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|First appearance||Avengers #66 (July 1969)|
|Created by||Roy Thomas
|In story information|
|Element of stories featuring||Wolverine, Ultron, Bullseye, Lady Deathstrike, X-23|
Adamantium is a fictional metal alloy appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. It is best known as the substance bonded to the character Wolverine's skeleton and claws. Adamantium was created by writer Roy Thomas and artists Barry Windsor-Smith and Syd Shores in Marvel Comics' Avengers #66 (July 1969), which presents the substance as part of the character Ultron's outer shell. In the stories where it appears, the defining quality of adamantium is its practical indestructibility.
The word is a pseudo-Latin neologism (real Latin: adamans, adamantem [accusative]) based on the English noun and adjective adamant (and the derived adjective adamantine) with the neo-Latin suffix "-ium." The adjective has long been used to refer to the property of impregnable, diamondlike hardness, or to describe a very firm/resolute position (e.g. He adamantly refused to leave). The noun adamant has long been used to designate any impenetrably or unyieldingly hard substance and, formerly, a legendary stone/rock or mineral of impenetrable hardness and with many other properties, often identified with diamond or lodestone. Adamant and the literary form adamantine occur in works such as Prometheus Bound, the Aeneid, The Faerie Queene, Paradise Lost, Gulliver's Travels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Lord of the Rings, and the film Forbidden Planet (as "adamantine steel"), all of which predate the use of adamantium in Marvel's comics.
History and properties
Adamantium is a very dense, artificial, iron-based alloy that is virtually indestructible. A sufficient amount is capable of surviving multiple nuclear explosions with no damage. A pure blade of Adamantium is capable of cutting almost any known substance, with the known exceptions of Adamantium itself and Captain America's shield. The ability to slice completely through a substance with an Adamantium blade depends upon the amount of force being exerted and the density of the material in question. Adamantium, its degree of density, makes a very thick metal capable of drilling with greater effectiveness than Vibranium.
Creating even a small amount of Adamantium is astronomically expensive, and only a few people know the complete formula. Adamantium is created by mixing certain chemical resins together. The exact composition of these resins is a closely guarded secret of the United States government. When these resins are mixed and kept at a temperature of 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit, the resulting liquid can be cast or worked into a particular shape. After eight minutes, the mixture sets and becomes solid. Its molecular structure is extremely stable, and its shape can only be altered by precise molecular rearrangement. However, due to the sheer density of Adamantium, there are few known forces capable of altering its molecular structure.
Very few means exist to pierce adamantium, including the Dargonite.
Some supervillains have taken to harvesting existing sources of Adamantium, hoping to utilize it through molecular rearrangement. Apocalypse harvested Adamantium from Sabretooth's skeleton, and Gambit in turn got Adamantium from Constrictor to save Sabretooth's life. Genesis harvested Adamantium from Cyber by destroying his body's organic matter, leaving only his Adamantium-laced skin.
Some Adamantium is made by Adametco. 
Adamantium, despite being an iron alloy, is incapable of rusting under any circumstance whatsoever. The character Wolverine once discovered an adamantium-laced skull in Apocalypse's laboratory and says it seemed to have been there for eons, in perfect condition.
Hercules, the demigod of Greek myth, wielded an enchanted golden mace, which (according to legend) was made of Adamantine and supposed to be indestructible. Inspired by this myth, Dr. Myron MacLain sought to create an indestructible alloy for the American side during World War II. At one point he fell asleep at his lab bench, and the metals he was working with somehow bonded together. This mysterious alloy--a combination of steel, Vibranium, and an unknown catalyst--created a material stronger than any yet known, now known as Proto-Adamantium. However, without knowing the exact ingredients and their proportions, MacLain could never duplicate the process. The sample was worked into a disc, which became Captain America's Shield. MacLain's later attempts to duplicate the material included a formula without Vibranium, which resulted in the creation of True Adamantium, which is almost as strong as Captain America's shield. 
