From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Founded||10 April 1937
(as Trans-Canada Air Lines)
|Commenced operations||1 January 1965 (as Air Canada)|
|Destinations||350 (incl. subsidiaries)|
|Company slogan||'Your World Awaits' (English)
'Tout Un Monde Vous Attend' (French)
|Headquarters||Montreal, Quebec, Canada|
|Revenue||CAN$21.6 billion (2016)|
|Operating income||CAN$3.796 billion (2016)|
|Net income||CAN$998 million (2016)|
|Total assets||CAN$36.127 billion (2016)|
|Total equity||CAN$72 million (2016)|
Air Canada (TSX: AC) is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. The airline, founded in 1937, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 182 destinations worldwide. It is the world's eighth-largest passenger airline by fleet size, and is a founding member of the Star Alliance. Air Canada's corporate headquarters are located in Montréal, Quebec, while its largest hub is at Toronto Pearson International Airport. Air Canada had passenger revenues of CA$13.8 billion in 2015. The airline's regional service is Air Canada Express.
Canada's national airline originated from the Canadian federal government's 1936 creation of Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA), which began operating their first transcontinental flight routes in 1938. In 1965, TCA was renamed Air Canada following government approval. After the deregulation of the Canadian airline market in the 1980s, the airline was privatized in 1988. On 4 January 2000, Air Canada acquired their largest rival, Canadian Airlines. In 2003, the airline filed for bankruptcy protection and in the following year emerged and reorganized under the holding company ACE Aviation Holdings Inc. In 2007, 34 million people flew with Air Canada as the airline celebrated their 70th anniversary.
Air Canada has a fleet of Airbus A330, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, and Boeing 787 wide-body jetliners on long-haul routes and uses the Airbus A320 family aircraft, including the A319, A320, and A321 variations, and Embraer E190 family aircraft on short-haul routes. The carrier's operating divisions include Air Canada Cargo, Air Canada Express and Air Canada Rouge. Their subsidiary, Air Canada Vacations, provides vacation packages to over 90 destinations. Together with their regional partners, the airline operates on average more than 1,530 scheduled flights daily.
- 1 History
- 2 Corporate affairs
- 3 Destinations
- 4 Fleet
- 5 Services
- 6 Frequent flyer program
- 7 Incidents and accidents
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Trans-Canada Air Lines
Air Canada's predecessor, Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA), was created by federal legislation as a subsidiary of Canadian National Railway (CNR) on 11 April 1937. The newly created Department of Transport under Minister C. D. Howe desired an airline under government control to link cities on the Atlantic coast to those on the Pacific coast. Using $5 million in Crown seed money, two Lockheed Model 10 Electras and one Boeing Stearman biplane were purchased from Canadian Airways and experienced airline executives from United Airlines and American Airlines were brought in.
Passenger flights began on 1 September 1937, with an Electra carrying two passengers and mail from Vancouver to Seattle, a $14.20 round trip, and, on 1 July 1938, TCA hired their first flight attendants. Transcontinental routes from Montreal to Vancouver began on 1 April 1939, using 12 Lockheed Model 14 Super Electras and six Lockheed Model 18 Lodestars. By January 1940, the airline had grown to about 500 employees.
Canadian Pacific Airlines (CP Air) suggested in 1942 a merger with TCA. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King rejected the proposal and introduced legislation regulating TCA as the only airline in Canada allowed to provide transcontinental flights. With the increase in air travel after World War II, CP Air was granted one coast-to-coast flight and a few international routes.
Originally headquartered in Winnipeg, which was also the site of the national maintenance base, the federal government moved TCA's headquarters to Montreal in 1949; the maintenance base later also moved east. With the development of the ReserVec in 1953, TCA became the first airline in the world to use a computer reservation system with remote terminals.
By 1964, TCA had grown to become Canada's national airline and, in 1964, Jean Chrétien submitted a private member's bill to change the name of the airline from Trans-Canada Airlines to Air Canada, which TCA had long used as its French-language name. This bill failed but it was later resubmitted and passed, with the name change taking effect on 1 January 1965. Elizabeth II, the reigning Queen of Canada, flew on the first aircraft to bear the name and livery of Air Canada when she departed for the United Kingdom at the end of her 1964 tour of Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Ontario in 1964.
1970s and 1980s: early years
During the 1970s government regulations ensured Air Canada's dominance over domestic regional carriers and rival CP Air. Short-haul carriers were each restricted to one of five regions, and could not compete directly with Air Canada and CP Air. CP Air was subject to capacity limits on intercontinental flights, and restricted from domestic operations. Air Canada's fares were also subject to regulation by the government.
In the late 1970s, with reorganization at CNR, Air Canada became an independent Crown corporation. The Air Canada Act of 1978 ensured that the carrier would compete on a more equal footing with rival regional airlines and CP Air, and ended the government's direct regulatory control over Air Canada's routings, fares, and services. The act also transferred ownership from Canadian National Railway to a subsidiary of the national government. Deregulation of the Canadian airline market, under the new National Transportation Act, 1987 officially opened the airline market in Canada to equal competition. The carrier's fleet expansion saw the acquisition of Boeing 727, Boeing 747, and Lockheed Tristar jetliners. In 1978 Judy Cameron became the first female pilot hired to fly for any major Canadian carrier when she was hired to fly by Air Canada.
With new fleet expenditures outpacing earnings, Air Canada officials indicated that the carrier would need additional sources of capital to fund their modernization. By 1985 the Canadian government was indicating a willingness to privatize both Canadian National Railways and Air Canada. In 1988 Air Canada was privatized, and 43% of shares are sold on the public market, with the initial public offering completed in October of that year. By this time, long-haul rival CP Air had become Canadian Airlines International following their acquisition by Pacific Western Airlines.
On 7 December 1987, Air Canada became the first airline in the world with a fleet-wide non-smoking policy, and in 1989 became completely privatized. The successful privatization effort was aided by a public relations effort led by company president Claude I. Taylor and chief executive officer Pierre J. Jeanniot.
1990s: strategic changes
In the early 1990s, Air Canada encountered financial difficulties as the airline industry slumped in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War. In response, the airline restructured management by hiring former Delta Air Lines executive Hollis L. Harris as its CEO. Harris restructured the airline's operations, reduced management positions, moved the corporate headquarters to Dorval Airport, and sold the enRoute card business to Diners Club in 1992. By 1994, Air Canada had returned to profitability. The same year also saw the carrier winning route access to fly from Canada to the new Kansai Airport in Osaka, Japan.
