Assyria

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This article is about ancient Assyria. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation).
"Assyrian Empire" redirects here. For the most powerful stage of the ancient Assyrian state, see Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Assyrian Empire
25th century BC–612 BC
 

 

Overview map of the Ancient Near East in the 15th century BC (Middle Assyrian period), showing the core territory of Assyria with its two major cities Assur and Nineveh wedged between Babylonia downstream (to the south-east) and the states of Mitanni and Hatti upstream (to the north-west).
Capital Aššur, Nineveh
Languages Akkadian
Sumerian
Religion Mesopotamian religion
Government Monarchy
King
 •  c. 1975 BC Puzur-Ashur I (first)
 •  1073–1056 BC Ashur-bel-kala (last)
Historical era Mesopotamia
 •  Kikkiya overthrown 25th century BC
 •  Decline of Assyria 612 BC
Today part of  Syria Iraq Turkey

Assyria, a major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East, existed as an independent state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC,[1] until its collapse between 612 BC and 599 BC, spanning the mid to Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.

From the end of the 7th century BC to the mid-7th century AD, it survived as a geo-political entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers, although a number of small Neo-Assyrian states arose at different times during the Parthian and early Sassanid eras, between the mid 2nd century BC and late 3rd century AD, a period which also saw Assyria become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East.[2]

Centered on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia (modern northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and the northwestern fringes of Iran), the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. Making up a substantial part of the greater Mesopotamian "cradle of civilization", which included Sumer, Akkad and much later Babylonia, Assyria was at the height of technological, scientific and cultural achievements for its time. At its peak, the Assyrian empire stretched from Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea to Persia, and from what is now Armenia and Azerbaijan in the Caucasus, to the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt and eastern Libya.

Assyria is named for its original capital, the ancient city of Aššur, which dates to c. 2600 BC, originally one of a number of Akkadian city states in Mesopotamia. In the 25th and 24th centuries BC, Assyrian kings were pastoral leaders. From the late 24th century BC, the Assyrians became subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all the Akkadian Semites and Sumerian-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from c. 2334 BC to 2154 BC.[3]

After its fall, Assyria, apart from a patchwork of small independent Assyrian kingdoms extant between the mid-2nd century BC and late 3rd century AD, largely remained a province and geo-political entity under the successive Median Empire, Achaemenid Empire, Seleucid Empire, Parthian Empire, Roman Empire and Sassanid Empire until the Arab Islamic invasion and conquest of Mesopotamia in the mid-7th century AD, when as Athura-Assuristan it was finally dissolved, after which the remnants of the Assyrian people gradually became an ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious minority in the traditional Assyrian homelands, surviving there to this day as the indigenous people of the region.[4]

Names[edit]

Assyria was also sometimes known as Subartu and Azuhinum prior to the rise of the city state of Ashur after which it was 𒀸𒋗𒁺 𐎹 Aššūrāyu, and after its fall, from 605 BC through to the late 7th century AD variously as Athura and also referenced as Atouria, Ator, Athor[5] according to Strabo, Syria (Greek), Assyria (Latin) and Assuristan. After its dissolution in the mid 7th century AD it remained The Ecclesiastical Province of Ator. The term Assyria can also refer to the geographic region or heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were (and still are) centered. The modern Eastern Aramaic speaking Assyrian Christian ethnic minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, south east Turkey and north west Iran are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians (see Assyrian continuity).[6][7]

Pre-history[edit]

In prehistoric times, the region that was to become known as Assyria (and Subartu) was home to a Neanderthal culture such as has been found at the Shanidar Cave. The earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria were the Jarmo culture c. 7100 BC and Tell Hassuna, the centre of the Hassuna culture, c. 6000 BC.

The Semitic Akkadian-speaking people (the earliest historically attested Semitic speaking people[8]) who would eventually found Assyria appear to have entered Mesopotamia at some point during the latter 4th millennium BC (c. 3500–3000 BC),[9] eventually intermingling with the earlier Sumerian-speaking population, with Akkadian Semitic names appearing in written record from as early as the 29th century BCE.[8][10]

During the 3rd millennium BC, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Semitic Akkadians throughout Mesopotamia, which included widespread bilingualism.[11] The influence of Sumerian (a language isolate, i.e. not related to any other recorded language, living or dead) on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence.[11] This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the 3rd millennium BC as a sprachbund.[11]

Letter sent by the high-priest Lu'enna to the king of Lagash (maybe Urukagina), informing him of his son's death in combat, c. 2400 BC, found in Girsu.

Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere after the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate),[12] although Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD, as did use of the Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform script.

The cities of Aššur and Nineveh, together with a number of other towns and cities, existed since at least before the middle of the 3rd millennium BC (c. 2600 BC), although they appear to have been Sumerian-ruled administrative centres at this time, rather than independent states.

Greco-Roman classical writers such as Julius Africanus, Velleius Paterculus and Diodorus Siculus dated the founding of Assyria to various dates between 2284 BC and 2057 BC,[13][14][15] listing the earliest king as Belus or Ninus.

According to the Biblical Table of Nations which appears to have been largely compiled between the 7th and 5th centuries BC,[16] the city of Aššur was allegedly founded by a biblical Ashur the son of Shem (neither of whom has been historically attested to have existed in extra-Biblical sources), who was deified by later generations as the city's patron god.

