mi (515 km) east of the Yucatan Peninsula. It made landfall as a strong tropical storm on the morning of September 15. As it moved inland, radar imagery from Belize depicted a developing eye; however, this feature may not have been associated with further strengthening and it is unclear if the system attained hurricane intensity as it moved inland. The system maintained a well-organized structure as it crossed the Yucatan, and held on to tropical storm status. As it emerged over the Bay of Campeche early on September 16, a bout of rapid intensification occurred. Karl became a hurricane on the morning of September 16, making three active hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin. The quick strengthening continued on the 17th, and became a Category 3 Hurricane. The rapid intensification of Karl marked the first time that a major hurricane was in the Bay of Campeche. The storm made landfall 10 miles (16 km) north of Veracruz, Mexico on September 17 at 16:30 UTC (11:30 am CDT). This made it the first major hurricane to make landfall anywhere in the Atlantic basin since Hurricane Ike in 2008, and the first major hurricane to make landfall anywhere on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico since Hurricane Wilma in 2005.
Throughout Quintana Roo, heavy rains from Karl resulted in scattered flooding which forced 150 families from their homes. Aside from the flooding, there were no reports of major damage. At the height of the storm, a total of 54,265 residents were without power; however, most had their electricity restored within a day. World oil prices rose somewhat on September 17 as oil giant Pemex shut down all the wells in the Mexican gulf coast because of the strengthening storm. The prices climbed 54 cents to 75.11 dollars a barrel. The storm weakened late on September 17, and became a tropical storm. A few hours later, Karl weakened into a tropical depression, and then dissipated over the high mountains of southern Mexico at 4:00 CDT, September 18, according to the NHC.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 20 – September 26|
|Peak intensity||85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 982 mbar (hPa)|
Following three consecutive major hurricanes, a new tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa on September 16. It was initially in an area of dry air unfavorable for development. Over the following few days, a broad area of low pressure developed within the wave. By September 19, the low became increasingly organized, with convection consolidating around it. Around 1800 UTC the following day, the NHC classified the low as a tropical depression, the fourteenth of the year. At this time, the depression was situated roughly 460 mi (740 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands. Situated in an area of weak steering currents, due to an unusually weak subtropical ridge, the depression slowly tracked northward. Six hours after being declared a depression, the system intensified into a tropical storm and was given the name Lisa. After attaining winds of 45 mph (75 km/h), Lisa became embedded within a westerly flow, slowly steering the system towards the east. Late on September 22, dry air entered the storm's circulation, causing convection to diminish. Lisa briefly weakened to a tropical depression, but it regained tropical storm intensity 18 hours after losing it. The storm gradually turned towards the north and later north-northeast in response to a low-to-mid-level ridge over Africa.
Early on September 24, Lisa underwent a period of rapid intensification as it strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane; winds increased from 40 mph (65 km/h) to 75 mph (120 km/h) during a 21‑hour span. Following the development of a small eye on infrared satellite imagery, the NHC assessed the storm to have attained its peak intensity early on September 25 with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 982 mbar (hPa; 29.00 inHg). Shortly thereafter, the storm entered a region of significantly higher wind shear and lower sea surface temperatures, resulting in rapid weakening. By the afternoon of September 26, Lisa had weakened to a tropical depression and convective activity dissipated hours later. The remnants of the hurricane persisted for a few days over the northeastern Atlantic Ocean before dissipating roughly 595 mi (960 km) south-southwest of the Azores Islands.