In 1995, taking advantage of a new US-Canada open skies agreement, Air Canada added 30 new trans-border routes. In May 1997, Air Canada became a founding member of the Star Alliance, with the airline launching codeshares with several of the alliance's members. The second half of the 1990s saw the airline earn consistent profits, totalling $1 billion for the 1997 to 1999 period.
On 2 September 1998, pilots for Air Canada launched the company's first pilots' strike, demanding higher wages. At the end of 1999, the Canadian government relaxed some of the aviation regulations, aimed at creating a consolidation of the Canadian airline industry. That year, American Airlines in conjunction with Canadian financial company Onex Corp, launched a takeover bid of ailing rival Canadian Airlines and Air Canada, spurring Air Canada to submit a competing offer for their largest rival.
2000s: merger and reorganization
In January 2001, Air Canada acquired Canada's second largest air carrier, Canadian Airlines, merging the latter's operations, becoming the world's twelfth-largest airline in the first decade of the 21st century. As Air Canada gained access to their former rival's financial statements, officials learned that the carrier was in worse financial shape than was previously believed. An expedited merger strategy was pursued, but in summer 2000 integration efforts led to flight delays, luggage problems and other frustrations. However, service improved following Air Canada officials' pledge to do so by January 2001. The airline was confronted by the global aviation market downturn and increased competition, posting back-to-back losses in 2001 and 2002.
Bankruptcy and restructuring
As Air Canada had employed a scorched earth policy to prevent the Onex proposed acquisition as one of its lines of defence, they had burdened themselves with onerous contracts with virtually all of their suppliers. As a result, on 1 April 2003, Air Canada filed for protection under the Companies' Creditors Arrangement Act; they emerged from this protection on 30 September 2004, 18 months later. During the period of bankruptcy protection, the company was subject to two competing bids from Cerberus Capital Management and Victor Li. The Cerberus bid would have seen former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney installed as chairman, being recruited by Cerberus' international advisory board chair Dan Quayle, the former Vice-President of the United States. Cerberus was rejected because they had a reputation of changing existing employee pension agreements, a move strongly opposed by the CAW. At first, Air Canada selected Victor Li's Trinity Time Investments, which initially asked for a board veto and the chairmanship in return for investing $650 million in the airline. Li, who holds dual citizenship from Canada and Hong Kong, later demanded changes to the pension plan (which was not in his original takeover bid), but since the unions refused to budge, the bid was withdrawn.
Finally, Deutsche Bank unveiled an $850 million financing package for Air Canada, if they would cut $200 million in annual cost cutting in addition to the $1.1 billion that the unions agreed on in 2003. It was accepted after last-minute talks between CEO Robert Milton and CAW president Buzz Hargrove got the union concessions needed to let the bid go through.
ACE Aviation Holdings became the new parent company under which the reorganized Air Canada was held. However, in November 2012 ACE sold all shares and warrants it held in Air Canada.
In October 2004, Canadian singer Celine Dion became the face of Air Canada, hoping to relaunch the airline and draw in a more international market after an 18-month period of bankruptcy protection. She recorded her single, You and I, which subsequently appeared in several Air Canada commercials.
On 31 October 2004, the last Air Canada Boeing 747 flight landed in Toronto from Frankfurt as AC873, ending 33 years of 747 service with the airline. The Boeing 747-400 fleet was replaced by the Airbus A340 fleet. On 19 October 2005 Air Canada unveiled a new aircraft colour scheme and uniforms. A Boeing 767-300ER was painted in the new silver-blue colour, and the dark green/almost black tail was replaced with a new version of the maple leaf known as the 'Frosted Leaf'.
On 9 November 2005, Air Canada agreed to renew their widebody fleet by purchasing 16 Boeing 777s (10 -300ERs, 6 -200LRs), and 14 Boeing 787-8s. They placed options on 18 Boeing 777s and 46 Boeing 787-8s and -9s. All of the 777s will be powered by GE90-115B or GE90-110B1 engines, and the 787-8s, by the GEnx engine. Deliveries of the 777s began in March 2007 and deliveries of the 787s began in May 2014. As the 777s and the 787s are delivered, they will gradually retire all Boeing 767s and Airbus A330s.
|Wikinews has related news: Boeing secures $11bn of aircraft deals|
On 24 April 2007, Air Canada exercised half of their options for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The firm order for the Dreamliners is now at 37 plus 23 options, for a total of 60. They also cancelled orders for two Boeing 777Fs. In November 2007, Air Canada leased an additional Boeing 777-300ER from ILFC. Air Canada has now taken delivery of the 18 Boeing 777s on order (12 -300ERs, 6 -200LRs) and still holds options for 16 more, totalling 34.
Air Canada has also taken delivery of 15 Embraer 175s and 45 Embraer 190s. These aircraft are being used to expand intra-Canada and Canada/USA routes. Air Canada will transfer all 15 Embraer 175s to Sky Regional Airlines to fly them under the Air Canada Express brand. They will also transfer all Airbus A319-100 and Boeing 767-300ER aircraft to Air Canada Rouge.
Started in July 2006 and since completed, Project XM: Extreme Makeover, was a $300 million aircraft interior replacement project to install new cabins on all aircraft. New aircraft such as the Boeing 777 were delivered with the new cabins factory installed.
- In Executive First, new horizontal fully flat Executive First Suites (on Boeing 767s, Boeing 777s, and Airbus A330s).
- New cabins in all classes on all aircraft, with new entertainment options.
- Personal AVOD (8.9 in or 230 mm touchscreen LCD) in Economy class (domestic and international) and Executive Class (domestic).
- Larger AVOD (12 in or 300 mm touchscreen LCD) equipped with noise-cancelling Sennheiser headphones available in Executive First Suites.
- Interactive games at all seats in Executive and Economy; XM Radio Canada available at every seat.
- USB ports to recharge electronic devices and for game controllers at all seats; 120 Volt AC plugs in most seats; In Economy (2 per triple) (1 per double) (3 per quad). In First Class/Executive (All seats)
Since the late 2000s (decade), Air Canada has been facing a number of financial difficulties, including the global recession, leading to speculation that they could file for bankruptcy, less than a decade after they exited bankruptcy on 30 September 2004.
President and CEO Montie Brewer was replaced by Calin Rovinescu effective 1 April 2009. Rovinescu became the first Canadian President since Claude Taylor in 1992. Rovinescu was Air Canada's chief restructuring officer during their 2003 bankruptcy, and he resigned that year after unions rejected his demands, and is reported to be "an enforcer".