However, the far older and more numerous written records of the Assyrians and Mesopotamians themselves (Akkadian-Assyrian annals dating from c. 25th century BC) make no mention whatsoever of the historically much later appearing Judeo-Christian figures of Shem and Ashur, and Assyrian tradition itself lists the first king of Assyria as the 25th century BC Tudiya, and an early urbanised Assyrian king named Ushpia (c. 2050 BC) as having dedicated the first temple to the god Ashur in the city in the mid-21st century BC. It is highly likely that the city was named in honour of its patron Assyrian god with the same name.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Early Period[edit]

Early Period
circa 2600 BC–circa 2025 BC
Capital Aššur
Languages Akkadian language
Religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Government Monarchy
King
 •  circa 2450 BC Tudiya (first)
 •  circa 2025 BC Ilu-shuma (last)
Historical era Bronze Age
 •  Established circa 2600 BC
 •  Disestablished circa 2025 BC
Today part of  Iraq

The city of Aššur, together with a number of other Assyrian cities, seem to have been established by 2600 BC. However it is likely that they were initially Sumerian dominated administrative centres. In the late 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash, then the dominant Sumerian ruler in Mesopotamia, mentions "smiting Subartu" (Subartu being the Sumerian name for Assyria). Similarly, in c. the early 25th century BC, Lugal-Anne-Mundu the king of the Sumerian state of Adab lists Subartu as paying tribute to him.

Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria, little is positively known. In the Assyrian King List, the earliest king recorded was Tudiya. According to Georges Roux he would have lived in the latter half of the 25th century BC, i.e. somewhere between 2450 BC and 2400 BC. In archaeological reports from Ebla, it appeared that Tudiya's activities were confirmed with the discovery of a tablet where he concluded a treaty for the operation of a karum (trading colony) in Eblaite territory, with "king" Ibrium of Ebla (who is now known to have been the vizier of Ebla for king Ishar-Damu). This entire reading is now questionable, as several scholars have more recently argued that the treaty in question may not have been with king Tudiya of Assyria, but rather with the unnamed king of an uncertain location called "Abarsal".

Tudiya was succeeded on the list by Adamu and then a further thirteen rulers (Yangi, Shuhlamu, Harharu, Mandaru, Imshu, Harshu, Didanu, Hanu, Zuabu, Nuabu, Abazu, Belu and Azarah). Nothing concrete is yet known about these names, although it has been noted that a much later Babylonian tablet listing the ancestral lineage of Hammurabi, the Amorite king of Babylon, seems to have copied the same names from Tudiya through Nuabu, though in a heavily corrupted form.

The earliest kings, such as Tudiya, who are recorded as kings who lived in tents, were independent semi-nomadic pastoralist rulers.[17] These kings at some point became fully urbanised and founded the city state of Ashur in the mid 21st century BC.[18]

Akkadian Empire and Neo-Sumerian Empires[edit]

During the Akkadian Empire (2334–2154 BC), the Assyrians, like all the Mesopotamian Semites (and also the Sumerians), became subject to the dynasty of the city state of Akkad, centered in central Mesopotamia. The Akkadian Empire founded by Sargon the Great claimed to encompass the surrounding "four quarters". The region of Assyria, north of the seat of the empire in central Mesopotamia, had also been known as Subartu by the Sumerians, and the name Azuhinum in Akkadian records also seems to refer to Assyria proper.

Assyrian rulers were subject to Sargon and his successors, and the city of Ashur became a regional administrative center of the Empire, implicated by the Nuzi tablets.[19] During this period, the Akkadian-speaking Semites of Mesopotamia came to rule an empire encompassing not only Mesopotamia itself but large swathes of Asia Minor, ancient Iran, Elam, the Arabian Peninsula, Canaan and Syria.

Assyria seems to have already been firmly involved in trade in Asia Minor by this time; the earliest known reference to Anatolian karums in Hatti was found on later cuneiform tablets describing the early period of the Akkadian Empire (c. 2350 BC). On those tablets, Assyrian traders in Burushanda implored the help of their ruler, Sargon the Great, and this appellation continued to exist throughout the Assyrian Empire for about 1,700 years. The name "Hatti" itself even appears in later accounts of his grandson, Naram-Sin, campaigning in Anatolia.

Assyrian and Akkadian traders spread the use of writing in the form of the Mesopotamian cuneiform script to Asia Minor and The Levant (modern Syria and Lebanon). However, towards the end of the reign of Sargon the Great, the Assyrian faction rebelled against him; "the tribes of Assyria of the upper country—in their turn attacked, but they submitted to his arms, and Sargon settled their habitations, and he smote them grievously".[20]

The Akkadian Empire was destroyed by economic decline and internal civil war, followed by attacks from barbarian Gutian people in 2154 BC. The rulers of Assyria during the period between c. 2154 BC and 2112 BC once again became fully independent, as the Gutians are only known to have administered southern Mesopotamia. However, the king list is the only information from Assyria for this period.

Most of Assyria briefly became part of the Neo-Sumerian Empire (or 3rd dynasty of Ur) founded in c. 2112 BC. Sumerian domination extended as far as the city of Ashur, but appears not to have reached Nineveh and the far north of Assyria. One local ruler (shakkanakku) named Zāriqum (who does not appear on any Assyrian king list) is listed as paying tribute to Amar-Sin of Ur. Ashur's rulers appear to have remained largely under Sumerian domination until the mid-21st century BC (c. 2050 BC); the king list names Assyrian rulers for this period and several are known from other references to have also borne the title of shakkanakka or vassal governors for the neo-Sumerians.

