From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
||This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. (November 2012)|
|Clockwise from top left: Protesters in Tahrir Square in Cairo; Demonstrators marching through Habib Bourguiba Avenue in Tunis; Political dissidents in Sana'a; Protesters gathering in Pearl Roundabout in Manama; Mass demonstration in Douma; Demonstrators in Bayda.|
The Arab Spring (Arabic: الربيع العربي , al-rabīˁ al-ˁarabī) is the media term for a revolutionary wave of nonviolent and violent demonstrations, violent and nonviolent protests, riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010.
To date, rulers have been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen; civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain and Syria; major protests have broken out in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and Sudan; and minor protests have occurred in Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, and Western Sahara.
There were border clashes in Israel in May 2011, and the protests in Iranian Khuzestan by the Arab minority erupted in 2011 as well. Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan civil war stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has been described as "fallout" from the Arab Spring in North Africa. The sectarian clashes in Lebanon were described as a spillover violence of the Syrian uprising and hence the regional Arab Spring. In September 2012, a wave of social protests by Palestinians demanded lower consumer prices and resignation of the Palestinian Prime Minister Fayyad.
The protests have shared techniques of mostly civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches, and rallies, as well as the effective use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and Internet censorship.
Many Arab Spring demonstrations have been met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks have been answered with violence from protestors in some cases. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been Ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam ("the people want to bring down the regime").
Some observers have drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989 (also known as the "Autumn of Nations") that swept through Eastern Europe and the Second World, in terms of their scale and significance. Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes and the organizational role of internet technology in the Arab revolutions.
The term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which is sometimes referred to as "Springtime of the People", and the Prague Spring in 1968. The first specific use of the term Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign Policy. Marc Lynch, referring to his article in Foreign Policy, writes "Arab Spring—a term I may have unintentionally coined in a January 6, 2011 article". Joseph Massad on al-Jazeera said the term was "part of a US strategy of controlling [the movement's] aims and goals" and directing it towards American-style liberal democracy. Due to the electoral success of Islamist parties following the protests in many Arab countries, the events have also come to be known as "Islamist Spring" or "Islamist Winter".
The Arab spring is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels may have had a hand as well. Numerous factors have led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, political corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables), economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors, such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population. Also, some, like Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek attribute the 2009–2010 Iranian election protests as one of the reasons behind the Arab Spring. The Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 might also have been one of the factors, which influenced the beginning of the Arab Spring. The catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have been the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo. Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor, as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.
In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education, have resulted in an improved Human Development Index in the affected countries. The tension between rising aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests. Many of the Internet-savvy youth of these countries have, increasingly over the years, been viewing autocrats and absolute monarchies as anachronisms. A university professor of Oman, Al-Najma Zidjaly referred to this upheaval as youthquake.
Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations such as Algeria and Libya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions to calm the masses.
The relative success of the democratic Republic of Turkey, with its substantially free and vigorously contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government, created a model (the Turkish model) if not a motivation for protestors in neighbouring states.
Recent history 
The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissident activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years in Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.
Revolts have been occurring in the Arab area since the 1800s but only recently have these revolts been redirected from foreign rulers to the Arab states themselves. The revolution in the summer of 2011 marked the end of the old phase national liberation from colonial rule; now revolutions are inwardly directed at the problems of Arab society.
Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests. The Egyptian labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004. One important demonstration was an attempted workers' strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students. A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the "6 April Committee" of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.
In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile. Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as '9,700 riots and unrests' throughout the country. Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.
In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south-east of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses. The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.
The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, on 17 December, a municipal inspector confiscated his wares. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian revolution.
The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa has become known as the "Arab Spring", and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter", "Arab Awakening" or "Arab Uprisings" even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen, then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations have often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday afternoon prayers. The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region.
As of September 2012[update], governments have been overthrown in four countries. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC took control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution.
During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015, as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014, although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation. Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of four successive governments by King Abdullah. The popular unrest in Kuwait has also resulted in resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah cabinet.
The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention, including the suggestion that some protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of the three laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring. In December 2011, Time magazine named "The Protester" its "Person of the Year". Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel Aranda won the 2011 World Press Photo award for his image of a Yemeni woman holding an injured family member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen on 15 October 2011.
Summary of conflicts by country 
|Country||Date started||Status of protests||Outcome||Death toll||Situation|
|Tunisia||18 December 2010||Government overthrown on 14 January 2011
Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia
|Algeria||29 December 2010||Ended in January 2012||8||Major protests|
|Jordan||14 January 2011||Ongoing||
||3||Protests and governmental changes|
|Oman||17 January 2011||Ended in May 2011||2–6||Protests and governmental changes|
|Egypt||25 January 2011||Government overthrown on 11 February 2011, protests ongoing||
Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak; Mubarak sentenced to life in prison for ordering the killing of protesters
|Yemen||27 January 2011||Government overthrown on 27 February 2012
Overthrow of Ali Abdullah Saleh; Saleh granted immunity from prosecution
|Djibouti||28 January 2011||Ended in March 2011||2||Minor protests|
|Somalia||28 January 2011||Ended in June 2012||2||Minor protests|
|Sudan||30 January 2011||Ongoing||14||Minor protests|
|Iraq||23 December 2012||Ongoing||11||Major protests|
|Bahrain||14 February 2011||Ongoing||
||120||Sustained civil disorder and government changes|
|Libya||17 February 2011||Government overthrown on 23 August 2011||
Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by rebel forces
|Kuwait||19 February 2011||Ongoing||0||Protests and governmental changes|
|Morocco||20 February 2011||Ended in March–April 2012||6||Protests and governmental changes|
|Mauritania||25 February 2011||Ongoing||3||Minor protests|
|Lebanon||27 February 2011||Ended in December 2011||0||Protests and governmental changes|
|Saudi Arabia||11 March 2011||Ongoing||23||Minor protests|
|Syria||15 March 2011||Ongoing||
||94,000+||Ongoing civil war|
|Iranian Khuzestan||15 April 2011||Ended on 18 April 2011||12||Major protests|
|Israeli border areas||15 May 2011||Ended on 5 June 2011||30–40||Major protests|
|Palestine||4 September 2012||Ongoing||0||Minor protests|
|Total death toll:||122,418–127,431+ (International estimate, ongoing)|
Major events 
Following the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid, a series of increasingly violent street demonstrations through December 2010 ultimately led to the ousting of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. The demonstrations were preceded by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, lack of freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom, and poor living conditions. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades, and have resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces against demonstrators. Ben Ali fled into exile in Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power.
A state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government was created following Ben Ali's departure, which included members of Ben Ali's party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), as well as opposition figures from other ministries. However, the five newly appointed non-RCD ministers resigned almost immediately. As a result of continued daily protests, on 27 January Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi reshuffled the government, removing all former RCD members other than himself, and on 6 February the former ruling party was suspended; later, on 9 March, it was dissolved. Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February, and Beji Caid el Sebsi became Prime Minister.
On 23 October, citizens voted in the first post-revolution election to elect representatives to a 217-member constituent assembly that would be responsible for the new constitution. The leading moderate Islamist party, Ennahda, won 37% of the vote, and managed to elect 42 women to the Constituent Assembly.
Inspired by the uprising in Tunisia and prior to his entry as a central figure in Egyptian politics, potential presidential candidate Mohamed ElBaradei warned of a "Tunisia-style explosion" in Egypt.
Protests in Egypt began on 25 January 2011 and ran for 18 days. Beginning around midnight on 28 January, the Egyptian government attempted, somewhat successfully, to eliminate the nation's Internet access, in order to inhibit the protesters' ability use media activism to organize through social media. Later that day, as tens of thousands protested on the streets of Egypt's major cities, President Hosni Mubarak dismissed his government, later appointing a new cabinet. Mubarak also appointed the first Vice President in almost 30 years.