Federal finance minister Jim Flaherty appointed retired judge James Farley, who had presided over Air Canada's 2003 bankruptcy, to mediate pension issues between the company and their unions and retirees. The contracts with four of their unions also expired around this time. The airline stated that their $2.85-billion pension shortfall (which grew from $1.2 billion in 2007) was a "liquidity risk" in its first-quarter report, and it required new financing and pension "relief" to conserve cash for 2010 operations. The company was obligated to pay $650-million into the pension fund but it suffered a 2009 Q1 loss of $400-million, so it requested a moratorium on its pension payments in 2009. The unions had insisted on financial guarantees before agreeing on a deal.  In December 2010, ACE sold 44 million of Air Canada shares, followed by the remaining 31 million shares in November 2012 to Cormark Securities Inc.
In 2013, Air Canada's practice of systematic overbooking was exposed. This much-criticized strategy, in which "the same seat is sold to more than one person,"  thereby causing ticket-holding passengers to be bumped and left stranded, persuaded the federal government to consider adopting an airline passenger bill of rights.
In November 2014 Air Canada pilots voted by a majority of 84% in favour of a 10-year contract that allows the country’s biggest passenger carrier to use arbitration or mediation to resolve disputes. A year later, the flight attendants also approved a 10-year agreement, apparently by a narrow (unstated) margin, with wage increases, increased job security and improvements to working conditions, according to Michel Cournoyer, the head of CUPE's Air Canada unit.
Late-2010s: New Branding & Fleet
On 9 February 2017, a new retro red and black aircraft livery was launched, to coincide with Air Canada's 80th anniversary and Canada's 150th anniversary of Confederation. The update includes design aspects from the logo used between 1964 and 1992, with an overall white colour scheme, with a black underside, tail fin with red maple leaf rondelle, and black "Air Canada" lettering with a red maple leaf rondelle underneath. Three newly delivered Boeing 787-9 will arrive immediately with the new colour scheme while the remainder of the fleet will be repainted or delivered with the new scheme.
Air Canada has also placed orders for 737 MAX single-aisle narrow body aircraft to replace its existing fleet of Airbus A320 series aircraft with deliveries beginning in October 2017. Some Airbus A319s will be transferred to Air Canada's Rouge subsidiary, while the remaining fleet will be retired. As part of the deal, Boeing purchased 25 Embraer E190s from Air Canada that were retired in 2016. In 2016, Air Canada signed an agreement with Bombardier Aerospace to replace the E190s with CSeries aircraft from 2019.
By federal law (Air Canada Act), Air Canada has been obligated to keep their head office in Montreal. Their corporate headquarters is Air Canada Centre (French: Centre Air Canada), also known as La Rondelle ("The Puck" in French), a 7 storey building located on the grounds of Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport in Saint-Laurent.
Air Canada has been loss-making for several years; 2012 was the first year since 2007 that a post-tax profit was achieved. The key trends for the Air Canada group, including Jazz and Air Canada rouge, are (years ending 31 December):
|Net Profits/Losses after tax (C$m)||429||−1,025||−24||−24||−249||131||10||105||308||876|
|Number of employees (average FTE)||23,900||24,200||22,900||23,200||23,700||24,000||24,500||24,400||24,900||26,100|
|Number of passengers (m)||33+||33+||30+||32+||33.9||34.9||35.8||38.5||41.1||44.8|
|Passenger load factor (%)||80.6||81.4||80.7||81.7||81.6||82.7||82.8||83.4||83.5||82.5|
|Number of aircraft (at year end)||340||333||332||328||331||351||352||364||370||381|
Prior to 1976, Air Canada was led by a department head of the Canadian National Railway, who reported to the President of CNR.
CEO and President:
- 1976–1984: Claude Taylor - accountant; former Air Canada reservation agent and executive
- 1984–1990: Pierre Jeanniot - former aircraft mechanic and Air Canada executive
- 1990–1992: Claude Taylor
- 1992–1996: Hollis L. Harris (World Airways CEO 2001-04, Continental CEO and President, 1990–92, President of Delta)
- 1996–1999: R. Lamar Durrett (former executive with Delta, Continental and System One)
- 1999–2004: Robert Milton (founding partner of Air Eagle Holdings Incorporated)
- 2004–2009: Montie Brewer (former United Airlines executive)
- 2009–present: Calin Rovinescu
Air Canada Cargo
Air Canada Cargo is the company's freight carrying division, offering more than 150 shipping destinations through the Air Canada airline network and airline partners. Their route network has focused on European destinations through their Eastern Canada departure points, along with direct services from Vancouver and Calgary to Frankfurt, Paris, and Zurich.
In Toronto, a new cargo terminal was completed in early 2002 which features modernised inventory and conveyor systems.
Air Canada Vacations
Air Canada Vacations is a Canadian tour operator offering leisure travel packages including cruises, tours, car rentals and excursions. All packages include accommodation, Aeroplan Miles and roundtrip airfare aboard Air Canada and its Star Alliance partners. Repeat recipient of the Consumer’s Choice Award for Best Travel Wholesaler and named Favourite Tour Operator by Baxter Travel Media in 2010, Air Canada Vacations services hundreds of destinations in the Caribbean, Mexico, North, Central and South America, Asia, South Pacific and Europe. Air Canada Vacations is headquartered in Montreal, has an office in Toronto, and destination representatives are available throughout the Caribbean, Mexico, Europe, Asia, South Pacific, and South America.
Air Canada Rouge
Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express is the brand name of Air Canada's regional feeder service operated by several independent carriers including Jazz Aviation, Sky Regional Airlines, Exploits Valley Air Services (EVAS), and Air Georgian.
Air Canada Jetz
Launched in 2002, Air Canada Jetz is a charter service targeting sports teams, professional entertainers, and corporations. Air Canada Jetz fleet consists of three Airbus A319 in an all business class configuration.
In February 2014, Air Canada decided to leave the sports charter business. However, on 17 March 2014, Air Canada announced an agreement with several NHL teams to provide charter services under the Air Canada Jetz brand for 6 years starting from the 2015-2016 NHL season.
