2020 Summer Olympics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Host city||Tokyo, Japan|
ashita o tsukamō?)
|Nations participating||207 (expected)|
|Athletes participating||12,000+ (expected)|
|Events||324 in 33 sports|
|Opening ceremony||24 July|
|Closing ceremony||9 August|
|Stadium||New National Stadium|
|Part of a series on|
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad (French: Jeux de la XXXIIe olympiade; Japanese: 第三十二回オリンピック競技大会; Hepburn: Dai Sanjūni-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai) and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a major international multi-sport event due to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games as governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
- 1 Bidding process
- 2 Development and preparation
- 3 Tickets
- 4 The Games
- 5 Marketing
- 6 Media
- 7 Concerns and controversies
- 8 Broadcasting
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, and Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine which would be eliminated. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36.
|2020 Summer Olympics host city election|
|City||NOC name||Round 1||Runoff||Round 2|
Development and preparation
The Tokyo metropolitan government set aside a fund of 400 billion Japanese yen (over 3 billion USD) to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda Airport and Narita International Airport by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, and from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes; the line would cost 400 billion yen and would be funded primarily by private investors. But East Japan Railway Company (East JR) is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport. Funding is also planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, and to refurbish other major expressways in the area. There are also plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own.
Venues and infrastructure
It was confirmed in February 2012 that the National Olympic Stadium in Tokyo would receive a $1 billion upgrade and full–scale reconstruction for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as well as the 2020 Olympics. As a result, a design competition for the new stadium was launched. In November 2012, the Japan Sport Council announced that out of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the design for the new stadium. Plans included dismantling the original stadium, and expanding the capacity from 50,000 to a modern Olympic capacity of about 80,000. However, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced in July 2015 that plans to build the new National Stadium would be scrapped and rebid on amid public discontent over the stadium's building costs. In Autumn 2015 a new design by Kengo Kuma was approved as winning project of new stadium design competition which decreased the capacity to between 60,000–80,000 depending by event 
28 of the 33 competition venues in Tokyo are within 8 kilometres (4.97 miles) of the Olympic Village. 11 new venues are to be constructed.
It was reported in September 2016 that a review panel said that the cost of hosting the Olympics and Paralympics could quadruple from the original estimate, and therefore proposed a major overhaul to the current plan to reduce costs, including moving venues outside Tokyo.
Seven venues will be located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Several of these venues were also used for the 1964 Summer Olympics.
- New National Stadium – Opening and Closing Ceremonies, Athletics, Football (Final); 60,000
- Yoyogi National Gymnasium – Handball; 12,000
- Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium – Table tennis; 10,000
- Nippon Budokan – Judo, Karate; 12,000
- Tokyo International Forum – Weightlifting; 5,000
- Imperial Palace Garden – Cycling (Road); 5,000
- Kokugikan Arena – Boxing; 10,000
Tokyo Bay Zone
- Kasai Rinkai Park – Canoe/Kayak (slalom); 8,000
- Oi Seaside Park – Hockey; 10,000
- Olympic Aquatics Centre – Aquatics (swimming, diving and synchronised swimming); 18,000
- Tokyo Tatsumi International Swimming Center – Water polo
- Yumenoshima Stadium – Archery; 6,000
