From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bufo spinulifer Mocquard, 1890
Ansonia spinulifer, also known as spiny slender toad or Kina Balu stream toad, is a species of true toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found in Sarawak and Sabah, northern Borneo (Malaysia), and presumably also in Kalimantan on the Indonesian part of the island.
Ansonia spinulifer males measure 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) and females up to 45 mm (1.8 in) in snout–vent length. Tympanum is visible. Dorsum has big spinose warts and usually a light spot between the shoulders. The warts are large and have keratinized projections, hence the species name. Tadpoles have the typical sucker mouth of rheophilous Ansonia tadpoles.
Habitat and conservation
Its natural habitats are lowland rainforests at elevations of 150–750 m (490–2,460 ft) asl. Adults range widely over the floor and herb stratum in areas of steep terrain, but breeding requires small, clear, rocky-bottomed streams. Males call at night, sitting in low vegetation close to streams. The tadpoles live in torrents; they cling to rocks and feed on lithophytes.
Ansonia spinulifer is common in Sarawak, but it seems not to adapt to habitat modification. It is threatened by habitat loss (deforestation and the associated siltation of streams; plantations).
- Inger, R.; Das, I.; Stuebing, R.; Lakim, M. & Yambun, P. (2004). "Ansonia spinulifer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Ansonia spinulifer (Mocquard, 1890)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Haas, A.; Hertwig, S.T.; Das, I. (2014). "Ansonia spinulifer. Spiny Slender Toad". Frogs of Borneo. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Matsui, Masafumi; Wichase Khonsue; Jarujin Nabhitabhata (2005). "A new Ansonia from the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)" (PDF). Zoological Science. 22 (7): 809–814. doi:10.2108/zsj.22.809.