Old Assyrian Empire[edit]

Main article: Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire

circa 2025 BCE–circa 1393 BCE
 

Capital Aššur
Languages Akkadian language
Religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Government Monarchy
King
 •  circa 2025 BCE Erishum I (first)
 •  circa 1393 BCE Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (last)
Historical era Bronze Age
 •  Established circa 2025 BCE
 •  Disestablished circa 1393 BCE
Today part of  Iraq
Assyria archers

The first written inscriptions by 'urbanised' Assyrian kings appear in the mid-21st century BC, after they had shrugged off Sumerian domination. The land of Assyria as a whole then consisted of a number of city states and small Semitic kingdoms, some of which were initially independent of Assyria. The foundation of the first major temple in the city of Ashur was traditionally ascribed to king Ushpia who reigned c. 2050 BC, possibly a contemporary of Ishbi-Erra of Isin and Naplanum of Larsa.[21] He was reputedly succeeded by kings named Apiashal, Sulili, Kikkiya and Akiya (died c. 2026 BC), of whom little is known, apart from much later mentions of Kikkiya conducting fortifications on the city walls, and building work on temples in Ashur.

The Amorites had overrun the kingdoms of southern Mesopotamia and the Levant between the 21st and 19th centuries BC, but had hitherto been successfully repelled by the Assyrian kings during this period. However, Erishum II (c. 1818–1809 BC) was to be the last king of the dynasty of Puzur-Ashur I, founded c. 2025 BC. In 1808 BC he was deposed and the throne of Assyria was usurped by Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1809 – 1776 BC) in the expansion of Amorite tribes from the Khabur River delta in the north eastern Levant.

After securing its borders on all sides, Assyria entered into a quiet and peaceful period in its history which lasted for two and a half centuries, remaining untroubled by the emergence of the Hittite Empire and Hurri-Mitanni Empire, both to the north of Assyria, and by the Kassites who had seized Babylonia from its Amorite founders.

The emergence of the Mitanni Empire in the 16th century BC did eventually lead to a short period of sporadic Mitannian-Hurrian domination in the latter half of the 15th century. The Indo-European-speaking Mitannians are thought to have conquered and formed the ruling class over the indigenous Hurrians of eastern Anatolia. The Hurrians spoke a language isolate, i.e. neither Semitic nor Indo-European.

Middle Assyrian Empire[edit]

Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire

1392 BC–934 BC
Map of the Ancient Near East during the Amarna Period (14th century BC), showing the great powers of the day: Egypt (orange), Hatti (blue), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (black), Assyria (yellow), and Mitanni (brown). The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in purple.
Capital Aššur
Languages Akkadian
Religion Mesopotamian religion
Government Monarchy
King
 •  1365–1330 BC Ashur-uballit I (first)
 •  967–934 BC Tiglath-Pileser II (last)
Historical era Mesopotamia
 •  Independence from Mitanni 1392 BC
 •  Reign of Ashur-dan II 934 BC

Society and Law in the Middle Assyrian Period[edit]

Assyrian troops return after victory.

The Middle Assyrian kingdom was well organized, and in the firm control of the king, who also functioned as the High Priest of Ashur, the state god. He had certain obligations to fulfill in the cult, and had to provide resources for the temples. The priesthood became a major power in Assyrian society. Conflicts with the priesthood are thought to have been behind the murder of king Tukulti-Ninurta I.

The Middle Assyrian Period was marked by the long wars fought that helped build Assyria into a warrior society. The king depended on both the citizen class and priests in his capital, and the landed nobility who supplied the horses needed by Assyria's military. Documents and letters illustrate the importance of the latter to Assyrian society.

Assyria needed less artificial irrigation than Babylonia, and horse-breeding was extensive. Portions of elaborate texts about the care and training of them have been found. Trade was carried out in all directions. The mountain country to the north and west of Assyria was a major source of metal ore, as well as lumber. Economic factors were a common casus belli.

Assyrians skinning or flaying their prisoners alive

All free male citizens were obliged to serve in the army for a time, a system which was called the ilku-service. A legal code was produced during the 14th and 13th centuries which, among other things, clearly shows that the social position of women in Assyria was lower than that of neighbouring societies. Men were permitted to divorce their wives with no compensation paid to the latter. If a woman committed adultery, she could be beaten or put to death. It's not certain if these laws were seriously enforced, but they appear to be a backlash against some older documents that granted things like equal compensation to both partners in divorce.

The women of the king's harem and their servants were also subject to harsh punishments, such as beatings, mutilation, and death. Assyria, in general, had much harsher laws than most of the region. Executions were not uncommon, nor were whippings followed by forced labour. Some offenses allowed the accused a trial under torture/duress. One tablet that covers property rights has brutal penalties for violators. A creditor could force debtors to work for him, but not sell them.

Assyria was open to homosexual relationships between men.[22] In the Middle Assyrian Laws, sex crimes were punished identically whether they were homosexual or heterosexual.[22][23] An individual with a higher social class faced no punishment for penetrating someone of a lower social class, or whose gender roles were not considered solidly masculine. However, if homosexual relationships between social equals, or those where a social better was submissive or penetrated, were treated as rape. Omen texts referred to male homosexual acts without moral judgement or affirmation.[23] One historian notes that the laws would not be so detailed "if homosexual behavior were not a familiar aspect of daily life of early Mesopotamia."[24]

Assyrian expansion and empire, 1392–1056 BC[edit]

Assyria had difficulties with keeping the trade routes open. Unlike the situation in the Old Assyrian period, the Anatolian metal trade now was effectively dominated by the empires of the Hittites and the Mitanni-Hurrians. These people now controlled the Mediterranean ports, while the Kassites controlled the river route south to the Persian Gulf. The main Assyrian cities of the middle period were Ashur, Kalhu (Nimrud) and Nineveh, all situated in the Tigris River valley, together with Arrapha (modern Kirkuk), Gasur, Ekallatum and Arbela (modern Irbil).