- Ariake Arena – Volleyball; 12,000
- Olympic BMX Course – Cycling (BMX); 6,000
- Olympic Gymnastic Centre – Gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic and trampoline); 12,000
- Ariake Coliseum – Tennis; 20,000 (10,000 centre court; 5,000 court 1; 3,000 court; 8x250 match courts)
- Odaiba Marine Park – Triathlon and Aquatics (marathon swimming); 5,000
- Shiokaze Park – Beach Volleyball; 12,000
- Central Breakwater – Equestrian (eventing); 20,000
- Central Breakwater – Rowing and Canoe/Kayak (sprint); 20,000
- Wakasu Golf Links – Golf; 30,000
- Aomi Urban Sports Venue - Skateboarding, Sport Climbing;
Sites farther than 8 kilometres (5 mi) from the Olympic Village
- Camp Asaka – Shooting
- Musashino Forest Sport Centre – Modern pentathlon (fencing), badminton; 6,000 
- Ajinomoto Stadium – Football, modern pentathlon (swimming, riding, running, shooting) and rugby sevens; 50,000 
- Saitama Super Arena – Basketball; 22,000
- Enoshima – Sailing, Surfing; 10,000 
- Makuhari Messe – Fencing, Taekwondo; 6,000 & Wrestling; 8,000 
- Baji Koen – Equestrian (jumping and dressage)
- Izu Velodrome – Cycling (track); 5,000 
- Japan Cycle Sports Center – Cycling (mountain bike)
- Yokohama Stadium – Baseball, Softball; 30,000 
- International Stadium Yokohama, Yokohama; 70,000
- Saitama Stadium, Saitama; 62,000
- Miyagi Stadium, Sendai; 48,000
- Tokyo Stadium, Tokyo; 49,000
- Sapporo Dome, Sapporo; 41,000
- Olympic Stadium, Tokyo; 60,000
- Imperial Hotel, Tokyo – IOC
- Harumi Futo – Olympic Village
- Tokyo Big Sight – Media Press Center, International Broadcast Center
The opening ceremony category tickets will range from 25,000 to 150,000 yen. 30,000 yen will be the maximum price for the final of popular games, such as athletics and swimming. The average price of all the Olympic tickets is 7,700 yen. 60% of the tickets will be sold for 4,400 yen or less. Tickets will be sold through 40,000 shops in Japan and on the internet.
The 2020 Summer Olympic program is scheduled to feature 33 sports and a total of 47 disciplines and 324 events.
- Archery (4)
- Athletics (47)
- Badminton (5)
- Baseball / Softball
- Basketball (2)
- Boxing (13)
- Slalom (4)
- Sprint (12)
- BMX (2)
- Mountain biking (2)
- Road (4)
- Track (10)
- Dressage (2)
- Eventing (2)
- Jumping (2)
- Fencing (10)
- Field hockey (2)
- Football (2)
- Golf (2)
- Artistic (14)
- Rhythmic (2)
- Trampoline (2)
- Handball (2)
- Judo (14)
- Karate (8)
- Modern pentathlon (2)
- Rowing (14)
- Rugby sevens (2)
- Sailing (10)
- Shooting (15)
- Skateboarding (4)
- Sport climbing (2)
- Surfing (2)
- Table tennis (4)
- Taekwondo (8)
- Tennis (5)
- Triathlon (2)
- Volleyball (2)
- Beach volleyball (2)
- Weightlifting (15)
- Freestyle (12)
- Greco-Roman (6)
Following the 2012 Games, the IOC assessed the 26 sports held in London, with the remit of selecting 25 'core' sports to join new entrants golf and rugby sevens at the 2020 Games. In effect, this would involve the dropping of one sport from the 2016 Games program. This would leave a single vacancy in the 2020 Games program, which the IOC would seek to fill from a shortlist containing seven unrepresented sports and the removed sport. On 12 February 2013, IOC leaders voted to drop wrestling from the Olympic program, a surprise decision that removed one of the oldest Olympic sports from the 2020 Games. Wrestling, which combines freestyle and Greco-Roman events, goes back to the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens in 1896, and even further to the Ancient Olympic Games. The decision to drop wrestling was opposed in many countries and by their NOCs. Wrestling therefore joined other sports in a short list applying for inclusion in the 2020 Games.
On 29 May 2013, it was announced that three sports made the final shortlist; squash, baseball/softball, and wrestling. Five other sports (karate, roller sports, sport climbing, wakeboarding, and wushu) were excluded from consideration at this point. On 8 September 2013, at the 125th IOC Session, the IOC selected wrestling to be included in the Olympic program for 2020 and 2024. Wrestling secured 49 votes, while baseball/softball secured 24 votes and squash got 22 votes.