In 2001, Air Canada consolidated their wholly owned regional carriers Air BC, Air Nova, Air Ontario, and Canadian Regional Airlines into Air Canada Regional Incorporated. Several of these air carriers had previously operated as an "Air Canada Connector". In 2002, the consolidation was completed with the creation of a new brand, Air Canada Jazz. Air Canada Jazz was spun off in November 2006. ACE Aviation Holdings is no longer a shareholder of Jazz Aviation LP, making them an independent company. Air Canada Jazz was the brand name of Air Canada's main regional product from 2002-2011. As of June 2011, the Air Canada Jazz brand is no longer being marketed as all regional operators adopted the Air Canada Express name. However, some Air Canada Jazz planes retain the "Jazz" decal and the iconic green/red/orange/yellow maple leaf paint scheme. Jazz Aviation is the largest of these affiliates operating 125 aircraft on behalf of Air Canada.
In 2002, Air Canada launched a discount airline to compete directly with WestJet on routes in Western Canada. Zip operated ex-Canadian Airlines International 737-200s as a separate airline with their own staff and brightly painted aircraft. It was disbanded in 2004.
On 1 November 2001, Air Canada launched Air Canada Tango, designed to offer no-frills service and lower fares using a dedicated fleet of 13 Airbus A320s in an all economy configuration of 159 seats. In Canada, they operated from Toronto to Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Regina, Saskatoon, Thunder Bay, Ottawa, Montreal, Halifax, Gander and St. John's. In addition, they operated non-stop service between Toronto and Fort Lauderdale, Orlando and Tampa; as well as non-stop service between Montreal and Fort Lauderdale and Orlando. Tango was intended to compete with Canada 3000. The Tango service was dissolved in 2004. Air Canada now calls their lowest fare class "Tango" (Tango and Flex).
Aeroplan is Air Canada's loyalty marketing program operated by Groupe Aeroplan Inc., which was spun off from Air Canada in 2005.
Air Canada flies to 21 domestic destinations and 81 international destinations (including British overseas territories, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Overseas departments and territories of France, and United States territories) across Asia, Americas, Europe, and Oceania. Along with its regional partners, the carrier serves over 182 destinations in 47 countries on six continents worldwide.
Air Canada has flown a number of fifth freedom routes (passenger and cargo rights between two non-Canadian destinations), only one of which is still operated, namely Santiago-Buenos Aires. Past fifth freedom routes have included: Honolulu-Sydney, London Heathrow-Düsseldorf, Paris-Geneva, Paris-Munich, Paris-Berlin, Frankfurt-Zürich, Zürich-Zagreb, Zürich-Vienna, Zürich-Delhi, Lisbon-Madrid, Brussels-Prague, London Heathrow-Delhi, London Heathrow-Nice, London Heathrow-Bombay-Singapore.
- Aegean Airlines
- Aer Lingus
- Air China
- Air India
- Air New Zealand
- All Nippon Airways
- Asiana Airlines
- Austrian Airlines
- Avianca Brazil
- Brussels Airlines
- Cathay Pacific
- Central Mountain Air
- Croatia Airlines
- Ethiopian Airlines
- Etihad Airways
- EVA Air
- Gol Transportes Aéreos
- Jet Airways
- LOT Polish Airlines
- Middle East Airlines
- Scandinavian Airlines
- Singapore Airlines
- South African Airways
- SriLankan Airlines
- Swiss International Air Lines
- TAP Portugal
- Thai Airways
- Turkish Airlines
- United Airlines
The Air Canada mainline fleet consists of the following registered aircraft (as of April 2017). All mainline aircraft are fitted with individual video displays in all classes. WiFi is installed on all narrowbody aircraft and will be fitted on widebody aircraft starting Fall 2016. The majority of the widebody aircraft (Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 787, Airbus A330) operate from Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver and Calgary.
|Airbus A319-100||18||—||14||—||106||120||To be replaced by Bombardier CS300|
|58||—||—||58||3 VIP charter aircraft operated as Air Canada Jetz.|
|Airbus A320-200||42||—||14||—||132||146||To be replaced by Boeing 737 MAX 8|
|Airbus A321-200||15||—||16||—||169||185||To be replaced by Boeing 737 MAX 9|
|Boeing 737 MAX 8||—||33||TBA||18 options, 30 purchase rights.
|Boeing 737 MAX 9||—||28||TBA|
|Boeing 767-300ER||10||—||24||—||187||211||Older aircraft to be retired and replaced by Boeing 737 MAX 9 and Boeing 787-9|
|Boeing 787-9||17||12||30||21||247||298||Deliveries through 2019; Replacing Boeing 767-300ER; 13 options, 10 purchase rights|
|Bombardier CS300||—||45||TBA||30 options. Replacing Embraer 190 and Airbus A319-100; EIS: late 2019
|Embraer 190||25||—||9||—||88||97||To be replaced by Bombardier CS300|
Air Canada was one of the first airlines to have its entire fleet of unpressurized aircraft equipped with fixed oxygen systems for use by flight crew and passengers, using the rebreathing bag principle.
- Air Canada's McDonnell Douglas DC-9-15s were used up to 1968 one McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32CF was used for cargo flights until 1977. the McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32s were used from 1967 to 2002.
- Air Canada's Canadair Regional Jet (CRJ) aircraft were used from the mid 1990s until the early 2000s when they were transferred to regional affiliate Jazz Air LP operating as Air Canada Jazz. The Bombardier Mirabel-produced CRJ revolutionized non-stop high frequency services between lower volume business destinations in Air Canada's network, particularly in the northeast USA.
- Air Canada's Airbus A340-500s were retired in August 2007 and replaced by Boeing 777-200LRs. Air Canada was the only North American airline to operate the A340.
- Air Canada's Airbus A340-300s were retired in November 2008 and replaced by Boeing 777-300ERs.
- Air Canada's Boeing 767-200ER fleet was retired from service by the end of 2008.
- The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 aircraft were operated from 1979-2000 by Canadian Pacific Airlines and its successors CP Air and Canadian Airlines.
- The Boeing 737-200 aircraft were operated from 1968-2000 by Canadian Pacific Airlines and its successors CP Air and Canadian Airlines. Subsequent to the merger with Canadian Airlines, Air Canada operated these aircraft in a mainline 2-class configuration, as well as with the Air Canada Tango and the Zip low cost carriers branding in an all-economy class configuration.
Aircraft that Air Canada has operated since 1937, but are no longer in the fleet:
British Aerospace BAe 146-200 and Fokker F28 jet aircraft were operated by regional airline affiliates of Air Canada via code sharing agreements. Air Canada was also the only operator of the Vickers Vanguard propjet in North America.