The Aramaeans of northern and central Syria were the next targets of the Assyrian king, who made his way as far as the sources of the Tigris.[25] The control of the high road to the Mediterranean was secured by the possession of the Hittite town of Pitru[26] at the junction between the Euphrates and Sajur; thence he proceeded to conquer the Canaanite/Phoenician city-states of Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Simyra, Berytus (Beirut), Aradus and finally Arvad where he embarked onto a ship to sail the Mediterranean, on which he killed a nahiru or "sea-horse" (which A. Leo Oppenheim translates as a narwhal) in the sea.[25] He was passionately fond of hunting and was also a great builder. The general view is that the restoration of the temple of the gods Ashur and Hadad at the Assyrian capital of Assur (Ashur) was one of his initiatives.[25] He also invaded and defeated Babylon twice, assuming the old title "King of Sumer and Akkad", forcing tribute from Babylon, although he did not actually depose the actual king in Babylonia, where the old Kassite Dynasty had now succumbed to an Elamite one.

Late in his reign, the Middle Assyrian Empire erupted into civil war, when a rebellion was orchestrated by Tukulti-Mer, a pretender to the throne of Assyria. Ashur-bel-kala eventually crushed Tukulti-Mer and his allies, however the civil war in Assyria had allowed hordes of Arameans to take advantage of the situation, and press in on Assyrian controlled territory from the west. Ashur-bel-kala counterattacked them, and conquered as far as Carchemish and the source of the Khabur river, but by the end of his reign many of the areas of Syria and Phoenicia-Canaan to the west of these regions as far as the Mediterranean, previously under firm Assyrian control, were eventually lost to the Assyrian Empire.

Assyria during the Bronze Age Collapse, 1055–936 BC[edit]

The Bronze Age Collapse from 1200 BC to 900 BC was a dark age for the entire Near East, North Africa, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Mediterranean and Balkan regions, with great upheavals and mass movements of people.

Assyria and its empire were not unduly affected by these tumultuous events for some 150 years, perhaps the only ancient power that was not. However, upon the death of Ashur-bel-kala in 1056 BC, Assyria went into a comparative decline for the next 100 or so years. The empire shrank significantly, and by 1020 BC Assyria appears to have controlled only areas close to Assyria itself, essential to keeping trade routes open in eastern Aramea, south eastern Asia Minor, central Mesopotamia and north western Iran.

New West Semitic peoples such as the Arameans, Chaldeans and Suteans moved into areas to the west and south of Assyria, including overrunning much of Babylonia to the south, Indo-European speaking Iranic peoples such as the Medes, Persians and Parthians moved into the lands to the east of Assyria, displacing the native Gutians and pressuring Elam and Mannea (which were all ancient non Indo-European civilisations of Iran), and to the north the Phrygians overran the Hittites, a new Hurrian state named Urartu arose in the Caucasus, and Cimmerians, Colchians (Georgians) and Scythians around the Black Sea and Caucasus. Egypt was divided and in disarray, and Israelites were battling with other fellow Semitic Canaanite peoples such as the Amalekites, Moabites, Edomites and Ammonites and the non-Semitic Peleset/Philistines (who have been conjectured to be one of the so-called Sea Peoples)[27][28] for the control of southern Canaan.

Assyrian horsemen pursue defeated Arabs.

Despite the apparent weakness of Assyria in comparison to its former might, at heart it in fact remained a solid, well defended nation whose warriors were the best in the world.[29] Assyria, with its stable monarchy, powerful army and secure borders was in a stronger position during this time than potential rivals such as Egypt, Babylonia, Elam, Phrygia, Urartu, Persia and Media.[30] Kings such as Ashur-bel-kala, Eriba-Adad II, Ashur-rabi II, Ashurnasirpal I, Tiglath-Pileser II and Ashur-Dan II successfully defended Assyria's borders and upheld stability during this tumultuous time.

Assyrian kings during this period appear to have adopted a policy of maintaining and defending a compact, secure nation and satellite colonies immediately surrounding it, and interspersed this with sporadic punitive raids and invasions of neighbouring territories when the need arose.

Neo-Assyrian Empire[edit]

Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire

 

 

 

911 BC–605 BC
 

 

Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions.
Capital Aššur 911 BC
Kalhu 879 BC
Dur-Sharrukin 706 BC
Nineveh 705 BC
Harran 612 BC
Languages Akkadian, Aramaic, Sumerian
Religion Henotheism
Government Monarchy
King
 •  911–891 BC Adad-nirari II (first)
 •  612–608 BC Ashur-uballit II (last)
Historical era Iron Age
 •  Reign of Adad-nirari II 911 BC
 •  Battle of Nineveh 612 BC
 •  Fall of Harran 605 BC
Today part of  Iraq
 Syria
 Turkey
 Egypt
 Saudi Arabia
 Jordan
 Iran
 Kuwait
 Lebanon
 Israel
 Cyprus
 Armenia

The Neo-Assyrian Empire is usually considered to have begun with the accession of Adad-nirari II, in 911 BC, lasting until the fall of Nineveh at the hands of the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes/Persians, Scythians and Cimmerians in 612 BC.[31]

Expansion, 911–627 BC[edit]

When the ancient Dark Ages (which for Assyria lasted from 1050 to 936 BC) finally lifted, the world had changed dramatically. Ancient kingdoms such as Assyria, Babylonia, Elam and Egypt still endured, the Hittites did also, in the form of smaller Neo-Hittite states. A number of new states had arisen during the tumultuous time between 1200 and 936 BC, such as; Persia, Media, Parthia, Mannea, Israel, Urartu, Phrygia, Lydia, the Aramean and Phoenician states of the Levant, Doric Greece, Putria (Libya), Colchia, Tabal, Nubia/Kush. In addition, other nations and peoples; such as Chaldea, Judah, Scythia, Cimmeria, Samaria, Ethiopia, Nabatea, Armenia and the Arabs were to emerge in the following centuries.

