Amol

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Amol (disambiguation).
This article is about the ancient city of Āmul along the Oxus. For the Indian dairy cooperative, see Amul.
Amol
آمل (Persian)
City
Ancient names: Amard, Amardi, Amardian, Amui, Haft Shahr, Tabaristan, Amele, Amol
Davazdah Cheshmeh And Moalagh Bridge -Amol-Iran.jpg
Arch 8- Mazandaran - IRAN Walppaper.jpg Fireplace of Amol.jpg
Mazandaran Province Arch.JPG History Museum Amol.JPG
Qaem Mosque Amol city.JPG
Amolmn.png
Seal
Amol is located in Iran
Amol
Amol
Coordinates: 36°28′11″N 52°21′03″E / 36.46972°N 52.35083°E / 36.46972; 52.35083Coordinates: 36°28′11″N 52°21′03″E / 36.46972°N 52.35083°E / 36.46972; 52.35083
Country  Iran
Province Mazandaran
County Amol
Bakhsh Central
Incorporated (city) 1923[1]
Government
 • Mayor Amir Soleimani[1]
Area
 • City 21 km2 (8 sq mi)
Elevation 76 m (249 ft)
Population (2012)
 • City 224,160
 • Density 11,000/km2 (28,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 364,692
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
Postal code 46131-46391[2]
Area code(s) (+98) 11
Website Amol.ir
Amol.gov.ir

Amol (Persian: آمل‎‎ – [ɒˈmol]; About this sound pronunciation ; also Romanized as Āmol and Amul)[3] is a city in and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, the population of the city was 197,470, in 55,183 families.[4]

Amol is located on the Haraz river bank. It is less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the Caspian sea and less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the Alborz mountains. It is 180 kilometres (110 mi) from Tehran, and 60 kilometres (37 mi) west of the provincial capital, Sari.[3] Amol is a historic city, with its foundation dating back to the Amard.

Pre-Islamic[edit]

Ammianus Marcellinus says name the Amol city is derived from the people Amard.[5] Some historians have attributed the rise of the city during Tahmuras and casual meeting Fereydun.[6]

Pishdadian and Amard[edit]

Map of the Median Empire (600 BC) showing the relative locations of the Amardian tribe

Amol is an old city, with a history dating back to the Amards. Amards were the people inhabiting the area before the arrival of Aryan, who had migrated to and settled on the Iranian Plateau from the late 2nd millennium bce to early 1st millennium. Many scholars believe that the city's name is rooted in the word Amard.

Amol is an old city, with a history dating back to the Amards. Amards were the people inhabiting the area before the arrival of Aryans, who had migrated to and settled on the Iranian Plateau from the late 2nd millennium BCE to early 1st millennium BCE. Many scholars believe that the city's name is rooted in the word Amard (Amui in Pahlavi). According to historical literature, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran, at least in the period starting from Sassanid Empire to the Ilkhanate dynasty of Mongol Empire. Though they are a Median tribe, Herodotus names a tribe called Mardians as one of the ten to fifteen Persian tribes in Persis. It is now known that the only distinction between the Median Amardians and the Persian Mardians is the a in the beginning of Amardians, which would mean they are two different tribes. Elsewhere he says, one of the peoples have trusted Darius I[7] Igor M. Diakonoff says, Amardian lived in the coasts of the Caspian Sea, in the distance of the Alban and Otia from the north and the Hyrcanian from the east. Strabo says about Amard people, the mard wore black robes, had long hair and everyone was braver he was allowed to marry any women. In history of Persian Empire, the mard were handsome, capable and brave persons presented in the heart of the army and were responsible to defense the commander.[8] The Amard helped achaemenid in several battles including the invasion to Greece, the occupation of Sardis and the attack to medes and at Battle of Opis. The other theory about Amol via Ibn Isfandiyar says, at the request of wife Firoz Shah, he make large and flourishing city named Amele.[9]

Achaemenid Empire[edit]

Is further evidence of the power of the Amol people fighting the Battle of Thermopylae, Battle of Gaugamela and other Sardis forces in the Achaemenid Empire.