Air Canada has three classes of service, Business, Premium Economy, and Economy. On long-haul international routes, International Business Class and Economy Class are offered, with certain flights additionally offering Premium Economy Class; short-haul and domestic routes feature Business Class and Economy Class. All mainline seats feature AVOD (Audio Video On Demand) and mood lighting. Air Canada Express features Business Class and Economy Class, on CRJ705 and Embraer 175 aircraft; all other Air Canada Express aircraft have one-class economy cabins. All narrowbody mainline aircraft, as well as Air Canada Express Bombardier CRJ705 and Embraer 175 aircraft have onboard WiFi installed, which will also be installed on all widebody aircraft starting in Fall 2016.
In the spring of 1987, Air Canada enacted no-smoking flights between Canada and New York City as a test. After a survey reported that 96% of passengers supported the smoking ban, Air Canada extended the ban to other flights.
International Business Class
Air Canada's International Business Class cabins are available on all widebody aircraft. There are two different cabins available: the Executive Pod and the Classic Pod. All services feature AVOD (Audio Video On Demand) on a touch screen, noise cancelling headphones, and music provided by XM Satellite Radio. This cabin is sold as Business Class — Transcontinental when widebody aircraft operate on routes within North America, and is sold at a premium compared to the North American Business Class product on narrowbody aircraft.
Executive Pods are featured on all Boeing 777s and 787s. These seats feature electronic flat beds in a 1–2–1 reverse herringbone configuration with a 21-inch (53.3 cm) seat width and a 6-foot-7-inch (2.01 m) seat pitch. AVOD is provided with an 18-inch (45.7 cm) touch screen.
Classic Pods feature electronic flat beds, in a 1–1–1 herringbone configuration on all Boeing 767-300ER and Airbus A330-300s with a 21-inch (53.3 cm) seat width and a 6-foot-3-inch (1.91 m) seat pitch. AVOD is provided with an 12-inch (30.5 cm) touch screen.
North American Business Class
Within North America, Business Class is Air Canada’s premium product. On Embraer 190 aircraft (mainline) and Embraer 175 and CRJ705 aircraft (Air Canada Express), the seat configuration is 1–2 abreast, with recline around 120°, and a width of 20 inches (0.51 m). On Airbus narrow-body aircraft, seat configuration is 2–2 abreast, with 124° recline, and 21 inches (0.53 m) width. Seat pitch is 37 inches (0.94 m) on CRJ705 aircraft and 39 inches (0.99 m) on Embraer and Airbus aircraft. All seats feature AVOD and the new style cabin interiors. Music is provided by XM Satellite Radio.
Premium Economy Class
Premium Economy class is available on all Airbus A330, Boeing 777, and Boeing 787 aircraft. Premium Economy is only available on international flights; on flights within North America, these seats are sold as Preferred Seats in Economy Class.
Premium Economy features a larger seat and greater recline as compared to economy class, in a 2–4–2 configuration (Boeing 777) or 2–3–2 configuration (Airbus A330 and Boeing 787) with a 20-inch (0.508 m) (Boeing 777) or 19.5-inch (0.495 m) (Boeing 787) seat width and a 37 to 38 inches (0.94 to 0.97 m) seat pitch. Entertainment is personal AVOD (Audio Video On Demand), while music is provided by XM Satellite Radio.
Air Canada Rouge operates flights on its aircraft with a premium economy class product, branded as Premium Rouge. This is sold as a business class product on Rouge flights within North America.
In Economy Class, seats are pitched 31 to 34 inches (0.79 to 0.86 m) with a width of 17.2 to 18.5 inches (0.44 to 0.47 m) and a recline to 4.5 to 6 inches (0.11 to 0.15 m). On Air Canada Rouge aircraft, seats are pitched 29 to 30 inches (0.74 to 0.76 m) with a width of 17.5 to 18 inches (0.44 to 0.46 m) and 3 inches (0.076 m) of recline. Configuration is 3–4–3 on the Boeing 777, 3–3–3 on the Boeing 787, 2–4–2 on the Airbus A330, 2–3–2 on the Boeing 767, 3–3 on Airbus narrowbody aircraft, and 2–2 on Bombardier and Embraer aircraft. All Airbus, Boeing, and Embraer aircraft, as well as the CRJ-705 are fitted with personal AVOD (audio-video on demand). Music is provided by XM Satellite Radio.
Complimentary meals are offered on all international flights outside of North America. For domestic, North American, sun destination and Caribbean flights, food and alcoholic beverages can be purchased through Onboard Café (GuestLogix point of sale terminals are used) while non-alcoholic beverages are complimentary.
On all narrowbody aircraft, there is an extra legroom Preferred Seat section in the front few rows and exit rows of the economy cabin which provides up to 4 inches (0.10 m) more seat pitch (usually at least 35"). All Air Canada Rouge planes offer Rouge Plus seats, which are identical to the Preferred Seats, but with up to 6 inches (0.15 m) more seat pitch (35" on A319's and 36" on 767's) as well as an additional 2 inches (0.051 m) of recline.
Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express flights operated by CRJ200, Dash 8-100/300/Q400 aircraft offer a bar and refreshment service on board. The CRJ705 and E175 features Business Class and personal AVOD at every seat. Flights on board the E175, CRJ200/705 and Q400 which are 90 minutes or more feature Onboard Café .
On 9 February 2017, a new uniform scheme coinciding with Canada's 150th and Air Canada's 80th anniversaries was unveiled. Air Canada partnered with Vancouver-born fashion designer Christopher Bates to design the new uniforms which incorporate a base colour of black or grey with red lettering and the famous maple leaf.
Between 2004 and 2017, Air Canada uniforms used a midnight blue colour. The uniforms were designed by Canadian fashion designer Debbie Shuchat. At a presentation in the Toronto Pearson International Airport hangar, Celine Dion helped the newly-solvent airline debut its new image.
Air Canada has 21 Maple Leaf Lounges located at all major airports across Canada and at international locations including London-Heathrow, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt, Los Angeles and New York-LaGuardia. The Maple Leaf Lounges are available to passengers holding a same day ticket on Air Canada in Business Class, Star Alliance Gold Members, Air Canada Super Elite, Air Canada Elite, Air Canada Maple Leaf Club members, American Express Maple Leaf Club members, American Express AeroplanPlus Platinum holders, holders of a one time guest pass or economy passengers who have purchased lounge access during booking.
Air Canada shares an Arrivals Lounge at London Heathrow Terminal 2 with some other Star Alliance members. It is available to eligible passengers arriving into London from any Air Canada international flight, holding a confirmed same-day overseas travel boarding card. Eligible groups include Business Class Passengers, Air Canada Super Elite, Air Canada Elite, Air Canada Maple Leaf Club Members or American Express Maple Leaf Club.