Although True Adamantium is thought to be indestructible, there are at least two known examples of the alloy within the Earth-616 reality sustaining damage without molecular manipulation. The first involved Thor focusing all of his strength into striking a small cylinder of Adamantium with Mjolnir, which only slightly dented. The second incident involved a battle between Ultron and the Hulk. During the fight, the Hulk punched the robot with enough force to slightly dent it.
Because True Adamantium is exceptionally difficult and expensive to create, various researchers found a more cost-effective way to duplicate it, at the expense of quality and durability. This alternate version, referred to as Secondary Adamantium, is considerably stronger than even titanium and is resistant against most assaults. However, assaults from sufficiently powerful weapons or beings can warp or break it.
As a key component
Adamantium appears in various Marvel Comics publications and licensed products, where it is found in:
- Ultron's outer shell
- Wolverine's skeleton and claws
- Sabretooth's skeleton and claws
- Lady Deathstrike's skeleton and talons
- X-23's claws
- The Russian's body, following his resurrection by General Kreigkopf
In the Marvel Comics Ultimate Marvel imprint, adamantium is highly durable and can shield a person's mind from telepathic probing or attacks. It is a component of the claws and skeleton of Ultimate Wolverine and of the Ultimate Lady Deathstrike character. This version of adamantium is not unbreakable. In Ultimates #5, the Hulk breaks a needle made of adamantium. In Ultimate X-Men #11 (December 2001), an adamantium cage is damaged by a bomb. In Ultimate X-Men #12 (January 2002), one of Sabretooth's four adamantium claws is broken.
Carbonadium is a resilient, radioactive metal that is vastly stronger than steel, but more malleable and cheaper than Adamantium. Due to its malleability, carbonadium is less durable than True Adamantium, but still nearly indestructible. The metal was developed in the USSR.
Omega Red has carbonadium coils through which he can transmit his ability to drain life energies. Carbonadium is highly radioactive and objects composed of it have proven to slow accelerated healing factors such as Wolverine's. The only device that can produce carbonadium, known as the Carbonadium Synthesizer, was initially believed thrown into a river in Brussels by Wolverine, it has since been revealed that the Carbonadium Synthesizer had been hidden on the deceased body of a double-agent who died escaping Omega Red along with Wolverine, Sabretooth, and Maverick. 
- It is most notably found in Omega Red's coils.
- Doctor Octopus used carbonadium to create his tentacles.
- It is also found in Moon Knight's suit as of the Heroic Age.
- After using an Octobot to sting Spider-Man in his nape and rewrite the hero's brain patterns with his, Doctor Octopus included carbonadium plating in the back of his costume's head to prevent anybody from doing the same.
- Deadpool's katanas are made of carbonadium which can stop a healing factor.
- Fashioned into bullets to be used against Logan, Daken and anyone else with a healing factor.
- A pacemaker made of said substance by Tinkerer for the psychopathic mutant Cyber
- Walker, Karen (February 2010). "Ultron: The Black Sheep of the Avengers Family". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (38): 23–30.
- "adamant - definition of adamant". Oxforddictionaries.com.
- Great Books of the Western World Vol. 4 pg 40
- Guardians of the Galaxy #18
- Wolverine Vol. 2 #96
- Captain America Annual #18
- Wolverine: The Jungle Adventure (1990)
- Captain America #302, #303
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- Avengers Vol 3 #22
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- Wolverine vol. 2 #126
- Uncanny X-Men #205
- X-23: Target X
- Garth Ennis (w), Steve Dillon (p), Jimmy Palmiotti (i), Chris Sotomayer (col), RS and Comicraft's Wes Abbott (let), Stuart Moore (ed). "Dirty Work" The Punisher v6, #4 (October 2001), United States: Marvel Comics
- Ultimate X-Men #12 (January 2002)
- X-Men Vol. 2 #5-6
- X-Men Vol. 2 #7
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