Tropical Storm Matthew
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 23 – September 26|
|Peak intensity||60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 998 mbar (hPa)|
On September 15 an area of low pressure gradually formed east of the Lesser Antilles. On September 23 the area of low pressure rapidly strengthened into Tropical Depression Fifteen, due to the favorable conditions. It quickly became Tropical Storm Matthew later that day. Early models predicted that Matthew would strengthen into a minimal hurricane as it skirted the Yucatan Peninsula, and then strike Southern Florida as a stronger hurricane. However, as Matthew was moving quicker than expected, it made landfall near the Honduras and Nicaragua border on September 24 as a tropical storm, and Belize soon after. As newer models had predicted, it then stalled inland near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, drenching a wide surrounding area with torrential rain as it dissipated to a remnant low. The remnants of Tropical Storm Matthew dissipated completely over Mexico, west of the Yucatan Peninsula late on September 28.
Tropical Storm Nicole
|Tropical storm (SSHWS)|
|Duration||September 28 – September 29|
|Peak intensity||45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 995 mbar (hPa)|
On the morning of September 25, the NHC began to monitor a disturbed area of disorganized cloudiness and thunderstorms partially related to Tropical Storm Matthew in the northwestern Caribbean Sea. Environmental conditions appeared to be favorable for further gradual development as it slowly drifted northward, and later that day, the disturbance broadened and a monsoonal low formed. The system gradually became more organized and developed into a tropical depression over the northwestern Caribbean Sea on September 28. Further development took place, and the storm attained tropical storm status on September 29. On that same day, a new circulation developed near east Florida in Nicole, and later became the extratropical storm that would later absorb Nicole on September 30. However, six hours later, Nicole dissipated to a remnant low over the Florida Straits as its circulation center became "untrackable" according to the NHC. Later, the remnants of Nicole became extratropical. On September 30, the remnant low of Tropical Storm Nicole was completely absorbed by a larger mid-latitude storm to the north, which was the same storm that split from Nicole and impacted the east coast, just off the coast of South Carolina. This combination, still known as Nicole in the media, proceeded up the coast and into Canada, causing severe flooding and some fatalities in these regions, before exiting into the Atlantic Ocean on October 4.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 6 – October 10|
|Peak intensity||85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 976 mbar (hPa)|
On September 30, a large area of disturbed weather associated with two tropical waves developed east of the Lesser Antilles. For several days it moved west-northwestward, developing into Subtropical Depression Seventeen on October 6 while located 270 mi (435 km) to the north-northwest of San Juan. It strengthened into Subtropical Storm Otto several hours later; however, additional tropical cyclogenesis occurred during the following hours, and Otto transitioned into a tropical storm by October 7. On October 8, the storm further intensified and attained hurricane status shortly after. On the next day Otto began to weaken, and subsequently developed frontal cloud bands and became a cold core system thus the National Hurricane Center issued the last advisory on October 10. The remnant low of Hurricane Otto continued to drift in the Atlantic Ocean until it dissipated near Portugal on October 16.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 11 – October 15|
|Peak intensity||105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 981 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave developed into a tropical depression on October 11 near the northeastern Honduran coast. The system continued to intensify rapidly, and the NHC issued the formation of Tropical Storm Paula later that day. In the early hours of October 12, Paula intensified into a Category 1 hurricane becoming the ninth hurricane of the season. Paula continued to strengthen and was upgraded to a Category 2 hurricane later that day. It was forecast to strengthen a little more; however, the next day, Paula began to weaken and was downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane. On October 14, Paula was further downgraded to a tropical storm as it succumbed to the effects of wind shear, and it weakened to a tropical depression the next day. The remnants of Hurricane Paula continued to impact Cuba until it dissipated on October 16.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 20 – October 25|
|Peak intensity||100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min) 977 mbar (hPa)|