On 10 February, Mubarak ceded all presidential power to Vice President Omar Suleiman, but soon thereafter announced that he would remain as President until the end of his term. However, protests continued the next day, and Suleiman quickly announced that Mubarak had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to the Armed Forces of Egypt. The military immediately dissolved the Egyptian Parliament, suspended the Constitution of Egypt, and promised to lift the nation's thirty-year "emergency laws". A civilian, Essam Sharaf, was appointed as Prime Minister of Egypt on 4 March to widespread approval among Egyptians in Tahrir Square. Violent protests however, continued through the end of 2011 as many Egyptians expressed concern about the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces' perceived sluggishness in instituting reforms and their grip on power.
Hosni Mubarak and his former interior minister Habib al-Adli were convicted to life in prison on the basis of their failure to stop the killings during the first six days of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. His successor, Mohamed Mursi, was sworn in as Egypt's first democratically elected president before judges at the Supreme Constitutional Court. Fresh protests erupted in Egypt on 22 November 2012.
Anti-government protests began in Libya on 15 February 2011. By 18 February the opposition controlled most of Benghazi, the country's second-largest city. The government dispatched elite troops and militia in an attempt to recapture it, but they were repelled. By 20 February, protests had spread to the capital Tripoli, leading to a television address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, who warned the protestors that their country could descend into civil war. The rising death toll, numbering in the thousands, drew international condemnation and resulted in the resignation of several Libyan diplomats, along with calls for the government's dismantlement.
Amidst ongoing efforts by demonstrators and rebel forces to wrest control of Tripoli from the Jamahiriya, the opposition set up an interim government in Benghazi to oppose Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's rule. However, despite initial opposition success, government forces subsequently took back much of the Mediterranean coast.
On 17 March, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted, authorising a no-fly zone over Libya, and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. Two days later, France, the United States and the United Kingdom intervened in Libya with a bombing campaign against pro-Gaddafi forces. A coalition of 27 states from Europe and the Middle East soon joined the intervention. The forces were driven back from the outskirts of Benghazi, and the rebels mounted an offensive, capturing scores of towns across the coast of Libya. The offensive stalled however, and a counter-offensive by the government retook most of the towns, until a stalemate was formed between Brega and Ajdabiya, the former being held by the government and the latter in the hands of the rebels. Focus then shifted to the west of the country, where bitter fighting continued. After a three-month-long battle, a loyalist siege of rebel-held Misrata, the third largest city in Libya, was broken in large part due to coalition air strikes. The four major fronts of combat were generally considered to be the Nafusa Mountains, the Tripolitanian coast, the Gulf of Sidra, and the southern Libyan Desert.
In late August, anti-Gaddafi fighters captured Tripoli, scattering Gaddafi's government and marking the end of his 42 years of power. Many institutions of the government, including Gaddafi and several top government officials, regrouped in Sirte, which Gaddafi declared to be Libya's new capital. Others fled to Sabha, Bani Walid, and remote reaches of the Libyan Desert, or to surrounding countries. However, Sabha fell in late September, Bani Walid was captured after a grueling siege weeks later, and on 20 October, fighters under the aegis of the National Transitional Council seized Sirte, killing Gaddafi in the process.
Protests occurred in many towns in both the north and south of Yemen starting in mid-January 2011. Demonstrators initially protested against governmental proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen, unemployment and economic conditions, and corruption, but their demands soon included a call for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had been facing internal opposition from his closest advisors since 2009.
A major demonstration of over 16,000 protesters took place in Sana'a on 27 January 2011, and soon thereafter human rights activist and politician Tawakel Karman called for a "Day of Rage" on 3 February. According to Xinhua News, organizers were calling for a million protesters. In response to the planned protest, Ali Abdullah Saleh stated that he would not seek another presidential term in 2013. On 3 February, 20,000 protesters demonstrated against the government in Sana'a, others participated in a "Day of Rage" in Aden that was called for by Tawakel Karman, while soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress, and many protestors held a pro-government rally in Sana'a. Concurrent with the resignation of Egyptian president Mubarak, Yemenis again took to the streets protesting President Saleh on 11 February, in what has been dubbed a "Friday of Rage". The protests continued in the days following despite clashes with government advocates. In a "Friday of Anger" held on 18 February, tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in the major cities of Sana'a, Taiz, and Aden. Protests continued over the following months, especially in the three major cities, and briefly intensified in late May into urban warfare between Hashid tribesmen and army defectors allied with the opposition on one side and security forces and militias loyal to Saleh on the other.
After Saleh pretended to accept a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered plan allowing him to cede power in exchange for immunity only to back away before signing three separate times, an assassination attempt on 3 June left him and several other high-ranking Yemeni officials injured by a blast in the presidential compound's mosque. Saleh was evacuated to Saudi Arabia for treatment, but he handed over power to Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, who has largely continued his policies and ordered the arrest of several Yemenis in connection with the attack on the presidential compound. While in Saudi Arabia, Saleh kept hinting that he could return any time and continued to be present in the political sphere through television appearances from Riyadh starting with an address to the Yemeni people on 7 July. On Friday 13 August, a demonstration was announced in Yemen as "Mansouron Friday" in which hundreds of thousands of Yemenis called for Ali Abdullah Saleh to go. The protesters joining the "Mansouron Friday" were calling for establishment of "a new Yemen". On 12 September, Saleh issued a presidential decree while still receiving treatment in Riyadh authorizing Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi to negotiate a deal with the opposition and sign the GCC initiative.
On 23 September, three months since the assassination attempt, Saleh returned to Yemen abruptly, defying all earlier expectations. Pressure on Saleh to sign the GCC initiative eventually led to his signing of it in Riyadh on 23 November, in which Saleh agreed to step down and set the stage for the transfer of power to his vice-president. A presidential election was then held on 21 February 2012, in which Hadi (the only candidate) won 99.8 percent of the vote. Hadi then took the oath of office in Yemen's parliament on 25 February. By 27 February, Saleh had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to his successor, however he is still wielding political clout as the head of the General People's Congress party.
Protests in Syria started on 26 January 2011, when a police officer assaulted a man in public at "Al-Hareeka Street" in old Damascus. The man was arrested right after the assault. As a result, protesters called for the freedom of the arrested man. Soon a "day of rage" was set for 4–5 February, but it was uneventful. On 6 March, the Syrian security forces arrested about 15 children in Daraa, in southern Syria, for writing slogans against the government. Soon protests erupted over the arrest and abuse of the children. Daraa was to be the first city to protest against the Baathist regime, which has been ruling Syria since 1963.
Thousands of protestors gathered in Damascus, Aleppo, al-Hasakah, Daraa, Deir ez-Zor, and Hama on 15 March, with recently released politician Suhair Atassi becoming an unofficial spokesperson for the "Syrian revolution". The next day there were reports of approximately 3000 arrests and a few martyrs, but there are no official figures on the number of deaths. On 18 April 2011, approximately 100,000 protesters sat in the central Square of Homs calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. Protests continued through July 2011, the government responding with harsh security clampdowns and military operations in several districts, especially in the north.
On 31 July, Syrian army tanks stormed several cities, including Hama, Deir Ez-Zour, Abu Kamal, and Herak near Daraa. At least 136 people were killed in the most violent and bloody day since the uprising started.
On 5 August 2011, an anti-government demonstration took place in Syria called "God is with us", during which the Syrian security forces shot the protesters from inside the ambulances, killing 11 people consequently.
By late November – early December, the Baba Amr district of Homs fell under armed Syrian opposition control. By late December, the battles between the government's security forces and the rebel Free Syrian Army intensified in Idlib Governorate. Cities in Idlib and neighborhoods in Homs and Hama began falling into the control of the opposition, during this time military operations in Homs and Hama ceased and stopped.