However, the ancient state of Assyria would once more rise to prominence, and Assyria was to meet and defeat these new peoples, together with old foes, over the coming three centuries.[17]

Tiring of Egyptian interference in the Assyrian Empire, Esarhaddon decided to conquer Egypt. In 671 BC crossed the Sinai Desert, and invaded and took Egypt with surprising ease and speed, driving its foreign Nubian/Kushite and Ethiopian rulers out and destroying the Kushite Empire in the process. Esarhaddon declared himself "king of Egypt, Libya, and Kush", and returned with rich booty from the cities of the delta; he erected a victory stele at this time, and paraded the captive Nubian Prince Ushankhuru, the son of Taharqa in Nineveh. Esarhaddon stationed a small army in northern Egypt and describes how; "All Ethiopians (read Nubians/Kushites) I deported from Egypt, leaving not one left to do homage to me".[69] He installed native Egyptian princes throughout the land to rule on his behalf.[70]

Under Ashurbanipal (669–627 BC), Assyrian domination spanned from the Caucasus Mountains (modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan) in the north to Nubia, Egypt, Libya and Arabia in the south, and from the East Mediterranean, Cyprus and Antioch in the west to Persia and the Caspian Sea in the east.

Ashurbanipal's brutal campaign against Elam in 647 BCE is recorded in this relief.

Assyria conquered the 25th dynasty Egypt (expelling its Nubian/Kushite dynasty) as well as Babylonia, Chaldea, Elam, Media, Persia, Urartu (Armenia), Phoenicia, Aramea/Syria, Phrygia, the Neo-Hittite States, the Hurrian lands, Arabia, Gutium, Israel, Judah, Samarra, Moab, Edom, Corduene, Cilicia, Mannea and parts of Ancient Greece (such as Cyprus), and defeated and/or exacted tribute from Scythia, Cimmeria, Lydia, Nubia, Ethiopia and others.

At its height, the Empire encompassed the whole of the modern nations of Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Palestine and Cyprus, together with large swathes of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Libya, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan.

Assyria now appeared stronger than ever. However, the long struggles pacifying the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Arameans and Elamites, the exertions undertaken in keeping the Medes, Scythians, Persians, Urartians and Cimmerians subjugated, and the constant campaigning over three centuries to control and expand its vast empire in all directions, had left Assyria materially, economically and physically exhausted.

It had been drained of wealth and manpower; the devastated provinces could yield nothing to supply the needs of the imperial exchequer, it was difficult to find sufficient troops to garrison and effectively control the huge empire, and after the death of Ashurbanipal severe civil unrest broke out in Assyria itself, and the empire began to unravel.

Downfall, 626–605 BC[edit]

The Assyrian Empire was severely crippled following the death of Ashurbanipal in 627 BC—the nation and its empire descending into a prolonged and brutal series of civil wars involving three rival kings, Ashur-etil-ilani, Sin-shumu-lishir and Sin-shar-ishkun. Egypt's 26th Dynasty, which had been installed by the Assyrians as vassals, quietly detached itself from Assyria, although it was careful to retain friendly relations.

The Scythians and Cimmerians took advantage of the bitter fighting among the Assyrians to raid Assyrian colonies, with hordes of horse borne marauders ravaging parts of Asia Minor and the Caucasus, where the vassal kings of Urartu and Lydia begged their Assyrian overlord for help in vain. They also raided the Levant, Israel and Judah (where Ashkelon was sacked by the Scythians) and all the way into Egypt whose coasts were ravaged and looted with impunity.

The Iranic peoples (the Medes, Persians and Parthians), aided by the previous Assyrian destruction of the hitherto dominant Elamites of Ancient Iran, also took advantage of the upheavals in Assyria to coalesce into a powerful Median dominated force which destroyed the pre-Iranic Assyrian vassal kingdom of Mannea and absorbed the remnants of the pre-Iranic Elamites of southern Iran, and the equally pre-Iranic Gutians, Manneans and Kassites of the Zagros Mountains and the Caspian Sea.

The nation at this time was in a severely depleted state, ravaged by over a decade of internal civil war, disunity, instability, economic crisis and battle fatigue, and the forces ranged against it from all sides were to prove too much for the severely weakened Assyrians.

Cyaxares (technically a vassal of Assyria), in an alliance with the Scythians and Cimmerians, launched a surprise attack on a civil war bleaguered Assyria in 615 BC, sacking Kalhu (the Biblical Calah/Nimrud) and taking Arrapkha (modern Kirkuk) and Gasur. Nabopolassar, still pinned down in southern Mesopotamia, was completely uninvolved in this major breakthrough against Assyria.

Despite the sorely depleted state of Assyria, bitter fighting ensued; throughout 614 BC the alliance of powers continued to gradually make hard fought inroads into Assyria itself, however in 613 BC the Assyrians somehow rallied against the odds and scored a number of counterattacking victories over the Medes-Persians, Babylonians-Chaldeans and Scythians-Cimmerians.