A persistent tropical disturbance in the western Caribbean Sea was designated as Tropical Depression Nineteen south of the Cayman Islands on October 20. The depression was upgraded to a tropical storm on the morning of October 21, whereupon it was given the name Richard. On October 24, Richard was upgraded to a hurricane, with further strengthening predicted before landfall in Belize. Shortly before landfall, it developed a small, cloudy eye. It made landfall that evening as a Category 2 hurricane south of Belize City. It later weakened to a tropical depression over land as it crossed the Yucatán Peninsula, with its small eye dissipating and much of its cloud structure disappearing. Richard degenerated into a remnant low on October 26, but then turned back east as the system was forced to because of the strong wind shear. After the storm reached the Yucatán Peninsula, the system began turning north until it reached the Gulf of Mexico. The remnants of Hurricane Richard continued to move north over the Gulf of Mexico as it weakened, until the system dissipated completely, late on October 27.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 28 – October 30|
|Peak intensity||75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min) 989 mbar (hPa)|
Hurricane Shary originated from a weak area of convection associated with an upper-level low that formed on October 27, northeast of the Leeward Islands. By October 28, conditions were becoming favorable for development, allowing thunderstorms to increase and for a low-pressure area to form. The overall structure became better defined, and early on October 29 the system developed into Tropical Storm Shary about 350 miles (565 km) southeast of Bermuda. The formation of Shary marked the third time that an Atlantic tropical cyclone received an 'S' name, the other two being Tropical Storm Sebastien of 1995 and Hurricane Stan of 2005 (later on there would be Tropical Storm Sean in 2011 and Hurricane Sandy in 2012). On October 30, it was upgraded to Category 1 hurricane, in what the NHC described as a case of a small hurricane that would not have been observed before microwave satellite images. Shary became extratropical later that day, and the NHC issued their final advisory on the system. Shary's extratropical remnants soon interacted with a larger extratropical storm to the east. Early on October 31, the extratropical remnants of Hurricane Shary were completely absorbed by that extratropical storm.
|Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)|
|Duration||October 29 – November 7|
|Peak intensity||100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min) 982 mbar (hPa)|
A tropical wave developed into Tropical Storm Tomas late on October 29, about 200 miles (320 km) southeast of Barbados. Tomas become the twelfth hurricane of the season and crossed the Windward Islands as a Category 1 hurricane. After that, southwesterly shear and dry air weakened Tomas to a tropical storm. Tomas continued to weaken slowly until midnight on November 2. Early on November 2, Tropical Storm Tomas re-intensified slightly, but later weakened to a tropical depression. Then on the evening of November 3, Tomas restrengthened into a tropical storm. Early on November 5, it became a hurricane again as it neared Haiti and Cuba. Late on November 7, the NHC issued its last advisory on Tomas as it became as extratropical cyclone. Early on November 10, the extratropical remnants of Hurricane Tomas were absorbed by another extratropical storm southeast of Nova Scotia. It caused $741 million in damages and killed 71 people, of which 14 were in St. Lucia.
The following names were used on named storms that formed in the North Atlantic during 2010. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2016 season. This is the same list used in the 2004 season with the exception of Colin, Fiona, Igor, and Julia, which replaced the names of the four major hurricanes that affected Florida in the U.S. in 2004: Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne, respectively. The names Colin, Fiona, Igor, Julia, Paula, Richard, Shary, and Tomas were used to name Atlantic storms for the first time this year. Two names, Virginie and Walter, were not used during the course of the year.
On March 16, 2011, at the 33rd Session of the World Meteorological Organization's Regional Association Hurricane Committee, the WMO retired two names, Igor and Tomas from its rotating name lists. They will be replaced with Ian and Tobias, respectively, for the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season.
This is a table of the storms and their effects in the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season. This table includes the storm's names, duration, peak intensity, Areas affected (bold indicates made landfall in that region at least once), damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but are still storm-related. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave or a low. All of the damage figures are in 2010 USD (the listed damage figure is in millions).
|Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale|
|Dates active||Storm category
at peak intensity
|Alex||June 25 – July 2||Category 2 hurricane||110 (175)||946||Greater Antilles, Central America (Belize), Yucatan Peninsula, Northern Mexico, South Texas||1,885||33 (19)|
|Two||July 8 – 9||Tropical depression||35 (55)||1005||Northern Mexico, South Texas||Minimal||1|
|Bonnie||July 22 – 24||Tropical storm||45 (75)||1005||Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Turks and Caicos, Bahamas, Florida||1.5||1|
|Colin||August 2 – 8||Tropical storm||60 (95)||1005||Leeward Islands, Bermuda, The Carolinas, New England||Minimal||1|
|Five||August 10 – 11||Tropical depression||35 (55)||1007||United States Gulf Coast||7.1||0 (2)|
|Danielle||August 21 – 30||Category 4 hurricane||130 (215)||942||Bermuda, United States East Coast||Minimal||2|
|Earl||August 25 – September 4||Category 4 hurricane||145 (230)||927||Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Bahamas, Eastern United States, Atlantic Canada, Quebec||44.6||5 (3)|
|Fiona||August 30 – September 3||Tropical storm||65 (100)||998||Leeward Islands, Bermuda||Minimal||None|
|Gaston||September 1 – 2||Tropical storm||40 (65)||1005||Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico||None||None|
|Hermine||September 5 – 9||Tropical storm||70 (110)||989||Central America, Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas||740||6 (2)|
|Igor||September 8 – 21||Category 4 hurricane||155 (250)||924||Cape Verde, Leeward Islands, Bermuda, United States East Coast, Newfoundland||200||4|
|Julia||September 12 – 20||Category 4 hurricane||140 (220)||948||Cape Verde||Minimal||None|
|Karl||September 14 – 18||Category 3 hurricane||125 (205)||956||Belize, Yucatán Peninsula, Veracruz||206||22|
|Lisa||September 20 – 26||Category 1 hurricane||85 (140)||982||None||None||None|
|Matthew||September 23 – 26||Tropical storm||60 (95)||998||Venezuela, Central America (Nicaragua, Belize), Mexico, Jamaica, Haiti||171.2||126|
|Nicole||September 28 – 29||Tropical storm||45 (75)||995||Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Cuba, Florida, Bahamas, United States East Coast||235.4||13|
|Otto||October 6 - 10||Category 1 hurricane||85 (140)||976||Leeward Islands, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico||22||None|
|Paula||October 11 – 15||Category 2 hurricane||105 (165)||981||Nicaragua, Honduras, Mexico, Cuba, Bahamas, Florida||200||1|
|Richard||October 20 – 26||Category 2 hurricane||100 (155)||977||Honduras, Belize, Guatemala, Mexico||80||1 (1)|
|Shary||October 28 – 30||Category 1 hurricane||75 (120)||989||Bermuda||Minimal||None|
|Tomas||October 29 – November 7||Category 2 hurricane||100 (155)||982||Windward Islands (Barbados, St. Vincent), Leeward Antilles, Greater Antilles, Lucayan Archipelago (Caicos Islands)||741||71|
|21 cyclones||June 25 – November 7||155 (250)||924||≥4534||287 (27)|
Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE)
|ACE (104kt²) (Source) — Storm:|
The table on the right shows the ACE for each storm in the season. Broadly speaking, the ACE is a measure of the power of a hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is calculated for only full advisories on specifically tropical systems reaching or exceeding wind speeds of 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h), or tropical storm strength. Accordingly, tropical depressions are not included here. Hurricane Igor's ACE is the highest for any Atlantic storm since Hurricane Ivan in the 2004 season, as Igor was strong and long-lasting. During the season, the ACE is based on the operational advisories. Later the NHC reexamines the data, and produces a final report on each storm, which can lead to the ACE for a storm being revised either upward or downward. Until the final reports are issued, ACEs are, therefore, provisional.
- List of Atlantic hurricane seasons
- 2010 Pacific hurricane season
- 2010 Pacific typhoon season
- 2010 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
- South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasons: 2009–10, 2010–11
- Australian region cyclone seasons: 2009–10, 2010–11
- South Pacific cyclone seasons: 2009–10, 2010–11
- Timeline of the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season
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