Under new IOC policies that shift the Games to an "event-based" programme rather than sport-based, the host organizing committee can now also propose the addition of sports to the programme. This rule is designed so that sports popular in the host country can be added to the programme to improve local interest. As a result of these changes, a new shortlist of eight sports was unveiled on 22 June 2015, consisting of baseball/softball, bowling, karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, surfing, and wushu. On 28 September 2015, organisers submitted their shortlist of five proposed sports to the IOC: baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding. The five proposed sports were approved on 3 August 2016 by the IOC during the 129th IOC Session in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and will be included in the sports programme for 2020 only, bringing the total number of sports at the 2020 Olympics to 33.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Gold medals||CC||Closing ceremony|
|July / August||22
|Total gold medals||0||0||0||11||16||16||21||19||19||23||21||25||20||19||15||23||17||30||11||306|
|July / August||22
The official emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokoro, who won a nationwide design contest, it takes the form of a ring in an indigo-coloured (koi-ai in the traditional colors of Japan, which means love) checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan". The designs replaced a previous emblem which had been scrapped due to allegations that it plagiarized the logo of a Belgian theatre.
|Sponsors of the 2020 Summer Olympics|
|Worldwide Olympic Partners|
Concerns and controversies
IAAF bribery claims
In January 2016, the second part of a World Anti-Doping Agency commission report into corruption included a footnote detailing a conversation between Khalil Diack, son of former International Athletic Association Federation (IAAF) president Lamine Diack, and Turkish officials heading up the Istanbul bid team. A transcript of the conversation cited in the report suggested that a "sponsorship" payment of between US$4 million and 5 million had been made by the Japanese bid team "either to the Diamond League or IAAF". The footnote claimed that because Istanbul did not make such a payment, the bid lost the support of Lamine Diack. The WADA declined to investigate the claims because it was, according to its independent commission, outside the agency's remit.
In July and October 2013 (prior to and after being awarded the Games), Tokyo made two bank payments totalling SG$2.8 million to a Singapore-based company known as Black Tidings. The company is tied to Papa Massata Diack, a son of Lamine Diack who worked as a marketing consultant for the IAAF, and is being pursued by French authorities under allegations of bribery, corruption, and money laundering. Black Tidings is held by Ian Tan Tong Han, a consultant to Athletics Management and Services—which manages the IAAF's commercial rights, and has business relationships with Japanese firm Dentsu. Black Tidings has also been connected to a doping scandal involving the Russian athletics team.
Japanese Olympic Committee and Tokyo 2020 board member Tsunekazu Takeda stated that the payments were for consulting services, but refused to discuss the matter further because it was confidential. Toshiaki Endo called on Takeda to publicly discuss the matter. Massata denied that he had received any money from Tokyo's organizing committee. The IOC established a team to investigate these matters, and will closely follow the French investigation.
The initial design for the official emblems of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 July 2015. The logo resembled a stylized "T"; a red circle in the top-right corner represented a beating heart, the flag of Japan, and an "inclusive world in which everyone accepts each other", and a black column in the centre represented diversity.
Shortly after the unveiling, Belgian graphics designer Olivier Debie accused the organizing committee of plagiarizing a logo he had designed for the Théâtre de Liège, which aside from the circle, consisted of nearly identical shapes. Tokyo's organizing committee denied that the emblem design was plagiarized, arguing that the design had gone through "long, extensive and international" intellectual property examinations before it was cleared for use. Debie filed a lawsuit against the IOC to prevent use of the infringing logo.
Rejected official logo of the 2020 Summer Paralympics.
The emblem's designer, Kenjiro Sano, defended the design, stating that he had never seen the Liège logo, while TOCOG released an early sketch of the design that emphasized a stylized "T" and did not resemble the Liège logo. However, Sano was found to have had a history of plagiarism, with others alleging his early design plagiarized work of Jan Tschichold, that he used a photo without permission in promotional materials for the emblem, along with other past cases. On 1 September 2015, following an emergency meeting of TOCOG, Governor of Tokyo Yoichi Masuzoe announced that they had decided to scrap Sano's two logos. The committee met on 2 September 2015 to decide how to approach another new logo design.
On 24 November 2015, an Emblems Selection Committee was established to organize an open call for design proposals, open to Japanese residents over the age of 18, with a deadline set for 7 December 2015. The winner would receive ¥1 million and tickets to the opening ceremonies of both the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. On 8 April 2016, a new shortlist of four pairs of designs for the Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled by the Emblems Selection Committee; the Committee's selection—with influence from a public poll, was presented to TOCOG on 25 April 2016 for final approval.