US business traveller international stopover strategy
Air Canada has started to pursue American-based business travellers from departure airports which do not have direct connections to Europe and abroad, and use Canadian airports like Montreal, Toronto-Pearson and Vancouver to make their connection through Canada.
Frequent flyer program
Aeroplan is Air Canada's frequent flyer program. Miles are awarded to members and can be redeemed for rewards on airline tickets (primarily Star Alliance), reservations at hotel chains and car rental agencies, or for merchandise or charitable donations. On May 11 2017, Air Canada announced it plans to launch a new loyalty program to replace Aeropan in 2020.
Air Canada Altitude
On 20 September 2012, Air Canada unveiled its new frequent flyer status program named "Air Canada Altitude" to supplement Aeroplan. Aeroplan is still the frequent flyer program, however, status is determined by Altitude standing. There are five membership tiers: Altitude Prestige 25K (25,000 Status Miles or 25 Status Segments), Altitude Elite 35K (35,000 Status Miles or 35 Status Segments), Altitude Elite 50K (50,000 Status Miles or 50 Status Segments), Altitude Elite 75K (75,000 Status Miles or 75 Status Segments), and Altitude Super Elite 100K (100,000 Status Miles or 95 Status Segments). Qualified Altitude Prestige 25K and Altitude Elite 35K are entitled to Star Alliance Silver Status, while members of the other three tiers are entitled to Star Alliance Gold Status.
Incidents and accidents
||Vickers Viscount, Fin 638 CF-THT was damaged beyond economical repair when it crash-landed at Toronto after the failure of two engines on approach.|
||McDonnell Douglas DC-8-54F, Fin 813 CF-TJM crashed and burned on a training flight while making a three-engine landing at Ottawa, Ontario. All 3 crew members were killed. There were no passengers on the flight.|
||A Vickers Viscount of Air Canada was hijacked by a Cuban passenger.|
||Vickers Viscount, Fin 629 CF-THK was damaged beyond economic repair by a fire which occurred on takeoff from Sept-Îles Airport. The aircraft landed back at Sept-Îles, but one passenger was killed in the fire.|
||Vickers Viscount, Fin 643 CF-THY collided in mid-air with Ercoupe 415 CF-SHN on approach to Vancouver International Airport. The Ercoupe pilot was killed.|
||McDonnell Douglas DC-8-63, Fin 878 CF-TIW exploded from a fuel line rupture caused by engine 4 striking the runway in Toronto, Ontario during the first landing attempt. All 109 passengers/crew were killed.|
||McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, Flight departed Thunder Bay, Ontario for Toronto, Ontario. Hijacker Patric Dolan Critton passed a note 20 minutes before landing that read: "Think. We have fragmentary grenades, and a .38 caliber revolver. Take me to the captain. We're going to Havana. This is no joke." The hijacker permitted the 82 passengers on board to get off the plane before the flight was rerouted to Cuba. After leaving the hijacker in Havana, the Air Canada aircraft safely returned to Toronto. Citton was arrested in New York on other charges in 2001 and, after serving his sentence, was extradited to Canada where he was charged with kidnapping. In 1971 there was no offence of hijacking in the Canadian Criminal Code. He was sentenced to five years in prison but was released on parole after serving two years.|
||McDonnell Douglas DC-8-53, Fin 822 CF-TIJ caught fire and was burnt out during refuelling at Terminal 2, Toronto, Ontario; no fatalities.|
||McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, Fin 721 CF-TLV overran the runway in Toronto after a blown tire aborted the takeoff. Two of the 107 people on-board were killed.|
||McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, Fin 720 C-FTLU approximately 14 minutes after flight 680 left Logan International Airport in Boston, MA for Yarmouth, NS, the entire tailcone section of the plane separated resulting in rapid decompression at an altitude of 25,000 feet (7,600 m), leaving a large hole in the rear of the aircraft. A beverage cart and other items in the cabin were sucked out of the plane over the Atlantic Ocean, but there were no fatalities or significant injuries. The plane safely returned to Boston. Fatigue cracks were determined to be the cause. This same aircraft would be destroyed by a fire nearly four years later on 2 June 1983 as Air Canada Flight 797|
||McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, Fin 724 C-FTLY exploded during a maintenance period in Montreal, Quebec; no fatalities.|
||McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, Fin 720 C-FTLU had an electrical fire in the aft lavatory during flight, resulting in an emergency landing at Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport. During emergency exiting, the sudden influx of oxygen caused a flash fire throughout the cabin, resulting in the deaths of 23 of the 41 passengers, including Canadian folk singer Stan Rogers. All five crew members survived. The captain was the last person to exit the plane. It was later made into a TV movie. This incident was also featured as "Fire Flight" of Canadian television series Mayday (TV series) season 4 episode 3 (known as "Fiery Landing" of Air Emergency in the USA, Air Crash Investigation in the UK and Australia). This is Air Canada's most recent fatal accident.|
||Boeing 767-233, Fin 604 C-GAUN glided to an emergency landing in Gimli after running out of fuel 12,300 metres (40,400 ft) above Red Lake, Ontario. Some people suffered minor injuries during the evacuation due to the steep angle of the escape chute at the rear of the plane; caused by the collapsed nose at the front. This incident was the subject of the TV movie, Falling from the Sky: Flight 174, starring William Devane, and the book, Freefall, by William Hoffer. This incident was also featured on the National Geographic Channel and Discovery Channel series Mayday (TV series) season 5 episode 6. This flight is generally known as the Gimli Glider.|
||Air Canada Flight 646, Fin 109 C-FSKI, departed Toronto-Lester B. Pearson International Airport, Ontario, at 2124 eastern standard time on a scheduled flight to Fredericton, New Brunswick. On arrival, the Canadair CRJ-100 aircraft experienced an unstabilized approach in poor visibility and stalled aerodynamically during a late go-around attempt. The aircraft skidded 2100 feet from the point of touch down and hit a tree. An evacuation was conducted; however, seven passengers were trapped in the aircraft until rescued. Of the 39 passengers and 3 crew members, 9 were seriously injured and the rest received minor or no injuries. The accident occurred at 2348 Atlantic standard time. Air Canada was heavily criticized in the media for allegedly entering the crash site and removing the aircraft decals identifying its operator without the permission of the authorities.|
||Air Canada Flight 190 was a scheduled flight from Victoria International Airport to Toronto Pearson International Airport. Whilst cruising over the Rocky Mountains, the Airbus 319 operating the flight lost attitude control and significant height in a short moment. The flight made an emergency landing at Calgary International Airport. Of the 83 passengers and 5 crew on board, 10 people were hospitalized for non-life-threatening injuries and most were subsequently released later on that day. All passengers were later accommodated on other flights to continue their journey to Toronto. A likely cause of the incident was due to wake turbulence.|
