Acemannan

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Acemannan

Acemannan is a D-isomer mucopolysaccharide in aloe vera leaves. This compound has been known to have immunostimulant,[1] antiviral, antineoplastic and gastrointestinal properties.[2]

Chemical structure and properties[edit]

Acemannan's monomer is mannoacetate linked by β-1,4-glycosidic bonds.[3][4] This polymer is hydrophilic: It has 50 hydrogen bond acceptors, 19 hydrogen bond donors, and a partition coefficient of -3.27. Therefore, its permeability (and, hence, bioavailability) has been scored to be 1 according to Lipinsky's Rule of Five.[5]

Immunostimulant properties[edit]

Acemannan has been demonstrated to induce macrophages to secrete interferon (IFN), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL-1); therefore, it might help to prevent or abrogate viral infection. These three cytokines are known to cause inflammation, and interferon is released in response to viral infections. In vitro studies have shown acemannan to inhibit HIV replication; however, in vivo studies have been inconclusive.

Acemannan is currently being used for treatment and clinical management of fibrosarcoma in dogs and cats. Administration of acemannan has been shown to increase tumor necrosis and prolonged host survival; the animals have demonstrated lymphoid infiltration and encapsulation.[6]

The compound has been found to have a LD50 of >80 mg/kg and LC50 >5,000 mg/Kg IV.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ebadi, Manuchair (2006-09-06). Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine (Second ed.). ISBN 978-1-4200-0645-2. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  2. ^ Pubchem. "SID 596005 – PubChem". nih.gov. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-27. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  4. ^ "Acemannan Immunostimulant". drugs.com. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-08. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  6. ^ Harris, C; Pierce, K; King, G; Yates, K. M.; Hall, J; Tizard, I (1991). "Efficacy of acemannan in treatment of canine and feline spontaneous neoplasms". Molecular biotherapy. 3 (4): 207–13. PMID 1768373. 
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2009-04-02.