In Europe, this will be the first Summer Olympics under the IOC's exclusive pan-European rights deal with Discovery Communications, which will begin at the 2018 Winter Olympics. The rights for the 2020 Games cover almost all of Europe, excluding France due to an existing rights deal that will expire following these Games, and Russia. Discovery will sub-license coverage to free-to-air networks in each territory. In the United Kingdom, these will be the last Games whose rights are fully owned by the BBC, although as a condition of a sub-licensing agreement that will carry into the 2022 and 2024 Games, Discovery holds exclusive pay television rights to these Games.
- "国際スローガン "Discover Tomorrow" 並びにルックプログラムを発表｜東京オリンピック・パラリンピック競技大会組織委員会". 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2016-08-13.
- "Olympics 2020: Tokyo wins climbing".
- "2020 Olympics Vote Total Box". Associated Press. Miami Herald. 7 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- on YouTube
- "羽田・成田発着を拡大、五輪へインフラ整備急ぐ". 日本経済新聞. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "五輪で東京に1000万人 過密都市ゆえの課題多く". 日本経済新聞. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- PST (24 January 2014). "Mori heads Tokyo 2020 organizing committee". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Toshiaki Endo appointed Olympics minister". The Japan Times.
- "Super Bowl Ads; Japan National Stadium Upgrade; Contador Banned".
- Himmer, Alastair (17 July 2015). "Japan rips up 2020 Olympic stadium plans to start anew". news.yahoo.com. AFP. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- "Tokyo 2020 candidature file – section 8 – Sports and Venues" (PDF). Tokyo 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Tokyo panel: Olympic cost could expand fourfold". NHK. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- Originally to be held at Water Polo Arena in Koto, Tokyo; venue moved in June 2015. "東京五輪、26競技の会場決定 自転車・サッカー除き". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Badminton originally to be held at Youth Plaza Arena; venue moved in June 2015. "東京五輪、26競技の会場決定 自転車・サッカー除き". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Rugby sevens originally to be held at National Olympic Stadium; venue moved in June 2015. "東京五輪、26競技の会場決定 自転車・サッカー除き". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Originally to be held at Youth Plaza Arena; proposal for venue change to Saitama Super Arena in late 2014 was confirmed in March 2015 by the IOC. "IOC supports Tokyo's plans to relocate Olympic venues". The Japan Times. 19 November 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2015. "Moving 2020 hoops to Saitama latest blow for game". The Japan Times. 3 March 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- Originally to be held at Wakasu Olympic Marina; venue moved in June 2015. "東京五輪、26競技の会場決定 自転車・サッカー除き". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- All three events originally to be held at Tokyo Big Sight; venue moved in June 2015. "東京五輪、26競技の会場決定 自転車・サッカー除き". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Change to Tokyo 2020 equestrian venue approved". inside.fei.org. 28 February 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- Wilson, Stephen (10 December 2015). "IOC approves switch of cycling venues for Tokyo Olympics". japantoday.com. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "IOC approves switch of cycling venues for Tokyo Olympics". japantimes.co.jp. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- "Olympic sport football". tokyo2020.jp. 21 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- "Tickets for Olympic Games / Tokyo Olympic Japan 2020".
- Wilson, Stephen. "IOC Drops Wrestling From 2020 Olympics". ABC News (U.S.). Associated Press. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Supron odesłał medal IO na znak protestu – Sporty walki – www.orange.pl
- Staff (14 February 2013). "IOC drops wrestling from 2020 Olympics". ESPN. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Gallagher, Jack (6 March 2013). "Wrestlers promote Tokyo's 2020 Olympic bid". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Staff (3 March 2013). "Bulgaria's wrestling coach starts hunger strike". USA Today. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- IOC: Baseball/softball, squash and wrestling make cut for IOC Session vote in Buenos Aires
- "Wrestling, baseball/softball and squash shortlisted by IOC for 2020 as five fail to make cut".
- "Wrestling added to Olympic programme for 2020 and 2024 Games". IOC. 8 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "Olympic Agenda 2020 Recommendations" (PDF). IOC. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Baseball, softball among 8 sports proposed for 2020 Games". ESPN.com.