This led to the coalition of forces ranged against it to unite and launch a massive combined attack in 612 BC, finally besieging and entering Nineveh in late 612 BC, with Sin-shar-ishkun being slain in the bitter street by street fighting. Despite the loss of almost all of its major cities, and in the face of overwhelming odds, Assyrian resistance continued.

Sections of the Assyrian army retreated to the western corner of Assyria after the fall of Harran and Carchemish, and a number of Assyrian imperial records survive between 604 BC and 599 BC in and around the Assyrian city of Dur-Katlimmu in what is today north eastern Syria, and so it is possible that remnants of the Assyrian administration and army still continued to hold out in the region for a few years.[32]

Certainly by 599 BC at the very latest, Assyria had been destroyed as an independent political entity, although it was to launch major rebellions against the Achaemenid Empire in 546 BC and 520 BC, and remained a geo-political region, ethnic entity and colonised province until the late 7th century AD, with small Assyrian states emerging in the region between the 2nd century BC and 4th century AD.

Assyria After The Empire[edit]

Achaemenid Assyria, Osroene, Adiabene, Asōristān, Athura and Hatra[edit]

Main articles: Osroene, Adiabene and Asōristān

Assyria was initially ruled by the short lived Median Empire (605–549 BC) after its fall. In a twist of fate, Nabonidus the last king of Babylon (together with his son and co-regent Belshazzar) was himself an Assyrian from Harran. He had overthrown the short lived Chaldean dynasty in Babylonia, after which the Chaldeans disappeared from history, being fully absorbed into the native population of Babylonia. However, apart from plans to dedicate religious temples in the city of Harran, Nabonidus showed little interest in rebuilding Assyria. Nineveh and Kalhu remained in ruins with only small numbers of Assyrians living within them, conversely a number of towns and cities such as Arrapkha, Guzana, Nohadra and Harran remained intact, and Assur and Arbela (Irbil) were not completely destroyed, as is attested by their later revival. However, Assyria spent much of this short period in a degree of devastation following its fall.

Achaemenid Assyria (549–330 BC)[edit]

Main article: Achaemenid Assyria

After the Medes were overthrown by the Persians as the dominant force in Ancient Iran, Assyria was ruled by the Persian Achaemenid Empire (as Athura) from 549 BC to 330 BC (see Achaemenid Assyria). Between 546 and 545 BC, Assyria rebelled against the new Persian Dynasty, which had usurped the previous Median dynasty. The rebellion centered around Tyareh was eventually quashed by Cyrus the Great.

Assyria seems to have recovered dramatically, and flourished during this period. It became a major agricultural and administrative centre of the Achaemenid Empire, and its soldiers were a mainstay of the Persian Army.[33] In fact, Assyria even became powerful enough to raise another full-scale revolt against the Persian empire in 520–519 BC.

The Persians had spent centuries under Assyrian domination (their first ruler Achaemenes and his successors, having been vassals of Assyria), and Assyrian influence can be seen in Achaemenid art, infrastructure and administration. Early Persian rulers saw themselves as successors to Ashurbanipal, and Mesopotamian Aramaic was retained as the lingua franca of the empire for over two hundred years, and Greek writers such as Thucydides still referred to it as the Assyrian language.[34] Nineveh was never rebuilt however, and 200 years after it was sacked Xenophon reported only small numbers of Assyrians living amongst its ruins. Conversely the ancient city of Assur once more became a rich and prosperous entity.[35]

It was in 5th century BC Assyria that the Syriac language and Syriac script evolved. Five centuries later these were later to have a global influence as the liturgical language and written script for Syriac Christianity and its accompanying Syriac literature which also emerged in Assyria before spreading throughout the Near East, Asia Minor, The Caucasus, Central Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and China.

Macedonian and Seleucid Assyria[edit]

In 332 BC, Assyria fell to Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Emperor from Greece, who called the inhabitants Assyrioi. The Macedonian Empire (332–312) was partitioned in 312 BC. It thereafter became part of the Seleucid Empire (312 BC) and was renamed Syria, a Hurrian, Luwian and Greek corruption of Assyria, a term which for many centuries until the Seleucid era had only and specifically meant and referred to Assyria and the Assyrians, and not to The Levant and its largely Aramean, Phoenician and Neo-Hittite inhabitants.[36] It is from this period that the later Syria Vs Assyria naming controversy arises, the Seleucids applied the name not only to Assyria itself, but also to the Levantine lands to the west (historically known as Aram and Eber Nari), which had been part of the Assyrian empire but, the north east corner aside, never a part of Assyria proper.

When the Seleucids lost control of Assyria proper, the name Syria survived but was erroneously applied only to the land of Aramea (also known as Eber Nari) to the west that had once been part of the Assyrian empire, but apart from the north eastern corner, had never been a part of Assyria itself, nor inhabited by Assyrians. This was to lead to both the Assyrians from Northern Mesopotamia and the Arameans and Phoenicians from the Levant being collectively dubbed Syrians (and later also Syriacs) in Greco-Roman and later European culture, regardless of ethnicity, history or geography.

During Seleucid rule, Assyrians ceased to hold the senior military, economic and civil positions they had enjoyed under the Achaemenids, being largely replaced by Greeks. The Greek language also replaced Mesopotamian East Aramaic as the lingua franca of the empire, although this did not affect the Assyrian population themselves, who were not Hellenised during the Seleucid era.

During the Seleucid period in southern Mesopotamia, Babylon was gradually abandoned in favour of a new city named Seleucia on the Tigris, effectively bringing an end to Babylonia as a geo-political entity.