Parthian Empire[edit]

During the age of the Parthian Empire, Amol was one of the centers of Iran. It seems Amol reputation in the time Alexander the Great and the Parthian period Search at this time dominated the political-administrative Satrap was Hyrcanian.

Sassanian[edit]

Silver gilt dish of Tapuria, 7th–8th centuries. A tradition initiated under the Sasanians and continued after the Arab invasions. Anuzhad inscription in Pahlavi script, next to the reclining figure. British Museum

According to historical literature, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran during the period starting from the 3rd century CE under Sassanian Empire to the 13/14th century CE under the Ilkhanate dynasty of Mongol Empire. On Sasanian coins, coin cities where there has been abbreviated name is known, but mark m was Amol. During the Bahram V Amol were Central of Iran and at during the Khosrow II and Dabuyid dynasty capital Mazandaran.[10] Amu Darya Sasanian mid pers river about 2,500 km long, regarded in ancient times as the boundary between Iran and Turan, the modern name may be derived from Amol.[11]

Islam[edit]

Amol, in the era of Alid dynasties of northern Iran and Marashis dynasty was the capital of Northern Iran. The inhabitants of Amol embraced Islam during the reign of Mahdi (775–785 CE), the Abbasid Caliph.

Today, Amol is a thriving modern metropolis.

Amol in the Abbasid Caliphate in the ninth century was one of the biggest cities in Iran. Amol capital of other during the Bavand dynasty and Ziyarid dynasty. In Hudud al-'Alam says about Amol, is great city with most moat and castle, the universe and origin of merchants and at city Carpet, mat, boxwood, bowl, brick and medallion is found.[12]

Safavid[edit]

In time of the Safavid rulers of Mazandaran, Amol experienced a period of growth. Amol was the favorite dwelling of Abbas II of Persia, who often frequented it. At the time Amol was considered "the capital of the inhabited world" and acclaimed for its grandeur. Several bridges were built in the area, across the Haraz river, at this time.

Amol in Afsharid dynasty and Zand dynasty as a city for trade and construction were instruments of war. in town was founded through trade center position and business centers already exceeded and founded artillery. The town has spacious and well-supplied bazaars and post and telegraph offices. Excavations in Amol at Hall of Fame have uncovered glazed ceramic and glass belonging to Islamic and modern periods[13]

Qajar[edit]

James George Frazer in his travelogue to Amol says, the city truly great and vast. people were decent and respectable inhabitants of the city. Several leaders of the Iranian constitutional revolutions of 1905 and 1911 hailed from Amol. Molla Ali kani, one Amoli reformist who led the people, had a great role in achievement to the goals of Iran's constitutional revolution. During this period, was built many homes in the city. Although today Amol has expanded greatly on both sides of the Haraz river, its functions are still the same as they were seventy or eighty years ago.[14] In the 19th century, Amol iron and iron goods were traded all over Iran and as far abroad as Baghdad and Damascus. Today, the main industries are food processing factories rice, minor woodworking shops and a few brickworks.[15]

20th century[edit]

During the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi, the face of the town was changed drastically. Make school and most of the streets and governmental buildings date from that era. The Jungle Uprising In 1982 of the Union of Iranian Communists (Sarbedaran) mobilized its forces to jungles around Amol and started some wars against the Iranian government in those jungles. It finally organized a famous uprising on 25 January 1982. This uprising was a failure and most of the UIC leaders were hanged but the uprising itself became very famous and is well respected between some Iranian Leftist organizations. This day became known in the Iranian calendar named Epic 6 Bahman.[16]

21st century[edit]

Field 17 Shahrivar

Some of the most recent projects have been the complete restoration of the Bazaar and of the Imam Reza street, as well as a comprehensive plan for the preservation of the old city quarters. A lot of different construction projects are currently underway, which intend to modernize the city's infrastructure. In the last few years, many square, towers, boulevards and bridge were built in Amol. Haraz Street one of the most modern streets of northern Iran. Amol is growingly turning into an industrialized town like most of the Iranian large cities. In Amol there municipality and special governor.