By mid-January the FSA gained control over Zabadani and Madaya. By late January, the Free Syrian Army launched a full-scale attack against the government in Rif Dimashq, where they took over Saqba, Hamoreya, Harasta and other cities in Damascus's Eastern suburbs. On 29 January, the fourth regiment of the Syrian Army led by the president's brother Maher al-Assad and the Syrian Army dug in at Damascus, and the fighting continued where the FSA was 8 km away from the Republican palace in Damascus. Fighting broke out near Damascus international airport, but by the next day the Syrian government deployed the Republican Guards. The military gained the upper hand and regained all land the opposition gained in Rif Dimashq by early February. On 4 February, the Syrian Army launched a massive bombardment on Homs and committed a huge massacre, killing 500 civilians in one night in Homs. By mid-February, the Syrian army regained control over Zabadani and Madaya. In late February, Army forces entered Baba Amro after a big military operation and heavy fighting. Following this, the opposition forces began losing neighborhoods in Homs to the Syrian Army including al-Inshaat, Jobr, Karm el-Zaytoon and only Homs's old neighborhood's, including Al-Khalidiya, Homs|al-Khalidiya, remained in opposition hands.
By March 2012, the government began military operations against the opposition in Idlib Governorate including the city of Idlib, which fell to the Army by mid-March. Saraqib and Sarmin were also recaptured by the government during the month. Still, at this time, the opposition managed to capture al-Qusayr and Rastan. Heavy fighting also continued in several neighborhoods in Homs and in the city of Hama. The FSA also started to conduct hit-and-run attacks in the pro-Assad Aleppo Governorate, which they were not able to do before. Heavy-to-sporadic fighting was also continuing in the Daraa and Deir ez-Zor Governorates.
By late April 2012, despite a cease-fire being declared in the whole country, sporadic fighting continued, with heavy clashes specifically in Al-Qusayr, where rebel forces controlled the northern part of the city, while the military held the southern part. FSA forces were holding onto Al-Qusayr, due to it being the last major transit point toward the Lebanese border. A rebel commander from the Farouq Brigade in the town reported that 2,000 Farouq fighters had been killed in Homs province since August 2011. At this point, there were talks among the rebels in Al-Qusayr, where many of the retreating rebels from Homs city's Baba Amr district had gone, of Homs being abandoned completely. On 12 June 2012, the UN peacekeeping chief in Syria stated that, in his view, Syria has entered a period of civil war.
The protests in Bahrain started on 14 February, and were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human rights; they were not intended to directly threaten the monarchy.(pp162–3) Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority with being ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause, but the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as the inspiration for the demonstrations.(p65) The protests were largely peaceful until a pre-dawn raid by police on 17 February to clear protestors from Pearl Roundabout in Manama, in which police killed four protesters.(pp73–4) Following the raid, some protesters began to expand their aims to a call for the end of the monarchy. On 18 February, army forces opened fire on protesters when they tried to reenter the roundabout, fatally wounding one.(pp77–8) The following day protesters reoccupied Pearl Roundabout after the government ordered troops and police to withdraw.(p81) Subsequent days saw large demonstrations; on 21 February a pro-government Gathering of National Unity drew tens of thousands,(p86) whilst on 22 February the number of protestors at the Pearl Roundabout peaked at over 150,000 after more than 100,000 protesters marched there and were coming under fire from the Bahraini Military which killed around 20 and injured over 100 protestors.(p88) On 14 March, Saudi-led GCC forces were requested by the government and entered the country,(p132) which the opposition called an "occupation".
King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa declared a three-month state of emergency on 15 March and asked the military to reassert its control as clashes spread across the country.(p139) On 16 March, armed soldiers and riot police cleared the protesters' camp in the Pearl Roundabout, in which 3 policemen and 3 protesters were reportedly killed.(pp133–4) Later, on 18 March, the government tore down Pearl Roundabout monument.(pp150) After the lifting of emergency law on 1 June, several large rallies were staged by the opposition parties. Smaller-scale protests and clashes outside of the capital have continued to occur almost daily. On 9 March 2012, over 100,000 protested in what the opposition called "the biggest march in our history".
The police response has been described as a "brutal" crackdown on peaceful and unarmed protestors, including doctors and bloggers. The police carried out midnight house raids in Shia neighbourhoods, beatings at checkpoints, and denial of medical care in a "campaign of intimidation". More than 2,929 people have been arrested, and at least five people died due to torture while in police custody.(p287,288) On 23 November 2011, the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry released its report on its investigation of the events, finding that the government had systematically tortured prisoners and committed other human rights violations.(pp415–422) It also rejected the government's claims that the protests were instigated by Iran. Although the report found that systematic torture had stopped,(pp417) the Bahraini government has refused entry to several international human rights groups and news organizations, and delayed a visit by a UN inspector. More than 80 people had died since the start of the uprising.
Concurrent incidents 
|This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (February 2013)|
Ethnic scope 
Many analysts, journalists, and involved parties have focused on the protests as being a uniquely Arab phenomenon, and indeed, protests and uprisings have been strongest and most wide-reaching in majority-Arabic-speaking countries, giving rise to the popular moniker of Arab Spring—a play on the so-called 1968 Prague Spring, a democratic awakening in what was then communist Czechoslovakia—to refer to protests, uprisings, and revolutions in those states. However, the international media has also noted the role of minority groups in many of these majority-Arab countries in the revolts.
In Tunisia, the country's small Jewish minority was initially divided by protests against Ben Ali and the government, but eventually came to identify with the protesters in opposition to the regime, according to the group's president, who described Jewish Tunisians as "part of the revolution". While many in the Coptic minority in Egypt had criticized the Mubarak government for its failure to suppress Islamic extremists who attack the Coptic community, the prospect of these extremist groups taking over after its fall caused most Copts to avoid the protests, with then-Pope Shenouda III of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria calling for them to end. The international media pointed to a few Copts who joined the protests.
Because the uprisings and revolutions erupted first in North Africa before spreading to Asian Arab countries, and the Berbers of Libya participated massively in the protests and fighting under Berber identity banners, some Berbers in Libya often see the revolutions of North Africa, west of Egypt, as a reincarnated Berber Spring. In Morocco, through a constitutional reform, passed in a national referendum on 1 July 2011, among other things, Amazigh—a standardized version of the three Berber languages of Morocco—was made official alongside Arabic. During the civil war in Libya, one major theater of combat was the western Nafusa Mountains, where the indigenous Berbers took up arms against the regime while supporting the revolutionary National Transitional Council, which was based in the majority-Arab eastern half of the country.
In northern Sudan, hundreds of non-Arab Darfuris joined anti-government protests, while in Iraq and Syria, the ethnic Kurdish minority has been involved in protests against the government, including the Kurdistan Regional Government in the former's Kurdish-majority north, where at least one attempted self-immolation was reported.
Impact of the Arab Spring 
The regional unrest has not been limited to countries of the Arab world. The early uprisings in North Africa were inspired by the 2009–2010 uprisings in the neighboring state of Iran; these are considered by many commentators to be part of a wave of protest that began in Iran, moved to North Africa, and has since gripped the broader Middle Eastern and North African regions, including additional protests in Iran in 2011–2012.
In the countries of the neighboring South Caucasus—namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia—as well as some countries in Europe, including Albania, Croatia, and Spain; countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso, and Uganda; and countries in other parts of Asia, including the Maldives and the People's Republic of China, demonstrators and opposition figures claiming inspiration from the examples of Tunisia and Egypt have staged their own popular protests. The protests in the Maldives led to the resignation of the President.