Parthian Assyria (150 BC – 225 AD)[edit]

Main article: Achaemenid Assyria

By 150 BC, Assyria was largely under the control of the Parthian Empire, once more as Athura (the Mesopotamian East Aramaic word for Assyria). The Parthians seem to have exercised only loose control over Assyria, and between the mid 2nd century BC and 4th century AD a number of Neo-Assyrian states arose; these included the ancient capital of Assur itself, Adiabene with its capital of Arbela (modern Irbil), Beth Nuhadra with its capital of Nohadra (modern Dohuk), Osroene, with its capitals of Edessa and Amid (modern Sanliurfa and Diyarbakir), Hatra, and "ܒܝܬܓܪܡܝ" (Beth Garmai) with its capital at Arrapha (modern Kirkuk).[37]

These freedoms were accompanied by a major Assyrian cultural revival, and temples to the Assyrian national gods Ashur, Sin, Hadad, Ishtar, Ninurta, Tammuz and Shamash were once more dedicated throughout Assyria and Upper Mesopotamia during this period.[38]

In addition, Christianity arrived in Assyria soon after the death of Christ (known as Yeshua M'kheetha by the Assyrians), and the Assyrians began to gradually convert to Christianity from Mesopotamian religion (Ashurism) during the period between the early 1st and 3rd centuries AD. Assyria became an important centre of Syriac Christianity and Syriac Literature, with the Assyrian Church of the East evolving in Assyria, and the Syriac Orthodox Church partly also, indeed Osroene became the first independent Christian state in history.[2]

Roman Assyria (116 AD – 118 AD)[edit]

However, in 116 AD, under Trajan, Assyria and its independent states were briefly taken over by Rome as the Roman Province of Assyria. The Assyrian kingdom of Adiabene was destroyed as an independent state during this period. Roman rule lasted only a few years, and the Parthians once more regained control with the help of the Assyrians, who were incited to overthrow the Roman garrisons by the Parthian king. However, a number of Assyrians were conscripted into the Roman Army, with many serving in the region of Hadrians Wall in Ancient Britain, and inscriptions in Aramaic made by Assyrian and Aramean soldiers have been discovered in northern England dating from the 2nd century AD.[39]

With loose Parthian rule restored, Assyria and its patchwork of states continued much as they had before the Roman interregnum, although Assyria and Mesopotamia as a whole became a front line between the Roman and Parthian empires.. Other new religious movements also emerged in the form of Gnostic sects such as Mandeanism, as well as the now extinct Manichean religion.

Sassanid Assyria (226 AD – circa 650 AD)[edit]

Main article: Asōristān

In 226 AD, Assyria was largely taken over by the Sassanid Empire. After driving out the Romans and Parthians, the Sassanid rulers set about destroying the independent states within Assyria during the mid to late 3rd century AD; Hatra was dissolved in 241 AD, Osroene in 244 AD and Assur was sacked by Shapur I in 256 AD, and Beth Nuhadra and Beth Garmai during this period also.

The land was known as Asuristan (the Sassanid Persian name meaning 'Land of the Assyrians') during this period, and became the birthplace of the distinctly Assyrian Church of the East (now split into the Assyrian Church of the East, Ancient Church of the East and Chaldean Catholic Church) and a centre of the Syriac Orthodox Church, with a flourishing Syriac (Assyrian) Christian culture which exists there to this day. Temples were still being dedicated to the national god Ashur (as well as other Mesopotamian gods) in his home city, in Harran and elsewhere during the 4th and 5th centuries AD, indicating the ancient pre-Christian Assyrian identity was still extant to some degree.

During the Sassanid period, much of what had once been Babylonia in southern Mesopotamia was incorporated into Assyria, and in effect the whole of Mesopotamia came to be known as Assuristan.

Parts of Assyria appear to have been semi independent as late as the latter part of the 4th century AD, with a king named Sennacherib II reputedly ruling the northern reaches in 370s AD.

Population[edit]

Assyrian people after Assyria[edit]

Assyrian flag (since 1968)[40]
Map of Assyrian populated areas

Centuries of constant warfare between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Empire left both empires exhausted, depleted and battle-fatigued, allowing the Muslim Arabs to break from the Arabian peninsula and invade territories hitherto held by these empires. After the Arab Islamic conquest in the 7th century, Assyria was dissolved as an entity, although the native Assyrian population still regarded the region as Athura, an appellation which survived until the 19th century AD. Under Arab rule, Mesopotamia as a whole underwent a gradual process of Arabisation and Islamification, and the region saw a gradual large influx of non indigenous Arabs, Kurds, Iranian, and Turkic peoples. However, the indigenous Assyrian population of northern Mesopotamia (known as Ashuriyun by the Arabs) resisted this process, retaining their language, religion, culture and identity.

The previously basic civilisation of the desert-dwelling Arabs was greatly enhanced and enriched by the influence and knowledge of native Mesopotamian scientists, physicians, mathematicians, theologians, astronomers, architects, agriculturalists, artists and astrologers.[41]

Aramaic language and Syriac Christianity in the Middle East and Central Asia until being largely annihilated by Tamerlane in the 14th century

Under the Arab Islamic empires, the Christian Assyrians were classed as dhimmis, a kind of second-class citizens who had certain restrictions imposed upon them but had their reduced rights fully protected and were granted a degree of freedom in some matters. They were excluded from specific duties and occupations reserved for Muslims, did not enjoy the same political rights as Muslims, their word was not equal to that of a Muslim in legal and civil matters without a Muslim witness, as Christians they were subject to payment of a special tax (jizyah), they were banned from spreading their religion further in Muslim ruled lands, men were banned from marrying Muslim women, but at the same time they were also expected to adhere to the same laws of property, contract and obligation as the Muslim Arabs. They were however also allowed freedom in other matters. Personal matters such as marriage and divorce were governed by the cultural laws of the Assyrians, the internal discipline was ensured by religious leaders who were however answerable to the Muslims, they were allowed the consumption of alcohol, were punished equally for a crime as the Muslims and technically had protection from any aggression.[42][43]