In literature[edit]

The Battle History Of Mazandaran

The first Aryan dynasty mentioned in Ferdowsi magnum opus at the Shahnameh. The name Amol has come up 16 times in Shahnameh. In the Persian epic, Shahnameh, Mazandaran is mentioned in two different sections. The first mention is implicit, when Fereydun sets its capital in a city called Amol:[17]

The statue of Arash the Archer

Hero iran Arash in Amol threw arrow to determine the Iranian border, Arash throw from the castle with Amol Aqaba and its agents to reach the border to have called Turan.[18]

Geography[edit]

The city has Mediterranean climate with very hot summers and cool and humid winters. Maximum rainfall is usually in the month of December and minimum in the month of July.

illustration part of town from a hill

Amol is located on the banks of the Haraz River (26 25'N 52 21'E) at an altitude of 76 m above sea. It is about 18 km from the Caspian Sea and about 10 km from the northern Alborz mountains. It is 180 km from the Iranian capital, Tehran, with a picturesque drive through Haraz Road. Sari the capital of Mazandaran is 70 km east of Amol. Mount Damavand (5610 m), the highest peak in the Middle East, is located south of Amol.

Ecology[edit]

Amol has it lot of dense forests and pastures. The ecology of Tabaristan region had been an impediment to provide a regularly communicative path and Haraz path is one of the oldest ones that had communicated the north of Iran to the central plateau in different periods. This study attempts to deal with archaeological data of this communicative path in Sasanian period and at the beginning of Islam. A descriptive-analytical method and scaling archeological investigation in region has been used in the study.[19] the vegetation of the region can be divided into forest and grassland. Caspian horse It is also called Khazar Horse to be found the first time in Amol rediscovered in 1965 by Louise Firouz. also Mazandaran tiger there in the jungle Amol city.[20]

Coherent[edit]

Haraz Dam is the biggest dam north of Iran under construction on the Haraz River about 20 km from Amol of the year 2009 by Khatam-al Anbiya Construction Headquarter. It is a 150 meter earth rockfill dam with 8.6 million cubic meters of fill volume.[21]

Excavation sites[edit]

In recent years, on the excavation hill Qaleh Kesh, some ancient jewelry was discovered. Radiocarbon analysis revealed the background of the jewelery and objects to date from the 1st millennium BC, Bronze Age. New to explore in Baliran works of the era found Paleolithic.[22]

Events bitter Historical[edit]

  • The war between the Sassanid dynasty and Iran's owners in Amol and Amol Gullies were completely destroyed. Since Sasanian Empire then the town has suffered earthquake and flood damage several times but each time has recovered, and it is still a considerable town.
  • Flooding in Mount Deryouk, and the destruction of entire city.
  • Dangerous diseases that plague the year 1198 AH
  • Mongol invasion of Genghis Khan and his descendants to Tabarestan
  • Amir Masoud attack in Amol
  • Samanid attack on royan and Amol with Espahbodan
  • Timur war with the kings Marashis and killing people
  • Shah Ismail I and Shah Abbas Safavid wars attack the Amol and killing people
  • Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar attacked the larijan and Amol, killing people and destroy the city

Population[edit]

The population history of the city proper is as follows. All figures are official census figures from the Iranian Statistics Institute.[23]

1956 1966 1976 1986 1991 1996 2006 2012
22,251 40,076 68,963 118,242 139,923 159,092 197,470 224,160

Breakdown of 2006 census:[4]

Total Male Female Family
197,470 98,337 99,133 55,183

Language, Religion, Timeline[edit]

Most Amoli people speak the Mazandarani language Tabari as a mother tongue; however, Persian is the most common language spoken in Iran and the lingua franca. Northern provinces of Iran in the Parthian or Sassanid period, probably, was Zoroastrian. There is clear temples in the province. Mazandaran people converted to Islam around the second century AH. Amol as the first prime city center was a Twelver Shiite theocracy. At present, the majority of people are followers of Shia Islam. Amol, mazandaran has its own calendar months in addition to the official Tabari calendar of the moon, used in the era of Yazdgerd.[24]

Economy[edit]

Mineral water, meat, dairy, Wood and ingots the main production industrial are. Agriculture and Tourism are the basis economy Amol economic base is in its provincial products. Agriculture has always been a major part of the economy in and around Amol.