The bid for statehood by Palestine at the UN on 23 September 2011 is also regarded as drawing inspiration from the Arab Spring after years of failed peace negotiations with Israel. In the West Bank, schools and government offices were shut to allow demonstrations backing the UN membership bid in Ramallah, Bethlehem, Nablus and Hebron; echoing similar peaceful protests from other Arab countries.
The 15 October 2011 global protests and the Occupy Wall Street movement, which started in the United States and has since spread to Asia and Europe, drew direct inspiration from the Arab Spring, with organizers asking U.S. citizens "Are you ready for a Tahrir moment?" The protesters have committed to using the "revolutionary Arab Spring tactic" to achieve their goals of curbing corporate power and control in Western governments.
International reactions 
Protests in many countries affected by the Arab Spring have attracted widespread support from the international community, while harsh government responses have generally met condemnation. In the case of the Bahraini, Moroccan, and Syrian protests, the international response has been considerably more nuanced.
Some critics have accused Western governments and media, including those of France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, of hypocrisy in the way they have reacted to the Arab Spring.  Noam Chomsky accused the Obama administration of endeavoring to muffle the revolutionary wave and stifle popular democratization efforts in the Middle East.
The International Monetary Fund said oil prices were likely to be higher than originally forecast due to unrest in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), major regions of oil production. Starting in 2010 global investors have significantly reduced their stakes in MENA region holdings since December 2010 resulting in significant declines in region-linked stock indexes.
Kenan Engin, a German-Kurdish political scientist, identified the new uprising in Arab and Islamic countries as the "fifth wave of democracy" because of evident features qualitatively similar to the "third wave of democracy" in Latin America that took place in the 1970s and 1980s.
Social media and the Arab Spring 
The importance of the role of social media on the Arab uprisings has been largely debated. Some say that social media was the main instigator of the uprisings, while others claim that it was merely a tool. Either way, the perception of social media has changed; its role in the uprisings has demonstrated to the world its power. Such information allowed the world to stay updated with the protests and facilitated organizing protests. Nine out of ten Egyptians and Tunisians responded to a poll that they used Facebook to organize protests and spread awareness. Furthermore, 28% of Egyptians and 29% of Tunisians from the same poll said that blocking Facebook greatly hindered and/or disrupted communication.
In revolutions that were previously started on Facebook alone were rapidly quashed by secret police in those countries, so much so that in Egypt a prominent activist group always had "Do not use Facebook or Twitter" on the front and backs of their revolutionary material.
Further evidence that suggests an important role of social media on the uprisings is that social media use more than doubled in Arab countries during the protests. Some research have shown how collective intelligence, dynamics of the crowd in participatory systems such as social media, have the immense power to support a collective action – such as foment a political change.
The graph depicting the data collected by the Dubai School of Government illustrates this sharp increase in Internet usage. The only discrepancy in the trend is with the growth rate in Libya. The report proposes a reasonable argument that explains such discrepancy: many Libyans fled the violence, and therefore moved their social media usage elsewhere.
This influx of social media usage indicates the kind of people that were essentially powering the Arab Spring. Young people fueled the revolts of the various Arab countries by using the new generation's abilities of social networking to release the word of uprising to not only other Arab nations, but nations all over the world. As of 5 April 2011[update], the amount of Facebook users in the Arabian nations surpassed 27.7 million people, indicating that the constant growth of people connected via social media acted as an asset where communication was concerned.
Others have argued that television, in specific the constant live televisions coverage by Al Jazeera English and the sporadic live coverage of BBC News and others, was highly important for the 2011 Egyptian Revolution as the cameras provided exposure and prevented mass violence by the Egyptian government in Tahir Square, as opposed to the lack of such live coverage and the more widespread violence in Libya. The ability of protesters to focus their demonstrations on a single area and be covered live was fundamental in Egypt, but was not possible in Libya, Bahrain and Syria.
Different sorts of media such as image and video were also used to portray the information. Images surfaced that showed current events, which illustrated what was going on within the Arabian nations. The visual media that spread throughout the Internet depicted not only singular moments, but showed the Arabian nations history, and the change that was to come. Through social media, the ideals of rebel groups, as well as the current situations in each country received international attention. It is still debated whether or not social media acted as a primary catalyst for the Arab Spring to gain momentum and become an internationally recognized situation. Regardless, it has still played a crucial role in the movement.
See also 
- Democracy in the Middle East
- Arab Revolt
- List of modern conflicts in North Africa
- List of modern conflicts in the Middle East
- List of ongoing military conflicts
- List of ongoing protests
- Atlantic Revolutions
- Revolutions of 1830
- Revolutions of 1848
- Revolutions of 1917–23
- Revolutions of 1989
- Women in the Arab Spring
- Colour revolution
- Art and politics in post-2011 Tunisia
||This article uses bare URLs for citations. (June 2012)|
- "Tunisia's Ben Ali flees amid unrest". Al Jazeera. 15 January 2011.
- Peterson, Scott (11 February 2011). "Egypt's revolution redefines what's possible in the Arab world". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Spencer, Richard (23 February 2011). "Libya: civil war breaks out as Gaddafi mounts rearguard fight". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Bakri, Nada; Goodman, J. David (28 January 2011). "Thousands in Yemen Protest Against the Government". The New York Times.
- "Protester killed in Bahrain 'Day of Rage'". Reuters. 14 February 2011.
- "'It Will Not Stop': Syrian Uprising Continues Despite Crackdown". Der Spiegel. 28 March 2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Algeria protest draws thousands". CBC News. 12 February 2011. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- McCrummen, Stephanie (25 February 2011). "13 killed in Iraq's 'Day of Rage' protests". The Washington Post (Baghdad). Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Thousands protest in Jordan". Al Jazeera. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Kuwaiti stateless protest for third day". Middle East Online. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Morocco King on holiday as people consider revolt". Afrol. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Sudan opposition leader arrested". Press TV. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Mauritania police crush protest – doctors announce strike". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Vaidya, Sunil (27 February 2011). "One dead, dozen injured as Oman protest turns ugly". Gulf News. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Man dies after setting himself on fire in Saudi Arabia". BBC News. 23 January 2011. Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Manson, Katrina (20 February 2011). "Pro-democracy protests reach Djibouti". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- "New clashes in occupied Western Sahara". Afrol. 27 February 2011. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Donnison, Jon (16 May 2011). "Palestinians emboldened by Arab Spring". Ramallah: BBC News. Retrieved 2012-02-27.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Iran: Arrest Sweeps Target Arab Minority". UNHCR. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- "Mali coup: Arab Spring spreads to Africa". 26 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- Opening Closed Regimes: What Was the Role of Social Media During the Arab Spring?
- The Arab Spring and the impact of social media
- "The Arab Uprising's Cascading Effects". Miller-mccune.com. 23 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- Dainotti et al. (2011). "Analysis of Country-wide Internet Outages Caused by Censorship". ACM.
- "Many wounded as Moroccan police beat protestors". Reuters UK. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Syria's crackdown". The Irish Times. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Bahrain troops lay siege to protesters' camp". CBS News. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Syria clampdown on protests mirrors Egypt's as thugs join attacks". Ahram Online. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Almasmari, Hakim (16 March 2011). "Yemeni government supporters attack protesters, injuring hundreds". The Washington Post (Sanaa). Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Parks, Cara (24 February 2011). "Libya Protests: Gaddafi Militia Opens Fire On Demonstrators". Huffington Post. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Abulof, Uriel (10 March 2011). "What Is the Arab Third Estate?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Cook, Steven A. "How Do You Say 1989 in Arabic?" From the Potomac to the Euphrates. Council on Foreign Relations. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Landler, Mark. "Obama Cites Poland as Model for Arab Shift." The New York Times. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Sullivan, Charles J. "Riding the Revolutionary Wave: America, The Arab Spring and the Autumn of 1989." The Washington Review of Turkish and Eurasian Affairs. Rethink Institute. April 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Open for Business?" The Economist. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Guéhenno, Jean-Marie. "The Arab Spring is 2011, Not 1989." The New York Times. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Similarities and Differences between Eastern Europe in 1989 and the Middle East in 2011". Summarized remarks from a panel discussion sponsored by Middle East Studies @ American University. 30 May 2011. Retreied 25 June 2012.