- "Olympics: Skateboarding & surfing among possible Tokyo 2020 sports". BBC Sport. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "IOC approves five new sports for Olympic Games Tokyo 2020". Olympic.org. 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
- "You're in! Baseball/softball, 4 other sports make Tokyo cut". USA Today. 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
- "Candidature file for the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympics" (PDF). pp. 8–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-05. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "Tokyo 2020 Emblems Committee relax competition rules ahead of search for new logo". InsideTheGames.biz. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Checkered pattern by artist Tokolo chosen as logo for 2020 Tokyo Olympics". Japan Times. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- "Tokyo 2020 Olympics logo scrapped after allegations of plagiarism". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- Fukase, Atsuko (15 April 2015). "2020 Tokyo Olympics Attract Record Sponsorship". The Wall Street Journal Japan Real Time. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "Tokyo 2020 Appoints Asahi Breweries as a Gold Partner of the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "ASICS Becomes Tokyo 2020's Tenth Gold Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Canon announced as Tokyo 2020's latest Gold Partner, official "Still Cameras and Desktop Reprographic Hardware" provider". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Fujitsu becomes Tokyo 2020 Gold Partner in the "Data Centre Hardware" category". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "JX日鉱日石エネルギー株式会社との東京2020スポンサーシップ契約について". 東京オリンピック・パラリンピック競技大会組織委員会.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes LIXIL as its Fifteenth Gold Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Meiji Becomes Tokyo 2020's Fourteenth Gold Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Mitsui Fudosan Becomes Tokyo 2020's Thirteenth Gold Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Mizuho and SMFG join Tokyo 2020 Gold Partner Programme". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Nippon Life Insurance becomes Tokyo 2020 Gold Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "NEC selected as Tokyo 2020 Gold Partner in the categories of "Specialist Public Safety Equipment & Software" and "Network Equipment"". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Appoints NTT as the First Gold Partner of the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Nomura selected as Tokyo 2020 Gold Partner in the category "Securities"". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokio Marine & Nichido Announced as a Tokyo 2020 Gold Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes airweave inc. as an Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes Ajinomoto Co., Inc. as an Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "ANA and JAL Become Tokyo 2020's First Official Partners". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Four Leading National Newspapers Become Tokyo 2020 Official Partners". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes Cisco Systems G.K. as an Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. And Toppan Printing Co., Ltd. as Tokyo 2020 Official Partners". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes Daiwa House Industry Co., Ltd. as a Tokyo 2020 Official Partner".
- "Tokyo 2020 Announces Japan Post Holdings as an Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes Three Travel Companies as Official Partners". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes Two Railway Companies as Official Partners". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes Kikkoman Corporation as an Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes Mitsubishi Electric as an Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes Kikkoman Corporation as an Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes SECOM and ALSOK as Official Partners". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Announces Tokyo Gas as an Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo 2020 Welcomes TOTO as an Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Yamato Holdings Becomes a Tokyo 2020 Official Partner". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
- "Tokyo Olympics 2020: French prosecutors probe '$2m payment'". BBC News. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- "Tokyo Olympics: Japan to 'fully cooperate' with suspicious payments inquiry". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
- "Life bans for three athletics figures over alleged doping cover-up". BBC Sport. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
- "Tokyo 2020 Olympic bid leader refuses to reveal Black Tidings details". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- "IOC concerned at suspect payments made by Tokyo 2020 bid team". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
- "Tokyo 2020 unveils official emblem with five years to go". Olympic.org. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Tokyo Olympic Games logo embroiled in plagiarism row". The Guardian. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Tokyo Olympics emblem said to look similar to Belgian theater logo". The Japan Times. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Japan unveils final four candidates for Tokyo 2020 Olympics logo". Japan Times. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- "Tokyo Games organizers decide to scrap Sano emblem". NHK World. 1 September 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- McCarthy, Michael (7 June 2011). "NBC wins U.S. TV rights to four Olympic Games through 2020". USA Today.
- "Olympics coverage to remain on BBC after Discovery deal". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
- "IOC awards European broadcast rights to SPORTFIVE". ESPN. 18 February 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Discovery Lands European Olympic Rights Through '24". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- "BBC dealt another blow after losing control of TV rights for Olympics". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2020 Summer Olympics.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games 2020.|
Rio de Janeiro
|Summer Olympic Games
XXXII Olympiad (2020)