Paddy rice field of Amol

Amol is the economic center of Mazandaran province, with Agriculture and Tourism being the base of the Amoli economy. Rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, sugarcane, and silk are produced in the lowland. Mineral water, meat, dairy, wood and ingots are the main manufacturing industry.[25] 68% of exports of Mazandaran in Amol done. Plants, minerals, livestock and dairy products to be exported to countries Russia, Iraq, Germany, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Angola, Oman, United Arab Emirates and Azerbaijan.[26]

Rice[edit]

Rice research of Iran location at Amol.[27] Winston Churchill says, commented that Tehran was supplied with rice by Mazandaran because of transportation facilities through the Amol. Amol rice is high quality products and export to world and Iran's rice export terminal at Amol established 2016.[28]

Culture[edit]

Amol long history has ancestors because of intellectuals and local and national events. depending on the culture of the people some of the ancient ceremony of Mazandaran Islamic traditions mingled, Amol is a center for Iranian culture and has produced a number of famous poets. Wool, felting, felt hat production and mat weaving are part of the Amoli culture. Barf Chal, Lochu Wrestling, Palm and Tiregān named Damavand national day are local events held each year.Tirgan important celebrations in Iran’s history.[29] Mazandaran music, art and writer from other parts of the city. Nowruz Iranians celebrate ancient is also important in Amol. Amoli people are said to spend much on books, clothes and food. They spend the leisure times going to cinemas, art exhibitions, music concerts and international book fairs that are being held in the city most of times in a year. Amol is known as the city of Mystics and philosophers, Hezar sangar, Productive and Alavian. Amol has been host Fajr International Theater Festival and Jasmine International Film Festival.[30]

Amol old city[edit]

Old district of Amol[edit]

The main body of the old city of Amol is located in the old bazaar Amol. The main constituents of the city Bazaar Amol are known as Paein Baazar or Bazaar Chaharsogh. Historic mosque and old houses located along market and tribe quarters of the people is also available in the market. Tuesday era Sassanid, Qajar and contemporary is evident in the alleys of the market and its neighborhoods.[31]

Older neighborhoods[edit]

Historical and natural attractions[edit]

In City and County:

Moalagh Bridge
Tomb tower Haydar Amuli known as Seyyed se Tan
  • Shekl-e Shah (Relief Naser al-Din Shah Qajar)
  • Jame Mosque
  • Agha Abbas Mosque
  • Yakhi Waterfall
  • Dokhaharan lake
  • Waterfall Deryouk
  • Shah Abbasi Baths
  • Fireplace (known as Shams Al-Rasol)
  • The Sasanian Road
  • Tower Khidr Nabi
  • Tomb of Sultan Shahabuddin
  • Village forest Blairan
  • Village forest Alimastan
  • Gol-e Zard Cave
  • Ashraf Bath [36]
  • Inn Kemboja
  • House Manouchehri
  • House Shafahi
  • Heshtl Tower
  • Mirza Muhammad Ali Mosque
  • Kahrud Castle
  • Sangi Bridge Polour
  • Imam Hassan Askari Mosque
  • Imamzadeh Qasem Shrine
  • Imamzadeh Abdollah Shrine [37]
Tomb Mir-i Buzurg known as Mashad Mir Bozorg
  • Mohammad Taher Shrine[38]
  • Ab ask Thermal Springs [39]
  • Lake Sahon
  • Haj Ali Kochak Mosque
  • Ab Murad Waterfall
  • Sang Darka Waterfall
  • Dehkadeh Talaei Park
  • Amoloo Mineral Water Spring
  • Forest Park Mirza Kuchak Khan Haraz
  • Forest Park Halumsar
  • Castle Kahrud
  • Larijan Thermal Spring
  • Hosseinieh of Amol
  • Gabri Tower
  • Mir-Safi Baths
  • Tomb Darvish Sheikh Ismail
  • Robat Sangi Polur
Jameh Mosque of Amol
  • Prairie anemone of Polur
  • Ziaru Jungle
  • Haj Ali Arbab House
  • Do Berar Peak
  • Ancient Hill Qaleh Kesh
  • Larijan Thermal Spring
  • Kolakchal Mountain
  • Ghoredagh Mountain
  • Municipal House
  • Tekyeh Firuz Kola
  • Pol-e Mun Castle
  • Saghanefar Hendoukola
  • Saghanefar Zarrin Kola
  • Tekyeh Oji Abad

