Aripiprazole lauroxil

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Aripiprazole lauroxil
Aripiprazole lauroxil.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Aristada
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular
Identifiers
Synonyms ALKS-9070, ALKS-9072, RDC-3317
CAS Number 1259305-29-7
PubChem (CID) 49831411
ChemSpider 28651973
Chemical and physical data
Formula C36H51Cl2N3O4
Molar mass 660.71384 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image

Aripiprazole lauroxil (USAN) (brand name Aristada) is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic that was developed by Alkermes.[1][2][3] It is an N-acyloxymethyl prodrug of aripiprazole that is administered via intramuscular injection once every four to six weeks for the treatment of schizophrenia.[1][2][3] Aripiprazole lauroxil was approved by the U.S. FDA on 5 October 2015.[4][5]

Medical uses[edit]

Aripiprazole lauroxil extended release injection (Aristada) gained FDA approval in 2015 as a treatment for adults suffering from schizophrenia. Like any long-term acting injectable, Aristada provides assurance to families and health care professionals that patients receive therapeutic medication throughout the day.[6]

Aristada is injected into the arm or buttocks of a patient by a health care professional once every four to six weeks. Aristada is a longer-lasting and injectable version of the schizophrenia pill Abilify, which means that the treatment is available in two doses. Aristada, along with other drugs in its family, are not approved for treatment of elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis.[6][7]

Schizophrenia[edit]

Aristada's approval from the Food and Drug Administration in 2015 was solely for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. The ability to supplement Aristada with oral supplements of Abilify allows for dosing flexibility, which is important for the treatment of schizophrenia, as symptoms and intensity of the disease vary greatly from patient to patient. Additionally, as in concurrence with its sister drug Abilify, Aristada is similar in effect of typical antipsychotic drugs. In the sister drug Abilify, side effects for patients were less frequently extrapyramidal than most antipsychotic drugs.[8]

Dosing[edit]

Aristada can be administered in three dosages of 441 mg, 662 mg and 882 mg. The smallest dosage can be injected in the Deltoid or Gluteus of the patient, while the higher doses must be injected into the Gluteus. Dosages of 441 mg or 662 mg must be repeated once every four weeks, while the dosage of 882 mg must be repeated once every six weeks.[9]

The dosages are determined based on the daily needs of the specific patient, but the timing and injection sites are not based on the needs of the patient and correspond to the amount in each dose.[7]

Early dosing[edit]

Aristada dosing is recommended to occur once every four weeks for doses of 441 mg or 662 mg. The recommended dosing for 882 mg is once every six weeks. These durations between doses should be maintained as much as possible. An Aristada injection should not be given any earlier than at least 14 days after the most recent injection.[8]

Dose Dosing Frequency Site of Injection
441 mg Monthly Deltoid or Gluteal
662 mg Monthly Gluteal
882 mg Every Six Weeks Gluteal

Missed doses[edit]

When a dose is missed, administer the next injection of Aristada as soon as possible. It is important to keep the timing of the administration of the drug somewhat regular, as irregular dosing can produce sometimes unpredictable effects on the patient. If the length of time since an injection exceeds the length of time as listed in the following table, use oral Aripiprazole supplementation with the next Aristada injection as listed:[8]

Dose of Patient's Last Aristada Injection No Oral Supplementation Required Supplement for 7 Days Supplement for 21 Days
Monthly 441 mg 6 weeks or less 6–7 weeks 7 weeks or more
Monthly 662 mg 8 weeks or less 8–12 weeks 12 weeks or more
Monthly 882 mg 8 weeks or less 8–12 weeks 12 weeks or more
882 mg every six weeks 8 weeks or less 8–12 weeks 12 weeks or more

Dose adjustments for CYP450 consideration[edit]

Once stabilized on Aristada, patients taking CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 inhibitors or CYP3A4 inducers should refer to the dosing recommendations below, there are no dosage changes recommended for Aristada if CYP450 modulators are added for less than two weeks.[8]

Concomitant Medicine Dose Changes for Aristada
Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitor Reduce the dosage of Aristada to the next lowest dose, do not lower dose if the patient is already taking the lowest dosage of 441 mg, if tolerated.
Strong CYP2D6 Inhibitor Reduce the dosage of Aristada to the next lowest dose, do not change for those taking 441 mg dose, if tolerated.
Both Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitor

and Strong CYP2D6 Inhibitor

No dosage adjustment necessary for patients taking 441 mg, if tolerated. Avoid use for patients taking the 662 mg or 882 mg dose.
CYP3A4 Inducers No dose adjustment is necessary for patients taking the 662 mg or 882 mg dose. Increase the dosage for patients taking 441 mg to 662 mg.

Overdosing[edit]

The largest known case of ingestion with a known outcome involved a 1260 mg of oral aripiprazole, 42 times the recommended dose. The patient survived and fully recovered.

