Ansonia spinulifer

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Ansonia spinulifer
Ansonia spinulifer (19924914102).jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Ansonia
Species: A. spinulifer
Binomial name
Ansonia spinulifer
(Mocquard, 1890)

Bufo spinulifer Mocquard, 1890

Ansonia spinulifer, also known as spiny slender toad or Kina Balu stream toad, is a species of true toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Sarawak and Sabah, northern Borneo (Malaysia), and presumably also in Kalimantan on the Indonesian part of the island.[2]


Ansonia spinulifer males measure 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) and females up to 45 mm (1.8 in) in snout–vent length.[3] Tympanum is visible.[4] Dorsum has big spinose warts and usually a light spot between the shoulders. The warts are large and have keratinized projections, hence the species name. Tadpoles have the typical sucker mouth of rheophilous Ansonia tadpoles.[3]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

Its natural habitats are lowland rainforests at elevations of 150–750 m (490–2,460 ft) asl. Adults range widely over the floor and herb stratum in areas of steep terrain, but breeding requires small, clear, rocky-bottomed streams.[1] Males call at night, sitting in low vegetation close to streams.[3] The tadpoles live in torrents; they cling to rocks and feed on lithophytes.[1]

Ansonia spinulifer is common in Sarawak,[3] but it seems not to adapt to habitat modification. It is threatened by habitat loss (deforestation and the associated siltation of streams; plantations).[1]


  1. ^ a b c d Inger, R.; Das, I.; Stuebing, R.; Lakim, M. & Yambun, P. (2004). "Ansonia spinulifer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Ansonia spinulifer (Mocquard, 1890)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d Haas, A.; Hertwig, S.T.; Das, I. (2014). "Ansonia spinulifer. Spiny Slender Toad". Frogs of Borneo. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  4. ^ Matsui, Masafumi; Wichase Khonsue; Jarujin Nabhitabhata (2005). "A new Ansonia from the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)" (PDF). Zoological Science. 22 (7): 809–814. doi:10.2108/zsj.22.809.