Climate[edit]

Amol has short, but hot summers, and long springlike winters. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot-summer Mediterranean (Csa).[40]

Climate data for Amol
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.1
(55.6)
12.5
(54.5)
12.4
(54.3)
16.2
(61.2)
23.7
(74.7)
27.7
(81.9)
28.7
(83.7)
30.3
(86.5)
25.9
(78.6)
23.2
(73.8)
18.9
(66)
15.1
(59.2)
20.64
(69.17)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
8.1
(46.6)
8.2
(46.8)
11.9
(53.4)
19.1
(66.4)
21.9
(71.4)
24
(75)
25.4
(77.7)
21.1
(70)
18.4
(65.1)
13.8
(56.8)
10.2
(50.4)
15.9
(60.61)
Average low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
3.8
(38.8)
4
(39)
7.7
(45.9)
14.6
(58.3)
16.2
(61.2)
19.3
(66.7)
20.6
(69.1)
16.3
(61.3)
13.6
(56.5)
8.7
(47.7)
5.4
(41.7)
11.22
(52.18)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 96
(3.78)
80
(3.15)
74
(2.91)
69
(2.72)
31
(1.22)
27
(1.06)
27
(1.06)
36
(1.42)
87
(3.43)
97
(3.82)
97
(3.82)
108
(4.25)
829
(32.64)
Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 96m[40]


Souvenir[edit]

Dissimilar Pastry
  • Local Bread (Nan Mahali)
  • Pastry Ab dandan
  • Pastry Aqooz kennak
  • Pastry Saghe aroos
  • Naz Khatoon
  • Abe Narenj
  • Pisgendele
  • Yogurt dalal
  • Halva native

Food[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

  • Road77.png

Haraz Road (Road 77) is the most important road from Tehran to northern Iran (province of Mazandaran) besidesKaraj-Chaloos. This road passes from the valley of Haraz river and therefore is also known as Haraz Road between Amol and Rudehen. Haraz road is the nearest road to Mount Damavand, the highest peak in Iran and Middle East. Lar National Park is accessible via this road. The road is the shortest route from Tehran to the north (180 km). In recent years, some parts of the road have been widened and safety has been improved. other road link with other cities Mahmoudabad, Nour and Babol.

Air Base[edit]

Amol is an air base with two helicopters relief Hilal Ahmar. This is the first center of Iran's air rescue.[41]

By Car and bus[edit]

Amol the largest urban boulevard and highways within mazandaran in the city is. are five bus terminals, Terminal international firuzi,the largest terminal in North of Iran is. Also offers an extensive bus route throughout the entire municipality as well as numerous public and private taxi services.