- Joseph Massad (29 August 2012). "The 'Arab Spring' and other American seasons". al-Jazeera. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Marc Lynch (6 January 2011). "Obama's 'Arab Spring'?".
- Marc Lynch (2012). The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-61039-084-2.
- The Atlantic: Muslim Protests: Has Obama Helped Bring On an Anti-U.S. 'Islamist Spring'?, 23 September 2012, retrieved 30 November 2012
- Foreign Policy: Learning to Live With the Islamist Winter, 19 July 2012, retrieved 30 November 2012
- *The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
- Cockburn, Alexander (18–20 February 2011). "The Tweet and Revolution".
- Korotayev A, Zinkina J (2011). "Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis". Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar 13: 139–165.
- "Demographics of the Arab League, computed by Wolfram Alpha".
- "Ahmadinejad row with Khamenei intensifies". Al Jazeera. 6 May 2011.
- "Kyrgyzstan's Forgotten Revolution". FundForPeace.org. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Reverchon, Adrien; de Tricornot (13 April 2011). "La rente pétrolière ne garantit plus la paix sociale".
- Clemens Breisinger, Olivier Ecker and Perrihan Al-Riffai. 2011. Economics of the Arab awakening Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
- The Other Arab Spring 7 April 2012 Thomas L. Friedman New York Times Op Ed
- Javid, Salman Ansari (27 January 2011). "Arab dictatorships inundated by food price protests". Tehran Times. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Maleki, Ammar (9 February 2011). "Uprisings in the Region and Ignored Indicators".
- franchon, Alain (18 February 2011). "Révolte de la place Tahrir et "consensus de Pékin"".
- Is Turkey the best model for Arab democracy?| by Mark LeVine| aljazeera.com| 19 September 2011
- "Tunisian government faces growing dissent in mining region". NewsLibrary.com. 4 August 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Labor movement drives Egypt, Tunisia protests". The Detroit News. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Ford, Robert (19 December 2007). "An ailing and fragile Algerian regime drifts into 2008". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Chikhi, Lamine (21 January 2011). "Algeria army should quit politics: opposition". Reuters Africa. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Belhimer, Mahmoud (17 March 2010). "Political Crises but Few Alternatives in Algeria". Arab Reform Bulletin (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace). Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- "Mass exodus" from Western Sahara cities. Afrol News, 21 October 2010.
- "Saharawi protests, violence and blackmail Moroccan". On the News. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- "Tunisia suicide protester Mohammed Bouazizi dies". BBC News. 5 January 2011.
- Hardy, Roger (2 February 2011). "Egypt protests: an Arab spring as old order crumbles". BBC. Archived from the original on 22 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Ashley, Jackie (8 March 2011). "The Arab spring requires a defiantly European reply". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "Arab Spring – Who lost Egypt?". The Economist. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 8 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Miller, Aaron. "What Is Palestine's Next Move in the New Middle East?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "The Arab awakening – Spotlight". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "Arab Awakening?". American Thinker. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "The Arab awakening reaches Syria". The Economist.
- Laila Lalami (17 February 2011). "Arab Uprisings: What the February 20 Protests Tell Us About Morocco". The Nation. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "Democracy's hard spring". The Economist. 10 March 2011.
- Fahim, Kareem (22 January 2011). "Slap to a Man's Pride Set Off Tumult in Tunisia". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Noueihed, Lin (19 January 2011). "Peddler's martyrdom launched Tunisia's revolution". Reuters UK. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Raghavan, Sudarsan (27 January 2011). "Inspired by Tunisia and Egypt, Yemenis join in anti-government protests". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Yemenis square off in rival 'Day of Rage' protests work=Arab News". 3 February 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
- "Police in south Yemen disperse 'day of rage' protests". Agence France-Presse. Aden, Yemen: Google News. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Murphy, Brian (13 February 2011). "Bahrain moves to foil anti-government rallies". The Washington Post.
- "Party: Bashir is not standing for re-election". Gulf Times. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- "Iraq PM plans no re-election". Voice of Russia. 5 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Iraq angered protesters call for Maliki resignation". Al Sumaria. 26 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Jordanians stage anti-gov't sit-in in Amman". Xinhua News Agency. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Jordan's king 'appoints new prime minister'". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Jordan king appoints new PM, government quits". Reuters. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- "Kuwait's prime minister resigns after protests". BBC News. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- Mounassar, Hammoud (27 January 2011). "Thousands of Yemenis call on president to quit". ABS-CBN News (Sanaa: Agence France-Presse). Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- "Arab protests attract Nobel interest". News24 (Oslo). 31 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- "TIME's Person of the Year 2011". Time. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Keene, Jamie (10 February 2012). "World Press Photo presents Samuel Aranda with photo of the year award". The Verge. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- Willsher, Kim (27 February 2011). "Tunisian prime minister Mohamed Ghannouchi resigns amid unrest". The Guardian.
- "Tunisia forms national unity government amid unrest". BBC News. 17 January 2011.
- "Tunisia dissolves Ben Ali party". Al Jazeera. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Beaumont, Peter (19 January 2011). "Tunisia set to release political prisoners". The Guardian (London).
- "Tunisia election delayed until 23 October". Reuters. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Report: 338 killed during Tunisia revolution". Associated Press. 5 May 2012.
- "Algeria's state of emergency is officially lifted". Bloomberg. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "Algeria repeals emergency law". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Krause, Flavia (27 January 2011). "Obama Poised to Step Up Criticism of Mubarak If Crackdown Is Intensified". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Blomfield, Adrian (1 February 2011). "King Abdullah II of Jordan sacks government amid street protests". The Telegraph (London).
- Derhally, Massoud A. (17 October 2011). "Jordan's King Appoints PM After Cabinet Resigns". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Jordan's prime minister resigns – Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- "Oman takes measures to address public grievances". Khaleej Times. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- "Oman boosts student benefits". Agence France-Presse. Google News. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Oman shuffles cabinet amid protests". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Oman's ruler dismisses ministers". Al Jazeera. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "Oman's Sultan Granting Lawmaking Powers to Councils". Voice of America. 13 March 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Surk, Barbara. "Police in Oman fire tear gas, rubber bullets at protesters seeking political reform; 1 killed". Canadian Press. Google News. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Deaths in Oman protests". Al Jazeera. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Oman clashes: Two killed during protests in Gulf state". BBC News. 8 February 2011. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Egypt's prime minister quits, new govt soon-army". Forexyard.com. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Egypt's Mubarak Steps Down; Military Takes Over, The Wall Street Journal, 11 February 2011.
- "Egypt's military moves to dissolve parliament, suspend constitution". Haaretz (Reuters). 13 February 2011. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- "Egyptian state security disbanded". Al Jazeera. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "How the mighty have fallen". Ahram. 2 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Kirkpatrick, David D.; Stack, Liam (13 March 2011). "Prosecutors Order Mubarak and Sons Held". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Mubarak to be tried for murder of protesters". Reuters. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "Egypt's state of emergency ends after 31 years". The Daily Telegraph (London). 31 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- "Mohammed Morsi sworn in as Egypt's president". CBS News. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- Yemen MPs resign over violence, Al Jazeera, 23 February 2011.
