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||This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (May 2011)|
|Shuja ul-Mulk (Hero of the country)
Hashim ud-Daula (Sword of the state)
Mahabat Jang (Horror in War)
|Coronation||April 29, 1740|
|Full name||Mirza Muhammad Ali (Alivardi Khan / Alahvirdi Khan)|
|Titles||Nawab Nazim of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa (Nawab of Bengal)|
|Born||BeforeMay 10, 1671|
|Died||April 10, 1756(aged 84)|
|Place of death||Murshidabad|
|Consort||A sister and daughter of Sayyid Ahmed Najafi and Sayyid Hussain Najafi respectively.|
|Father||Shah Quli Khan (Mirza Muhammad Madani)|
|Mother||A daughter of Nawab Aqil Khan Afshar (Mir Muhammad Askari)|
Early life 
Alivardi Khan's father was Shah Quli Khan (Mirza Muhammad Madani) and his mother was the daughter of Nawab Aqil Khan Afshar (Mir Muhammad Askari). Alivardi's birth name was Mirza Muhammad Ali. He was a Shia Muslim. His father was an Arab and an employee of Azam Shah, the son of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Azam Shah also employed the sons of Mirza Muhammad. But after the death of Azam Shah, the family fell into poverty. His two sons Muhammad Ali and Mirza Ahmed managed to find employment under the Subahdar (Provincial governor) of Orissa, Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan. After Shuja-ud-Din was promoted to the post of the Nawab of Bengal, the two brothers' future prospects widened.
Rise to power 
In 1728, Shuja-ud-Din promoted Muhammad Ali to Faujdar (General) of Rajmahal and entitled him as Alivardi Khan. In 1733, he was assigned as the Naib Nazim (Deputy Subahdar) of Bihar. A year later he was titled Shuja ul-Mulk (Hero of the country), Hassemm ud-Daula (Sword of the state) and Mahabat Jang (Horror in War) and the rank of Paach Hazari Mansabdar (The rank holder of 5000) by Nawab Shuja ud-Din and returned to Azimabad.
Alivardi Khan aspired for larger authority. On 10 April 1740 in the Battle of Giria, he defeated and killed Shuja ud-Din's successor, Sarfaraz Khan. Thus he took control of Bengal and Bihar. Then on 3 March 1741 he defeated Rustam Jang, deputy governor of Orissa and a relative of Sarfaraz Khan, in the battle of Phulwarion. Orissa also came under control of Alivardi Khan.
Immediately after his coup Alivardi Khan had takeover legitimized by the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur and resumed the policies of Murshid Quli Khan. Although he was the Nawab of Bengal he also used titles such as Nizam, he also chose Faujdars from various regions such as Patna, Dacca and Orissa.
Since 1742 Marathas raided Bengal repeatedly ravage the territories of Alivardi Khan, the Nawab of Bengal, and almost immediately a long Maratha ditch was dug around Calcutta. Alivardi Khan was a brilliant artillery tactician but still his armies were overrun by large force of Marathas from Berar[disambiguation needed] who had arrived to pillage and plunder the territories of the Nawab of Bengal, under the commands of Raghoji I Bhonsle.
In the year 1747, the Marathas led by Raghoji, began to raid, pillage and annex the territories of the Alivardi Khan. During the Maratha invasion of Orissa, its Subedar Mir Jafar completely withdrew all forces until the arrival of Alivardi Khan and the Mughal Army at the Battle of Burdwan where Raghoji and his Maratha forces were completely routed. The enraged Alivardi Khan then dismissed the shamed Mir Jafar.
Alivardi Khan's defending armies were overrun in Orissa in the year 1751, despite receiving some assistance from Shuja-ud-Daula. But Orissa was ultimately surrendered to the ravaging Marathas by the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur. These Maratha raids would continue until 1751, when a peace-treaty was settled between Ahmad Shah Bahadur, Alivardi Khan and Raghoji.
Campaign against Bhaskar Pandit 
in 1741 while Alivardi was coming from Cuttack to Murshidabad by defeating Rustam Jung (the son in low of Sujauddin). Alivardi get the news of the Bargi on Jaigad. Mir Habib who was the Naib of Rustam, joined in the army of Bhaskar Pandit though Alivardi wanted to keep him in his own army because ha was a great warrior. But in a conspiracy eventually he joined to Bhaskar's army. After heard that Roghuji I Bhonsle had sent an army under Bhaskar Pandit. After heard the news Alivardi started to march Murshidabad.
In 1742, Alivari was attacked by the Bargis in night in 15 April. Alivardi had keep his army in Ranir Dighi under his general Mustafa Kahn and Nandalal. The Maratha were 2500 or more than in number. There were 24 generals under Bhaskar Pandit. He sent his 14 generals to attack and kill the people of Bengal. And the other 10 generals were sent to look after Alivardi and his army as they were captive. Bhaskar Pandit claimed to gain 10 lakh from Nawab. Though Alivardi have enough money to give him all at that very time. But he ignored to give the all. He thought that Bhaskar will think that he had so much money and he became very greedy. After two weeks Alivardi became in problem that they did not have enough food to spend the days. While it was raining Alivardi tried to escape but he was again captive. That time Alivardi's elder brother Haji Ahmed helped him by send a huge amount of army and food. Alivardi escaped in eventually. While escape Nandalal was killed by Mir Habib who have now became the right hand of Bhaskar Pandit. First week of march, while Alivardi was in Katwa Mir Habib attacked Murshidabad and burnt the market of Dahabaza which is situated beside the west side of Ganga. Habib also destroyed the house of Mahatabrai Jagatseth in 5th march. In June Habib captured Hoogly and killed there's Fawjdar Muhammad Reja. In 26 September while Bhaskar was arranging to worship of Durgapuja Alivardi attacked them and killed many but the Marathas were successful to disappeared to Ramgad. Alivardi followed them since Chilka Lake. In 1742 while Alivardi was busy to drive out the bargis from Bengal, a friend who is actually enemy came to Bengal. He was the sebedar of Ayodhya, Safdar Jung. He declared that Mughal King Muhammd Shah employed him the king of Bengal. Aliardi tried to driven him out of Bengal but he was unable. This time Pashwa Balaji Rao came to Bengal to rescue Bengal from the fear of Bargis. They were both of Maratha clan. Bengal became the battlefield of Marathas and the Bargi. After driven out the Bargis from Bengal Balaji[disambiguation needed] left Bengal as he had got the news of death of his grandfather. But departure of Balaji the Bargi sardar Bhaskar Pandit appeared again. Alivardi became very angry at the attitude of Bargis. Bengal became in fear of Bargis. in 1744 Alivardi and his general Mustafa Khan planned a conspiracy to kill Bhaskar Pandit. Then Alivardi called the Bhaskar and his 24 generals to Mankara, which is situated in Murshidabad and 29 km from Palashi. Eventually Alivardi killed Bhaskar Pandit. But Raghuji Gaikawad, a general under Bhaskar Pandit and escaped from death. But Bengal can not free from the fear of Bargis.
Cultural and musical development 
Death and succession 
See also 
- Mohammad Shah, Alivardi Khan, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2011-05-24
- Markovits, Claude (01-Feb-2004). A History of Modern India, 1480-1950. Anthem Press.
- Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Further reading 
- AliVardi Khan and his times, Author - K. K. Dutt
- Decisive Battle of India, G. B. Malleson, ISBN 81-7536-291-X, published by Books For All, 2002.
- A site dedicated to Alivardi Khan
Alivardi KhanBorn: Before May 10, 1671 Died: April 10, 1756
|Nawab of Bengal
1740 - 1756