||Air Canada Flight 1 was a scheduled flight from Toronto Pearson International Airport to Narita Airport, Tokyo. On the 28th of May, the Boeing 777-300ER (C-FITW, fin 733) operating the flight emitted a loud bang from the right engine after take off. The engine cowling and several other parts of the GE90 fell into the city of Toronto smashing the windscreen of 2 cars but causing no injuries. The aircraft declared an emergency and spent one hour dumping fuel and preparing for an emergency landing at Toronto. The aircraft successfully made an emergency landing and was towed towards a terminal where the passengers disembarked. The right hand engine was removed from the aircraft and the plane was temporarily stored for 5 days as a replacement engine was brought in|
||Air Canada Flight 624 was Airbus A320 C-FTJP flying from Toronto Pearson International Airport to Halifax Stanfield International Airport. After 15 minutes in a holding pattern due to a severe winter storm and poor visibility, during approach in Halifax, the plane impacted the runway approach lights and power lines knocking out power and communications at the airport. It then impacted the ground 300m short of the runway, continuing on to impact the localizer antenna array, and breaking off its landing gear. The plane then touched down a second time and slid down the runway, losing one of its engines. All 133 passengers and 5 crew evacuated and survived. 23 people were sent to the hospital with non-life-threatening injuries. The aircraft was written off.|
- ACE Aviation Holdings
- Air Canada Rouge
- Chorus Aviation
- Jazz Aviation LP
- List of airlines of Canada
- List of airports in Canada
- List of companies of Canada
- Transportation in Canada
- Air transport in Canada
- "Air Canada History". CBC News. 14 May 2004. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- aircanada.com Air Canada Timeline
- Air Canada (30 March 2009). "Air Canada announces appointment of Calin Rovinescu as President & Chief Executive Officer". CNW Telbec. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- "Star Alliance Member Airline - Air Canada". Star Alliance. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- "Investors Contacts" Air Canada. Retrieved on 18 May 2009.
- "About Air Canada - Corporate Profile". Air Canada. Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "Indepth: Air Canada Timeline". CBC News. 20 June 2005. Archived from the original on 21 April 2006. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- Mills, Albert J, Mills, Jean Helms. Masculinity and the Making of Trans-Canada Air Lines, 1937-1940: A Feminist Poststructuralist Account. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, March 2006. findarticles.com Date accessed: 18 October 2007
- John Vardalas, "From DATAR to the FP-6000", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol 16 No 2, 1994, pp. 20-30
- "Air Canada: Celebrating 70 Years of Leadership". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Sparling, Gordon; Bala, Nicholas (1964). The Queen in Canada (Digital video). Ottawa: National Film Board of Canada.
- "Air Canada – Company History". International Directory of Company Histories. 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
- Christopher, John; Dion, Joseph P. (14 November 2002). "Issue Definition". The Canadian Airline Industry. Government of Canada / Depository Services Program. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- "Flight Training Organization | How To Become A Commercial Pilot - Part 4". Tgblogsite.com. 10 April 1978. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Air Canada Innovations". Air Canada. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "Air Canada Sells Credit Card Unit". The New York Times. 27 March 1992. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "Air Canada Strike Settled". Maclean's. 21 September 1998. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "Air Canada unions dig in, rescue deal seen at risk". Usatoday.com. 5 April 2004. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- Air Canada faces deadline on Deutsche Bank deal - 14 May 2004 - cbc.com Date accessed: 20 October 2008
- Yusufali, Sasha. "Air Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- "ACE Aviation". ACE Aviation. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- Air Canada unveils New Look and Leading Edge In-Flight Enhancements, Canadian Superstar Celine Dion joins Employees to Launch New era for Nation's Flag Carrier, prnewswire.com, 19 October 2004 Date accessed: 23 May 2014
- Renée Alexander (10 May 2006). "WestJet Airlines - High Times". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- Aviation giant retires - onAir, December 2004, aircanada.com Date accessed: 6 November 2008
- Download SEDAR Filings - 4 November 2005 Date accessed: 20 October 2008
- Aviation: Air Canada Selects GE Engines for New Boeing Fleet - 9 November 2005 Date accessed: 20 October 2008
- Boeing Delivers Air Canada's First 787 Dreamliner Date accessed: 16 May 2014
- "Air Canada Locks In Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners". Boeing. 9 November 2005. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- "Boeing, Air Canada Announce 23 Additional 787 Dreamliners". 25 April 2007. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Air Canada - Our Fleet 24 August 2009 aircanada.com Date accessed: 24 August 2009
- GlobeLink: Travel – Air Canada Embarks on Extreme Makeover - 13 March 2007 Date accessed 20 October 2008
- Air Canada/Air Canada Jazz fleet Date accessed: 18 February 2009
- Cabin Comfort - Economy Class - North America Date accessed: 4 December 2013
- Cabin Comfort - Economy Class - International Date accessed: 4 December 2013
- Cabin Comfort - Business Class - North America Date accessed: 4 December 2013
- Cabin Comfort - International Business Class Date accessed: 4 December 2013
- FP Story[dead link]
- Jang, Brent (31 March 2009). "Brewer resigns as Air Canada Chief". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Canada (31 March 2009). "Air Canada drafts an enforcer "He's a fixer, and comfortable with confrontation, not an airline operator."". Toronto: Business.theglobeandmail.com. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- "Flaherty appoints ex-judge to mediate Air Canada pension issues". cbc.ca. 4 June 2009. Archived from the original on 7 June 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- "Farley flown in to mediate Air Canada pension talks". Financialpost.com. Retrieved 21 February 2011.[dead link]
- "ACE Aviation". Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Couple incensed as Air Canada overbooking continues". cbc.ca. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "John Ivison: Throne Speech's 'consumers first' agenda will likely pit Tories against airlines and telcos". nationalpost.com. 17 September 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Air Canada pilots vote overwhelmingly for 10-year contract". Market Business News. 1 November 2014.