- "Military restructuring in Yemen: Unravelling a tangled web | Comment Middle East". Commentmideast.com. Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- Kasinof, Laura (21 January 2012). "Yemen Legislators Approve Immunity for the President". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- Ahmed al-Haj (15 June 2012). "Yemen says more than 2,000 killed in uprising". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- "People in Djibouti protest against President Gelleh". Somalilandpress. Archived from the original on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- "Sudan's Bashir will not stand in next election: party official". Agence France-Presse. BBC News. 21 February 2011.
- McDoom, Opheera (31 January 2011). "Sudanese student dies after protests-activists". Reuters. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Sudan Revolts: Protesters Defy Crackdown to Demand Omar al-Bashir Steps down". International Business Times. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "Sudan: Justice Minister Orders to Probe Death of Nyala Protesters". allAfrica.com. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- "Iraqi prime minister won't run for third term". MSNBC. 5 February 2001.
- "Governor of third Iraqi province quits over protests". The Gulf Today. 27 February 2011.
- "protesters killed by the Iraqi forces". NYtimes. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Bahrain's king gives out cash ahead of protests". Reuters. 11 February 2011.
- Bahrain's king to free political prisoners as protests continue, Monsters and Critics, 22 February 2011.
- Bahrain sacks ministers amid protests, Press TV, 26 February 2011.
- "Still rich but no longer so calm". The Economist. 3 December 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- "Bahrain creates panel to study unrest report". Al Jazeera. 27 November 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- Check Casualties of the Bahraini uprising (2011–present) for comprehensive list
- "NATO Withdrawal from Libya". New Europe. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Fighters clash again near Tripoli, several dead". Reuters. 12 November 2011.
- "Kuwait Government resigns". Business Week. 28 November 2011.
- "Kuwait to hold early general election on 2 February". Agence France-Presse. Google News. 18 December 2011.
- "30 wounded in Kuwait protests on Friday". MSN.
- Moroccan king to make reforms with constitutional body, Middle East Online, 22 February 2011;
- Karam, Souhail (20 March 2011). "Thousands in Morocco march for rights". The Independent (London).
- Miller, David (7 June 2011). "Demonstrator's death energizes Moroccan protesters". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- "Mauritania's Bouazizi died today". Dekhnstan.wordpress.com. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Saudi King Boosts Spending, Returns to Country". Voice of America. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "King's order to benefit 180,000 temporary employees". Arab News. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- al-Suhaimy, Abeed (23 March 2011). "Saudi Arabia announces municipal elections". Asharq al-Awsat. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- Abu-Nasr, Donna (28 March 2011). "Saudi Women Inspired by Fall of Mubarak Step Up Equality Demand". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- "Saudis vote in municipal elections, results on Sunday". Oman Observer (Agence France-Presse). 30 September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- Check casualties of the Saudi Arabian protests for comprehensive list
- "Syrian activist Haitham al-Maleh freed under amnesty". BBC News. 8 March 2011. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- "Syria frees 80-year-old former judge in amnesty". Reuters. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- "Unrest continues in Syria". Al Bawaba. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- "Assad attempts to appease minority Kurds". Al Jazeera. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- "2011 Syrian protests: Security forces shoot at mourners". BBC News. 23 April 2011. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- "Syrian cabinet resigns amid unrest". 29 March 2011.
- "Syrian army units 'clash over crackdown'". Al Jazeera. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Yezdani, Ipek (23 August 2011). "Syrian dissidents form national council". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "Syria says 23 dead as Israel opens fire on Golan". France 24 (Agence France-Presse). 6 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "UN's Pillay condemns Israeli 'Naksa' killings". Al Jazeera. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "BBC News – Palestinian PM 'willing to resign' after protests". BBC. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- Spencer, Richard (13 January 2011). "Tunisia riots: Reform or be overthrown, US tells Arab states amid fresh riots". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Ryan, Yasmine. "Tunisia's bitter cyberwar". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Tunisia's Protest Wave: Where It Comes From and What It Means for Ben Ali". Foreign Policy. 3 January 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Borger, Julian (29 December 2010). "Tunisian president vows to punish rioters after worst unrest in a decade". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- Davies, Wyre (15 December 2010). "Tunisia: President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali forced out". BBC News. Archived from the original on 15 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Uprising in Tunisia: People Power topples Ben Ali regime". Indybay. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- "Tunisia announces withdrawal of 3 ministers from unity gov't: TV". People's Daily. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Protests hit Tunisia amid mourning". Al Jazeera. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "Tunisian minister suspends ex-ruling party". Associated Press. MSNBC. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- "Tunisia disbands party of ousted president". USA Today. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- Cunningham, Erin. "Tunisia elections seen as litmus test for Arab Spring". Global Post. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Deeter, Jessie. "Post-Revolution Tunisia attempts painful transition to democracy.". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- Shenker, Jack (20 January 2011). "Warning Egypt could follow Tunisia". The Age (Melbourne).
- "Egypt: AP Confirms Government has Disrupted Internet Service". pomed.org. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "Egypt's Mubarak refuses to quit, hands VP powers". MyWay (Associated Press). Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Bly, Laura (11 February 2011). "Sharm el-Sheikh resort in world spotlight as Egypt's Mubarak flees Cairo". USA Today. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Wan, William; Walker, Portia (4 March 2011). "In Egypt, crowd cheers newly appointed prime minister Essam Sharaf". The Washington Post (Cairo). Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- "EGYPT: Protests continue but activists divided over goals". Los Angeles Times. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Kirkpatrick, Patrick D. (2 June 2012). "New Turmoil in Egypt Greets Mixed Verdict for Mubarak". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "New president: Egypt turns page to new era". CNN Wire Staff (CNN). 30 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- "HIGHLIGHTS – Libyan TV address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi". Reuters. Rabat. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- "Ex Libyan minister forms interim govt-report". LSE. 26 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- Hazelton, Liz (24 February 2011). "Exodus Tripoli: Libyan rebels seize control of third major city as thousands of foreigners battle to flee 'hell'". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- Blomfield, Adrian (6 July 2011). "Rebels wage a secret night-time war on the streets of Tripoli". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Levinson, Charles (20 July 2011). "Rebels Move Toward Gadhafi Stronghold". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- "From voice said to be Gadhafi, a defiant message to his foes". CNN. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "Gaddafi loyalists flee Sebha to Niger". News24. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Rebels to seek return of Gaddafi family from Algeria". Reuters. 29 August 2011.
- "NTC 'captured' Sabha as loyalists flee to Niger". Hürriyet Daily News. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Libya conflict: NTC forces claim Bani Walid victory". BBC News. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Qaddafi dead after Sirte battle, PM confirms". CBS News. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Protests erupt in Yemen, president offers reform". Reuters. 11 January 2011. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Yemen protests: 'People are fed up with corruption'". BBC News. 27 January 2011.
- Bakri, Nada (27 January 2011). "Thousands in Yemen Protest Against the Government". The New York Times.
- Bryan, Angie (28 December 2009). Yemeni tribal leader: for Saleh, Saudi involvement in Sa'ada comes not a moment too soon. WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable:09SANAA2279. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
- "Yemenis urge leader's exit". Al Jazeera. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Yemenis in anti-president protest". The Irish Times. 27 January 2011.
