Activation product

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Activation products are materials made radioactive by neutron activation.

Fission products and actinides produced by neutron absorption of nuclear fuel itself are normally referred to by those specific names, and activation product reserved for products of neutron capture by other materials, such as structural components of the nuclear reactor or nuclear bomb, the reactor coolant, control rods or other neutron poisons, or materials in the environment. All of these, however, need to be handled as radioactive waste. Some nuclides originate in more than one way, as activation products or fission products.

Activation products in a reactor's primary coolant loop are a main reason reactors use a chain of two or even three coolant loops linked by heat exchangers.

Fusion reactors will not produce radioactive waste from the fusion product nuclei themselves, which are normally just helium-4, but generate high neutron fluxes, so activation products are a particular concern.

Activation product radionuclides include:

Half-lives and decay branching fractions for activation products[1]
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 3
1
H
12.312 ± 0.025 y β- 1.0 LNHB
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 10
4
Be
( 1.51 ± 0.06 ) x 106 y β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 14
6
C
( 5.7 ± 0.03 ) x 103 y β- 1.0 LNHB
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 15
6
C
2.449 ± 0.005 s β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 16
7
N
7.13 ± 0.02 s β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 19
8
O
26.88 ± 0.05 s β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 22
11
Na
950.57 ± 0.23 d EC 0.1011 ± 0.0002a IAEA-CRP-XG [1]
β-+ 0.8989 ± 0.0002a
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 24
11
Na
0.62329 ± 0.00006 d β- 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 27
12
Mg
9.458 ± 0.012 m β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 26
13
Al
( 7.17 ± 0.24 ) x 105 y EC 0.1825 ± 0.0023b LNHB [2]
β-+ 0.8175 ± 0.0023b
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 35
16
S
87.32 ± 0.16 d β- 1.0 LNHB
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 36
17
Cl
( 0.01 ± 0.03 ) x 105 y EC 0.019 ± 0.001 LNHB
β- 0.981 ± 0.001
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 39
18
Ar
269 ± 3 y β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 41
18
Ar
109.61 ± 0.04 m β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 40
19
K
( 4.563 ± 0.013 ) x 1011 d EC 0.1086 ± 0.0013a IAEA-CRP-XG [1]
β- 0.8914 ± 0.0013a
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 42
19
K
12.36 ± 0.012 h β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 41
20
Ca
( 1.02 ± 0.07 ) x 105 y EC 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 45
20
Ca
162.61 ± 0.09 d β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 47
21
Sc
3.3492 ± 0.0006 d β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 48
21
Sc
43.67 ± 0.09 h β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 51
24
Cr
27.7009 ± 0.002 d EC 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 54
25
Mn
312.29 ± 0.26 d EC 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 56
25
Mn
0.107449 ± 0.000019 d β- 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 55
26
Fe
( 1.0027 ± 0.0023 ) x 103 d EC 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 59
26
Fe
44.494 ± 0.013 d β- 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 57
27
Co
271.8 ± 0.05 d EC 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 58
27
Co
70.86 ± 0.06 d β-+ 0.15 ± 0.0020a IAEA-CRP-XG [1]
EC 0.85 ± 0.0020a
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 60
27
Co
( 1.92523 ± 0.00027 ) x 103 d β- 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 59
28
Ni
( 7.6 ± 0.5 ) x 104 y EC 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 63
28
Ni
98.7 ± 2.4 y β- 1.0 LNHB
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 65
28
Ni
2.51719 ± 0.00026 h β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 64
29
Cu
0.52929 ± 0.00018 d β-+ 0.179 ± 0.002a IAEA-CRP-XG [1]
β- 0.39 ± 0.003a
EC 0.431 ± 0.005a
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 66
29
Cu
5.12 ± 0.014 m β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 65
30
Zn
243.86 ± 0.2 d β-+ 0.0142 ± 0.0001a IAEA-CRP-XG [1]
EC 0.9858 ± 0.0001a
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 93m
41
Nb
( 5.73 ± 0.22 ) x 103 d IT 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 93
42
Mo
( 4.0 ± 0.8 ) x 103 y EC 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 99m
43
Tc
0.250281 ± 0.000022 d β- 0.000037 ± 0.000006a IAEA-CRP-XG [1]
IT 0.999963 ± 0.000006a
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 110m
47
Ag
249.85 ± 0.1 d IT 0.0136 ± 0.0008a IAEA-CRP-XG [1]
β- 0.9864 ± 0.0008a
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 115m
49
In
4.486 ± 0.004 h β- 0.05 ± 0.008 ENSDF
IT 0.95 ± 0.008
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 126
53
I
12.93 ± 0.05 d β- 0.473 ± 0.006 ENSDF
EC 0.527 ± 0.006
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 175
72
Hf
70 ± 2 d EC 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 181
72
Hf
42.39 ± 0.06 d β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 182
73
Ta
114.43 ± 0.04 d β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 181
74
W
121.2 ± 0.2 d EC 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 185
74
W
75.1 ± 0.3 d β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 187
74
W
23.72 ± 0.06 h β- 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 198
79
Au
2.695 ± 0.0007 d β- 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 197
80
Hg
64.14 ± 0.05 h EC 1.0 ENSDF
‹The template Nuclide2 is being considered for merging.› 203
80
Hg
46.594 ± 0.012 d β- 1.0 IAEA-CRP-XG
LNHB Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Recommended Data, http://www.nucleide.org/DDEP_WG/DDEPdata.htm, 5 June 2008.
IAEA-CRP-XG M.-M. Bé, V.P. Chechev, R. Dersch, O.A.M. Helene, R.G. Helmer, M. Herman, S. Hlav ác , A. Marcinkowski, G.L. Molnár, A.L. Nichols, E. Schönfeld, V.R. Vanin, M.J. Woods, IAEA CRP "Update of X Ray and Gamma Ray Decay Data Standards for Detector Calibration and Other Applications", IAEA Scientific and Technical Information report STI/PUB/1287, May 2007, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, ISBN 92-0-113606-4.
ENSDF Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File, http://www-nds.iaea.org/ensdf/, 5 June 2008.

[1] Branching fractions from LNHB database.

[2] Branching fractions renormalised to sum to 1.0..


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Half-lives and decay branching fractions for activation products". www-nds.iaea.org. IAEA. Retrieved 11 November 2016. 

External links[edit]