Common adverse reactions, reported in at least 5% of overdose cases, included vomiting, somnolence, and tremor. Other clinically important signs and symptoms of overdoses include acidosis, aggression, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, coma, confusion, convulsion, depressed level of consciousness, hypertension, hypokalemia, hypotension, lethargy, loss of consciousness, pneumonia aspiration, respiratory arrest, status epilepticus, and tachycardia.[6]

Side effects[edit]

The most common side effect reported by participants in Aristada’s clinical trials was akathisia. According to the drug’s warning label and safety information, the side effects of Aristada usage are large in variety.[9]

The complete list of side effects of Aristada use, according to the official drug label, include: Akathisia, Contraindication Cerebrovascular Adverse Reactions (Including Stroke), Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, Tardive Dyskinesia, metabolic changes, Hyperglycemia/Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemia, weight gain, Orthostatic Hypotension, Leukopenia, Neutropenia, Agranulocytosis, seizures, potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment, difficulties with body temperature regulation, Dysphagia, Injection-Site Reactions (rash, swelling, redness, irritation at the point of injection), Dystonia and pregnancy and nursing complications.[10]

Pharmacology[edit]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Arristada is injected into the intramuscles as an atypical antipsychotic. In one 12-week clinical trial involving 622 participants, the efficacy of extended aripiprazole was demonstrated.[7][10] It’s mechanism of action is unknown in the body. It is said that the drug is likely converted by enzyme-mediated hydrolysis to N-hydroxymethyl aripirazole. The hydroxymethyl aripirazole is thus hydrolysed to aripiprazole. Aristada efficacy could be mediated through a combination of partial agonist activity D2 and 5-HT1A receptors and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors. Since Aristada is a newly approved drug by the FDA many validation of mechanisms of action are still being studied.[10]

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Aripiprazole exhibits high affinity for serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors, dopamine D2, and dopamine D3. Moderate affinity is exhibited for serotonin 5-HT7, alpha1-adrenergic, dopamine D4, histamine H1, and serotonin re-uptake site. No affinity for cholinergic muscarinic receptors have been found.[10]

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Aristada’s activity in the body is due to aripiprazole and also dehydro-aripiprazole. Dehydro-aripirazole has been shown to have affinities for D2 receptors. These D2 receptors have similarities to aripiprazole whereas they represent 30-40% of exposure of aripiprazole in plasma.

After 5 to 6 days of the single intramuscular injection appearance of aripiprazole in circulation, it additionally will be released for 36 days. In the fourth monthly injection, consecutive does of Aristada will reach steady-state. With additional supplements of the oral aripiprazole at a dosage of 21 days during the first dose of Aristada, aripiprazole concentrations within 4 days can reach therapeutic levels.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rohde M, M Rk N, Håkansson AE, Jensen KG, Pedersen H, Dige T, J Rgensen EB, Holm R (2014). "Biological conversion of aripiprazole lauroxil - An N-acyloxymethyl aripiprazole prodrug". Results Pharma Sci. 4: 19–25. doi:10.1016/j.rinphs.2014.04.002. PMC 4050360Freely accessible. PMID 25756003. 
  2. ^ a b Turncliff R, Hard M, Du Y, Risinger R, Ehrich EW (2014). "Relative bioavailability and safety of aripiprazole lauroxil, a novel once-monthly, long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, following deltoid and gluteal administration in adult subjects with schizophrenia". Schizophr. Res. 159 (2-3): 404–10. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2014.09.021. PMID 25266547. 
  3. ^ a b Meltzer HY, Risinger R, Nasrallah HA, Du Y, Zummo J, Corey L, Bose A, Stankovic S, Silverman BL, Ehrich EW (2015). "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aripiprazole lauroxil in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia". J Clin Psychiatry. 76 (8): 1085–90. doi:10.4088/JCP.14m09741. PMID 26114240. 
  4. ^ Citrome L (2015). "Aripiprazole Long-Acting Injectable Formulations for Schizophrenia: Aripiprazole Monohydrate and Aripiprazole Lauroxil". Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 9: 169–86. doi:10.1586/17512433.2016.1121809. PMID 26573020. 
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ a b c "Aristada intramuscular : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD". WebMD. Retrieved 2016-04-18. 
  7. ^ a b c "New Medical Devices". Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 40 (11): 716–774. 2015-11-01. ISSN 1052-1372. PMC 4634342Freely accessible. PMID 26609204. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Aristada". Drugs.com. 
  9. ^ a b "ARISTADA (aripiprazole lauroxil) | Treatment Prescribing Information". aristada.com. Retrieved 2016-04-18. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "DailyMed - ARISTADA- aripiprazole lauroxil injection, suspension, extended release". dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-18. 

External links[edit]