- "New protests erupt in Yemen". Al Jazeera. 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "Yemen reinforces forces around capital amid fear of protest escalation". Xinhua News. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Sudam, Mohamed (2 February 2011). "Yemeni president signals he won't stay beyond 2013". Reuters. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Daragahi, Borzou (3 February 2011). "Yemen, Middle East: Tens of thousands stage rival rallies in Yemen". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Sinjab, Lina (29 January 2011). "Yemen protests: 20,000 call for President Saleh to go". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Opposing protesters rally in Yemen". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Saleh partisans take over Yemen protest site". Oneindia News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Lubin, Gus (11 February 2011). "YEMEN: Protests revived in 'Friday of Rage'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Lubin, Gus (15 February 2011). "Protests rage in Yemen, Bahrain; Iran hard-liners want foes executed". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- Johnston, Cynthia (26 May 2011). "Analysis: Yemen civil war likely without swift Saleh exit". Reuters. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Hatem, Mohammed (23 April 2011). "Yemen's Saleh Agrees to Step Down in Exchange for Immunity, Official Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Yemeni Peace Process Collapses". The Australian. 2 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- "Several Arrested in Yemen for Alleged Role in an Assassination Attempt on Saleh". Fox News Channel. 13 June 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Leyne, Jon (5 June 2011). "Yemen crisis: One-way ticket for Saleh?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- Al Qadhi, Mohammed (8 July 2011). "Saleh appears on Yemen TV, bandaged and burnt". The National. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Massive protests against Yemeni President on "Mansouron" Friday, Alghad Newspaper, 13 August 2011
- "Yemen President Ali Abdullah Saleh returns to Sanaa". BBC News. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- "Yemeni President Saleh signs deal on ceding power". BBC News. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- "February 2012". Rulers.org. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- New Yemen President Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi takes oath
- "Yemen's Saleh formally steps down after 33 years". Agence France-Presse. Google News. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- "'Day of rage' protest urged in Syria". MSNBC. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- ""Day of Rage" planned for Syria; protests scheduled for Feb 4–5". aysor.am. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- "Daraa: The spark that lit the Syrian flame". CNN. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- "Fresh Protests Erupt in Syria". Epoch Times. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "ردّدوا هتافات تدعو لمحاربة الفساد وفتح باب الحريات". Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "الاف السوريين يثورون في قلب دمشق و المحافظات مطالبين بالحرية". Sawt Beirut. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "مظاهرة احتجاج في دمشق تطالب بالحريات". BBC. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "معلومات عن سقوط شهداء في تظاهرات الثلاثاء في سوريا". Sawt Beirut. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Amos, Deborah (15 July 2011). "In Syria, Opposition Stages Massive Protests". NPR. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Wemple, Erik (2 August 2011). "Syria's Ramadan massacre". The Washington Post.
- 11 were killed on a Friday of 'God is with us', Al Arabiya, 5 August 2011
- "Syria in full scale civil war". Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- "Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry". BICI.
- "Bahrain mourners call for end to monarchy". The Guardian (London). 18 February 2011.
- "Day of transformation in Bahrain's 'sacred square'". BBC News. 19 February 2011.
- "Bangladeshis complain of Bahrain rally 'coercion'". BBC News. 17 March 2011.
- "Gulf States Send Force to Bahrain Following Protests". BBC News. 14 March 2011. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Bahrain declares state of emergency after unrest". Reuters. 15 March 2011.
- "Curfew Follows Deadly Bahrain Crackdown – Curfew Enforced, Several Dead and Hundreds Injured as Security Forces Use Tanks and Helicopters To Quash Protest". Al Jazeera English. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 14 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- Farmer, Ben (18 March 2011). "Bahrain authorities destroy Pearl Roundabout". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- Chulov, Martin (1 June 2011). "Bahrain sees new clashes as martial law lifted". The Guardian (London).
- "Thousands rally for reform in Bahrain". Reuters. 11 June 2011.
- "Bahrain live blog 25 Jan 2012". Al Jazeera. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "Heavy police presence blocks Bahrain protests". Al Jazeera. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "Bahrain protesters join anti-government march in Manama". BBC. 9 March 2012.
- "Mass pro-democracy protest rocks Bahrain". Reuters. 9 March 2012.
- Law, Bill (6 April 2011). "Police Brutality Turns Bahrain Into 'Island of Fear'. Crossing Continents (via BBC News). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Press release (30 March 2011). "USA Emphatic Support to Saudi Arabia". Zayd Alisa (via Scoop). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Cockburn, Patrick (18 March 2011). "The Footage That Reveals the Brutal Truth About Bahrain's Crackdown – Seven Protest Leaders Arrested as Video Clip Highlights Regime's Ruthless Grip on Power". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Wahab, Siraj (18 March 2011). "Bahrain Arrests Key Opposition Leaders". Arab News. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Law, Bill (22 March 2011). "Bahrain Rulers Unleash 'Campaign of Intimidation'". Crossing Continents (via BBC News). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- (registration required) "UK – Bahrain Union Suspends General Strike". Financial Times. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Chick, Kristen (1 April 2011). "Bahrain's Calculated Campaign of Intimidation – Bahraini Activists and Locals Describe Midnight Arrests, Disappearances, Beatings at Checkpoints, and Denial of Medical Care – All Aimed at Deflating the Country's Pro-Democracy Protest Movement". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Applying pressure on Bahrain, 9 May 2011, Retrieved 9 May 2011
- "Bahrain protesters join anti-government march in Manama". BBC. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "Report: Doctors targeted in Bahrain". Al Jazeera. 18 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- "Bahrain delays U.N. investigator, limits rights group visits". Reuters. 1 March 2012.
- Gregg Carlstrom (23 April 2012). "Bahrain court delays ruling in activists case". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- Derakhshi, Reza (11 April 2011). "Hardship blunts Iranian interest in Arab protests". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Bryant, Lisa (8 February 2011). "Europe Watches Arab Protests for Lessons". Voice of America. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Kessler, Oren (11 March 2011). "Surge in Arab protests expected in Gulf states". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Dahmani, Frida (19 January 2011). "La justice tunisienne en marche contre Ben Ali, Trabelsi and Co.". Jeune Afrique. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Shefler, Gil (8 March 2011). "Tunisian Jews feel safe under new government". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Sanders, Edmund (3 February 2011). "Egypt's Coptic Christians fear life without Mubarak". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Vu, Michelle (11 February 2011). "Expert: Egypt's Mubarak Resignation Good for Coptic Christians". The Christian Post. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Dehghanpisheh, Babak (6 February 2011). "Christians' Painful Split Over Egypt Protests". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith (28 February 2011). "Libya's Berbers join the revolution in fight to reclaim ancient identity". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Amazigh culture reborn in Libya revolution". english.libya.tv. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Springtime for them too?". The Economist. 13 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "North Africa: Berber Renaissance Gains Momentum". mideastposts.com. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Moroccan Constitutional Reform: Berbers Say the Battle's Just Begun". 6 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "Berbers in the Western Mountains battle Gaddafi's forces". Euronews. 26 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Libya: Gaddafi Rails Against 'No Fly' Attacks and Berbers". allAfrica.com. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- McDoom, Opheera (20 April 2011). "Darfuris hold anti-government protests in Sudan's north". Reuters. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Therolf, Garrett; Sandels, Alexandra (8 April 2011). "Minority Syria Kurds join protest, get concessions". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Syrian Kurds to protest despite granting of citizenship". Monsters & Critics. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Iraq Kurds protest against government in Nawroz celebrations". Alsumaria Iraqi Satellite TV Network. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Mawloud, Saman Mahmoud (11 March 2011). "Iraq Kurds protest, man tries to set himself ablaze". Reuters. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Tawfeeq, Mohammed (18 April 2011). "99 injured in protests in Iraq's Kurdish region". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Karon, Tony (15 February 2011). "Iran, Egypt Caught in the Churning of a Mideast Democracy Wave". Time.
- Khorrami Assl, Nima (8 April 2011). "Arab Spring: Syrian Episode". Foreign Policy Journal. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Black, Ian (14 February 2011). "Arrests and deaths as Egypt protest spreads across Middle East". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Opposition protest against Armenia's government draws 12,000 people in capital". Winnipeg Free Press. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "AZERBAIJAN: More than 200 anti-government protesters arrested". Los Angeles Times. 2 April 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- "Georgia opposition protests enter third day". Al Jazeera. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- "Albania opposition vows protests". Al Jazeera. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- "Internetom kruži poziv na prosvjed za rušenje Vlade: U utorak u 13 sati na Markovom trgu". Jutarnji List. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011. (English translation)
- "Spanish youth rally in Madrid echoes Egypt protests". BBC. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Capital's residents remain fearful after soldiers' mutiny". France24. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- "Why Uganda's Besigye failed to deliver Egypt-style protests after election defeat". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- Smith, David (29 April 2011). "Uganda riots reach capital as anger against President Museveni grows". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Maldives rocked by protests against President Nasheed". BBC News. 1 May 2011.