By Rail[edit]

Fast train north, Tehran and Amol of 2013 starts and 2020 ends.[42]

Street and boulevard[edit]

  • Imam Reza Street
  • Haraz Street
  • Taleb Amoli Street
  • Nour Street
  • Mahdieh Street
  • Muhammad ibn Jarir Tabari Street
  • Mostafa Khomeini Street
  • Enghelab Street
  • Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani Street
  • Janbazan Street
  • Laleh Street
  • Farhang Street
  • Heravi Street
  • Ayatollah Modares Street
  • Amin Tabarsi Street
  • Shahid Beheshti Street
  • Basij Street
  • Velayat Street
  • Pasdaran Street
  • Azadegan Street
  • Khazar Street

Notable people[edit]

Science[edit]

In the 11th century Ad, Nizam al-Mulk, in his famous book named Siyasatnama, recommended creation of modern institutions by the name of Nezamiyeh with academic status in the large cities of the Islamic world, such as Balkh, Baghdad, Damascus, Neishabour and Bukhara the name of Amol was also included among them. Most of Allameh the scientific world are born in this city and the cultural capital of the world is Amol. Gold and copper have been expensive and time-old Amol has been the commercial center Iran.

Shomal University

This branch of Pasteur Institute of Iran is located in the city of Amol in the state of Mazandaran. This institute comprises different departments.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Some of the biggest universities of Iran such as Shomal University are situated in Amol.

Amol has three universities:

  • Shomal University Most of the Middle East
  • Amol University of Special Modern Technologies the first and only state University of Amol
  • Islamic Azad University of Amol International University The big University Middle East
  • Haraz University of Amol[43]
  • Amol.ac[44]
  • Mazandaran 5[45]
  • Green University[46]
  • PNU Amol[47]
  • Sama College[48]
  • Doctor College[49]
  • INSTITO Pasteur D, Iran of Amol[50]
  • Samangan institute[51]

Industry[edit]

Amol of primary cities in the production of bricks, tobacco, rice, paper and guns from thousands of years ago. Ultra Quality Rice and Fresh Fruits are major products of Amol Farmers. 65% Industry Mazandaran province in Amol. He is one of the centers meat and dairy products in Asia. Pottery is the material from which the potteryware is made, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made is also called a pottery. Pottery also refers to the art or craft of the potter or the manufacture of pottery.[52]Horticulture, greenhouse the city's other important activities. The company Solico that Including Kalleh dairy and Kalleh meat one of the biggest corporations in Asia located in Amol.[53] Currently, three industrial town is active in county named, Industrial Estate, Amol, Babakan Industrial Estate and Tashbandan.

Major corporations[edit]

Sport[edit]

Wrestling, Volleyball, Handball, Futsal, Basketball, Boxing, Race car, Mountaineering, Bodybuilding, Karate, Taekwondo and Kung Fu Popular sports in Amol. Kalleh Mazandaran is a volleyball club based in Amol, Asian Club Champions 2013, currently competing in the highest tier of the Iranian volleyball classification, the Iranian Volleyball Super League. Kalleh a Most Popular in Iran and Asia. Kalleh Sports Club also has a basketball team named Kalleh Basketball and Young team volleyball named Kalleh Javan.[63]

Wrestling and volleyball[edit]

Amol is the birthplace of many popular Wrestlers and Volleyball athletes. Notabl Athlete from Amol include like, Ghasem Rezaei Olympic gold and bronze medalist and Adel Gholami player in national team.[64]

Stadium[edit]

Host[edit]

Media[edit]

The early in Amol published many newspapers and publications ever since the constitution was a major strength in Mazandaran province. Now, several newspapers and weekly print is active.

Health centers and Hotels[edit]

  • Shomal Hospital
  • Municipality Hotel (Hotel Shahr)
  • Niloofar Hotel
  • Imam Khomeini Hospital
  • Imamreza Hospital
  • 17 Shahrivar Hospital
  • Imam Ali Hospital
  • Peyman Hospital
  • Nik Darman Hospital

Accommodations[edit]

Artificial lake Dehkadeh Talaei Park
Representatives of Ayandeh Bank in Amol
  • In Amol there's famous bank representatives
  • Amol has a large amusement park in the name Dehkadeh talaei park
  • Most restaurants in the province there at Amol
  • The city has two Cinemas, Several central library and Three museums is

Distance[edit]

Away with some of the major cities in Iran:

City Km distance
Sari 69
Tehran 189
Ramsar 181
Mashad 811
Astara 477
Kerman 1158
Ahvaz 1001

Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Official website
  2. ^ Iran Post Website. Postcode.post.ir (2011-07-11). Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  3. ^ a b Amol can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3053090" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  4. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11. 
  5. ^ Amol Government
  6. ^ Amol origin at Hamshahri
  7. ^ Amol History in Eurasia.Travel
  8. ^ ARMY i. Pre-Islamic Iran
  9. ^ Tabaristan History Book, Page 191
  10. ^ Amol in Looklex
  11. ^ Encyclopædia Iranica -Amudarya
  12. ^ Mentioned in the book, page 142
  13. ^ Excavation in Amol old city uncovers pottery, glass
  14. ^ M. Trezel Book, Page 289
  15. ^ Kayhan, Joqrafia III, page. 293-98.
  16. ^ 1982 Amol uprising
  17. ^ Amol City at Toiran Platform in Iran
  18. ^ Arash the Archer The Heroic Archer of Iranian Legend
  19. ^ Mazandaran Provincial Department of Transportation and Terminals
  20. ^ 50th anniversary of Caspian horse's rediscovery
  21. ^ Iran Dams - Haraz
  22. ^ There are Bronze Age architecture at Amol
  23. ^ "Iran Statistics Institute". Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  24. ^ Mazandarani
  25. ^ Iranian Political Geography
  26. ^ Amol exports to seven countries
  27. ^ Rice Research Institute of Iran
  28. ^ Technology Development Center in Amol,
  29. ^ The Festival of Rain
  30. ^ Iran 2 cities to host Jasmine Filmfest
  31. ^ History of architecture Amol
  32. ^ "Mir-Buzurg Tomb". Retrieved September 4, 2006. 
  33. ^ "Big naser Tomb tower". Retrieved September 4, 2006. 
  34. ^ "Tomb tower Mir Haydar". Retrieved September 4, 2006. 
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^ In itto Ab
  37. ^ In itto IAS
  38. ^ "Shrine Taher". Retrieved September 4, 2006. 
  39. ^ In itto Ats
  40. ^ a b "Climate: Amol - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  41. ^ The first helicopter air ambulance in Iran
  42. ^ The second piece Metro Tehran-Amol project gets underway
  43. ^ harazuniversity.ir
  44. ^ موسسه آموزش عالی آمل – صفحه اصلی. Amol.ac.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  45. ^ دانشگاه علمي كاربردي واحد 5 مازندارن – آمل. Uast-amol.ac.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  46. ^ موسسه آموزش عالی سبز. Sabz.ac.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  47. ^ "دانشگاه پیام نور مرکز آمل". Pnuamol.ac.ir. Retrieved 2013-05-19. 
  48. ^ دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی – آموزشکده فنی و حرفه ای سما واحد آیت اله آملی. Amol-samacollege.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  49. ^ amol.mubabol.ac.ir
  50. ^ Institut pasteur d'Iran. Pasteur.ac.ir. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  51. ^ "موسسه آموزش عالی غیرانتفاعی سمنگان". Samangan.ac.ir. Retrieved 2013-05-19. 
  52. ^ Industry Mazandaran
  53. ^ Group bio in Amol
  54. ^ About Us. Dairy.kalleh.com. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  55. ^ شرکت فولادین ذوب آمل – فذا. Fzaco.com. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  56. ^ "كارخانه توليد كاغذ اسناد بهادار". Cbi.ir. Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  57. ^ POLUR. Polurco.com. Retrieved on 2012-03-01.
  58. ^ "Home Nestlé Iran". Nestle.ir. Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  59. ^ "Zarbal". Zarbal.com. Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  60. ^ "Abeskoon Industries Co". Abeskoon.ir. Retrieved 2012-03-01. 
  61. ^ nassajibabakan.ir
  62. ^ Delveseh Fdc
  63. ^ 2013 Asian Men's Club Volleyball Championship
  64. ^ FILA Legends: 2012 Olympian Ghasem Rezaei

External links[edit]