- no by-line, The Canadian Press (November 18, 2015). "Air Canada flight attendants ratify 10-year deal". CBC News. CBC. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Air Canada to Purchase Bombardier C Series as Part of its Fleet Renewal Program" (Press release). Air Canada. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- "Bill C-29: An Act to amend the Air Canada Public Participation Act (LS-536E)". Parl.gc.ca. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "Investors Contacts." Air Canada. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Air Canada Centre, 7373 Côte-Vertu Blvd. West Saint-Laurent, Quebec H4S 1Z3."
- "Coordonnées - Investisseurs." Air Canada. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Centre Air Canada, 7373 boul. Côte-Vertu Ouest Saint-Laurent (Québec) H4S 1Z3."
- Israelson, David (11 September 1994). "Companies eye exits in case of separation". Toronto Star. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- "FAQ’s." Air Canada. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Our headquarters are located at 7373 Boulevard Côte-Vertu Ouest, Dorval, Quebec."
- World Airline Directory. Flight International. 20 March 1975. p. 465. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "Air Canada layoffs blamed on free trade." Toronto Star. 10 October 1990. A1. Retrieved on 23 September 2009.
- "Annual Report 2012" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- "Annual Report 2008" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "Annual Report 2009" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "Annual Report 2010" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "Annual Report 2011" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- "News Release Q4 2013" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "Annual Report 2014" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- "Annual Report 2015" (PDF).
- "Air Canada Annual Report 2016" (PDF).
- "Executive Biographies". aircanada.com. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- "Air Canada Cargo profile". Accessmylibrary.com. 1 October 1996. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- "Air Canada opens modern new cargo terminal at Toronto hub" (PDF). Air Canada. 28 January 2002. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- Air Canada - Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes 2007 -subsidiaries p.7 Date accessed: 5 November 2008
- Air Canada Vacations - About Us, aircanadavacations.com Date accessed: 31 October 2008
- "About EVAS Air". Exploits Valley Air Services. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- "Aeroplane Miles earned partners". Aircanada.com. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- Air Canada Jetz - About Us, aircanada.com Date accessed: 17 May 2014
- ottawacitizen.com - Senators look for a new ride to road games as Air Canada exits charter business
- "Air Canada to Carry Canada's Top Professional Hockey Teams". Air Canada Media Centre. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- "History". flyjazz.ca. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- Air Canada's Zip shut down. CBC news. 8 September 2004 Access date: 29 October 2008
- CNW Group (10 October 2001). "Air Canada Gets Costs Out With Tango; Reassigns Existing Capacity to Offer Unique, No-Frills, Value-Focussed Alternative to Full Service Mainline Network". nieuwsbank.nl. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Air Canada's Tango steps into service - 16 October 2001, flightglobal.com Date accessed: 8 November 2008
- "Air Canada fare structure". Aircanada.com. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- Leader, The (10 February 2007). "ACE to spin off unit". Canada.com. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- "aircanada.com - About Air Canada". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "staralliance.com - Air Canada Facts & Figures". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Air Canada will fly to Santiago in Boeing 777-300" (in Spanish). Aeropuertosantiago.cl. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- "Air Canada expands in Europe". Flightglobal.com. 10 March 1984. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- "Air Canada aims at business traveler with Singapore route". News.google.com. 12 January 1985. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- "Profile on Air Canada". CAPA. Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 2016-10-30. Retrieved 2016-10-30.
- "Virgin Australia and Air Canada launch codeshare partnership". Australian Aviation. 15 December 2016.
- "Air Canada and Cathay Pacific to Introduce Codeshare Services and Reciprocal Mileage Accrual and Redemption Benefits in Strategic Cooperation". Air Canada. 22 December 2016.
- "Canadian Civil Aircraft Register". Transport Canada. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- "Fin Numbers". Air Canada. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- "Air Canada Selects Boeing 737 MAX to Renew Mainline Narrowbody Fleet". Air Canada. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- "Air Canada Welcomes First Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner to its Fleet". Air Canada. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "PlaneRegister.com - Air Canada historical Airbus A340". Planesregister.com. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- "Air Canada Fleet of A340 (History) | Airfleets aviation". Airfleets.net. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- Air Canada Historical Fleet Date accessed: 27 January 2009
- Kramon, Glenn. "Northwest Airlines Bans Smoking on Most Flights." The New York Times. 24 March 1988. 1. Retrieved on 8 February 2012.
- "Business Class – Transcontinental". Air Canada. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Air Canada Expands Introduction of New International Business Class and Premium Economy Seating". aircanada.com. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Removal of Premium Economy on flights within North America". aircanada.com. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Premium Economy (International)". aircanada.com. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- "Air Canada Maple Leaf Lounge". Air Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Air Canada Maple Leaf Lounge Locations". Air Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Maple Leaf Lounge access". Air Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Air Canada Arrivals Lounge". Air Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Lounge Access Policy". Star Alliance. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Galleries Aimia shares crash after Air Canada parts ways with Aeroplan loyalty program". 11 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. 19 May 1967. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
- "Accident synopsis 07051970". AirDisaster.com. 5 July 1970. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "1971: Canada's first successful plane hijacking". cbc.ca. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "Canada's First Successful Plane Hijacking". http://www.noahc.org/. Retrieved 1 February 2015. External link in
- "Hull-loss description". Aviation Safety Network. 21 June 1973. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "Accident synopsis 06261978". 26 June 1978. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "44 in drama over Atlantic as DC-9 jet's tail rips off". The Toronto Star. 18 September 1979. p. 1.
- "Nation: Air Scares". Time. 1 October 1979.
- "Accident Database". AirDisaster.com. 2 June 1982. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- "Accident synopsis 06021983". 2 June 1983. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "Famous Gimli Glider retired from Air Canada service". Vancouver Sun. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- "Transportation Safety Board of Canada - Aviation Investigation Report A97H0011". Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Air Canada AC190 update: Last passenger released from hospital". Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- "Transportation Safety Board of Canada - Aviation Investigation Report A08W0007". Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- "Air Canada B773 at Toronto on May 28th 2012, dropped engine parts on departure". Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Air Canada AC624 touched down 335 metres short of runway, TSB says". 29 March 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Air Canada Provides Update #3 on AC624". Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Air Canada Flight 624 crash investigators recover cockpit recorders". 31 March 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "C-FTJP Air Canada Airbus A320-211 – cn 233". Planespotters.net.
- McArthur, Keith (2004). Air monopoly: how Robert Milton's Air Canada won and lost control of Canada's skies. M & S. ISBN 0-7710-5688-5.
- Milton, Robert (2004). Straight from the Top: The Truth About Air Canada. Greystone Books. ISBN 1-55365-051-4.
Media related to Air Canada at Wikimedia Commons