- Tremlett, Giles (20 February 2011). "Anger on the streets: unrest in Iran, Algeria, Yemen, Morocco and China". The Guardian (London).
- Bowen, Jeremy (22 September 2011). "Barack Obama 'will veto' Palestinian UN bid". BBC. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "#OCCUPYWALLSTREET". Adbusters.org/. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "About Us". Occupywallstreet.org.
- "Nigerians protest at removal of fuel subsidy". BBC. 3 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Poland rallies E Europe's support for 'Arab Spring'". Kuwait Times. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "Syria protests: US and UN condemn armed crackdown". BBC News. 26 March 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "Botswana condemns Libya". Mmegi. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "Iran backs anti-Mubarak protests in Egypt – foreign minister". RIA Novosti. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "Sudanese student dies after protests". Reuters. 31 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
- "Iran and Bahrain exchange threats of embassy closure while Kuwait confirms expulsion of Iranian diplomats". Payvand Iran News. 21 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "The View From Iran of Syria's Protests". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 29 March 2011. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "Qatar, other Gulf states deploy troops to Bahrain". World Tribune. 21 March 2011. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- Cockburn, Patrick (17 April 2011). "So the Arab landscape shifts – and confusion reigns". The Independent (London). Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Sampat, Mike. "Editorial betrays a Western bias". Opinion. Toronto Star. Retrieved 7 Feb 2013.
- Chomsky, Noam (11 May 2011). "The U.S. and Its Allies Will Do Anything to Prevent Democracy in the Arab World". Democracy Now. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- "Oil price rising to dangerous levels for economy". money.canoe.ca/. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- Carbonara, Peter (13 December 2011). "Investing after the Arab Spring: Unfinished business". Fortune.
- Engin, Kenan. "The Arab Spring: The 5.0 Democracy Wave". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Die fünfte Welle der Demokratisierung im islamisch-arabischen Raum?". Migrapolis. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Himelfarb, Sheldon. "Social Media in the Middle East". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Schillinger, Raymond (20 September 2011). "Social Media and the Arab Spring: What Have We Learned?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Salem, Fadi, Mourtada. "Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter". Dubai School of Government. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Participatory Systems: Introduction
- Online Collective Action: Dynamics of the Crowd in Social Media
- Hearns-Branaman, Jesse Owen (2012), 'The Egyptian Revolution did not take place: On live television coverage by Al Jazeera English', International Journal of Baudrillard Studies Vol 9, no 1 
- McCann, Colum (23 December 2011). "YEAR IN PICTURES: Arab Spring". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
Further reading 
- Aa. Vv. (2011), The New Arab Revolt: What Happened, What It Means, and What Comes Next, Council on Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs, Maggio-Giugno.
- Abaza, M. (2011), Revolutionary Moments in Tahrir Square, American University of Cairo, 7 May 2011, www.isa-sociology.org.
- Abdih, Y. (2011), Arab Spring: Closing the Jobs Gap. High youth unemloyment contributes to widespread unrest in the Middle East Finance & Development, in Finance & Development (International Monetary Fund), Giugno.
- Anderson, L (May/June 2011). "Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the Differences between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya". Foreign Affairs 90 (3).
- Beinin, J. – Vairel, F. (2011), (a cura di), Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa, Stanford, CA, Stanford University press.
- Browers, Michaelle (2009). Political Ideology in the Arab World: Accommodation and Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76532-9.
- Cohen, R. (2011), A Republic Called Tahrir, in New York Times.
- Dabashi, Hamid. The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism (Palgrave Macmillan; 2012) 182 pages
- Darwish, Nonie (28 February 2012). The Devil We Don't Know: The Dark Side of Revolutions in the Middle East. John Wiley & Sons.
- Gardner, David (2009). Last Chance: The Middle East in the Balance. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-041-5.
- Gause, F. G. (2011), Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability, in Foreign Affairs, July/August.
- Goldstone, Jack A.; Hazel, John T., Jr. (14 April 2011). "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011: Weakness and Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies". Foreign Affairs.
- Haddad, Bassam; Bsheer, Rosie; Abu-Rish, Ziad, eds. (2012). The Dawn of the Arab Uprisings: End of an Old Order?. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-3325-0.
- Kaye, Dalia Dassa (2008). More Freedom, Less Terror? Liberalization and Political Violence in the Arab World. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-4508-9.
- Lutterbeck, Derek. (2013). Arab Uprisings, Armed Forces, and Civil-Military Relations. Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 39, No. 1 (pp.28-52)
- Ottaway, Marina; Choucair-Vizoso, Julia, ed. (2008). Beyond the Façade: Political Reform in the Arab World. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ISBN 978-0-87003-239-4.
- Pelletreau, Robert H. (24 February 2011). "Transformation in the Middle East: Comparing the Uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Bahrain". Foreign Affairs.
- Phares, Walid (2010). Coming Revolution: Struggle for Freedom in the Middle East. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-7837-9.
- Posusney, Marsha Pripstein; Angrist, Michele Penner, ed. (2005). Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Regimes and Resistance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. ISBN 1-58826-317-7.
- Struble, Jr., Robert (22 August 2011). "Libya and the Doctrine of Justifiable Rebellion". Catholic Lane.
- United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy, and Global Women's Issues. (2012). Women and the Arab Spring: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy, and Global Women's Issues and the Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South and Central Asian Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, November 2, 2011. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.
|Find more about Arab Spring at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Travel information from Wikivoyage|
- Right to Nonviolence
- United States Institute of Peace
- Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter
- Middle East Constitutional Forum
- Live blogs
- Middle East at Al Jazeera
- Middle East protests at BBC News
- Arab and Middle East protests live blog at The Guardian
- Middle East Protests at The Lede blog at The New York Times
- Middle East protests live at Reuters
- Ongoing coverage
- A (Working) Academic Arab Spring Reading List collected peer-reviewed academic articles on the impact of social media on the Arab Spring
- Constitutional Transitions Timeline Collected legal and political changes and short analysis at Middle East Constitutional Forum
- Unrest in the Arab World collected news and commentary at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
- Issue Guide: Arab World Protests, Council on Foreign Relations
- Middle East protests collected news and commentary at The Financial Times
- Unrest in the Arab World collected map, news and commentary at CNN
- Arab and Middle East unrest collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Arab and Middle East unrest – interactive timeline collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Rage on the Streets collected news and commentary at Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Review
- Middle East Unrest collected news and commentary at The National
- Middle East Uprisings collected news and commentary at Showdown in the Middle East website
- The Arab Revolution collected news and commentary at Spiegel.de
- The Middle East in Revolt collected news and commentary at Time
- The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
- Interface journal special issue on the Arab Spring, Interface: a journal for and about social movements, May 2012
- "The Shoe Thrower's index (An index of unrest in the Arab world)". The Economist. 9 February 2011.
- "Interview with Tariq Ramadan: 'We Need to Get a Better Sense of the Trends within Islamism'". Qantara.de. 2 February 2011.
- Sadek J. Al Azm, "The Arab Spring: Why Exactly at this Time?" Reason Papers 33 (Fall 2011)
- Tracking the wave of protests with statistics, RevolutionTrends.org
- Arab uprisings: 10 key moments from BBC Middle East Editor Jeremy Bowden (10 December 2012)