Although predominantly Christian, a minority of Assyrians still held on to their ancient Mesopotamian religion until as late as the 10th or 11th century AD.[44][45]

Assyrian Christians maintained relations with fellow Christians in Armenia and Georgia throughout the Middle Ages. In the 12th century AD, Assyrian priests interceded on behalf of persecuted Arab Muslims in Georgia.[46]

When the Mongols invaded the Near East in the 13th century, they conquered Mesopotamia,[47] after the fall of Baghdad to Hülegü. The Shamanist Mongols were initially sympathetic to the Assyrians, whose priests had travelled to Mongolia centuries before, and Hülegü appointed an Assyrian Christian governor to Erbil (Arbela), and the Syriac Orthodox Church was also allowed to build a church there.[48]

However, as time passed, the Mongol rulers in the Near East converted to Islam, and sustained persecutions of all Christians throughout the Ilkhanate began in earnest in 1295 under the rule of Oïrat amir Nauruz, which affected the indigenous Assyrian Christians greatly.[49] This manifested early on in the reign of the Ilkhan Ghazan. During the reign of the Ilkhan Öljeitü the Assyrian Christian inhabitants of Erbil seized control of the citadel and much of the city in oder to escape the relentless religious persecution. In spring 1310, the Mongol Malek (governor) of the region attempted to seize it from them with the help of the Kurds and Arabs, but was defeated. The Assyrians held out for three months, but the citadel was at last taken after a siege by Ilkhanate troops and Arab, Turkic and Kurdish tribesmen on July 1, 1310, the defenders of the citadel fighting to the last man, and many of the Assyrian inhabitants of the lower town were subsequently massacred.[50][51]

Assyrian people, still retaining Akkadian infused and influenced Eastern Aramaic and Assyrian Church of the East Christianity, remained numerically dominant in the north of Mesopotamia (what had been Assyria) as late as the 14th century AD[52] and the city of Assur was still occupied by Assyrians during the Islamic period until the mid-14th century when the Muslim Turco-Mongol ruler Tamurlane conducted a religiously motivated massacre of indigenous Assyrian Christians. After that, there are no traces of a settlement at Ashur in the archaeological and numismatic record, and from this point the Assyrian population was dramatically reduced in their homeland.[53]

A religious schism among the Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries AD, when a large number of hitherto Assyrian Church of the East Assyrians from the far north of Mesopotamia entered communion with the Roman Catholic Church after becoming dissatisfied with the Abuna family's leadership of the Assyrian Church, and after at first failing to gain acceptance within the Syriac Orthodox Church. Rome named this new church The Church of Assyria and Mosul and its first leader Patriarch of the East Assyrians in 1553 AD. However, in 1683 AD, Rome altered the name to the Chaldean Catholic Church. This group of Assyrians eventually drifted back to the Assyrian Church, however a decade or so before they did so another faction within the Assyrian Church entered communion with Rome, and this group eventually became known as Chaldean Catholics or Chaldo-Assyrians despite having no ethnic, historical, linguistic, cultural or geographic connections whatsoever to the by now long extinct Chaldean tribe of south east Mesopotamia.

The Assyrians suffered a number of religiously and ethnically motivated massacres throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries,[54] culminating in the large scale Hamidian massacres of unarmed men, women and children by Muslim Turks and Kurds in the late 19th century at the hands of the Ottoman Empire and its associated (largely Kurdish and Arab) militias, which further greatly reduced numbers, particularly in southeastern Turkey.

The burning of bodies of Christian Assyrian women

The Assyrians suffered a further catastrophic series of events during World War I in the form of the religiously and ethnically motivated Assyrian Genocide at the hands of the Ottomans and their Kurdish and Arab allies from 1915 to 1918.[55][56][57][58] Some sources claim the highest number of Assyrians killed during the period was 750,000, while a 1922 Assyrian assessment set it at 275,000. The Assyrian Genocide ran largely in conjunction to the similarly motivated Armenian Genocide and Greek Genocide.

In reaction against Ottoman cruelty, Assyrians took up arms, and an Assyrian war of independence was fought during World War I. For a time, the Assyrians fought successfully against overwhelming numbers, scoring a number of victories over the Ottomans and Kurds, and also hostile Arab and Iranian groups; then their Russian allies left the war following the Russian Revolution, and Armenian resistance broke. The Assyrians were left vastly outnumbered and outgunned, cut off, surrounded, and without supplies, forcing those in Asia Minor and Northwest Iran to fight their way, with civilians in tow, to the safety of British lines and their fellow Assyrians in northern Iraq. The sizeable Assyrian presence in south eastern Anatolia which had endured for over four millennia was thus reduced to no more than 15,000 by the end of World War I.

The Assyrian Levies were founded by the British in 1928, with ancient Assyrian military rankings, such as Rab-shakeh, Rab-talia and Turtanu, being revived for the first time in millennia for this force. The Assyrians were prized by the British rulers for their fighting qualities, loyalty, bravery and discipline, and were used to help the British put down insurrections among the Arabs, Kurds and Turcoman, guard the borders with Iran and Turkey, and protect British military installations.[59]

After Iraq was granted independence by the British in 1933, the Assyrians suffered the Simele Massacre, where thousands of unarmed villagers (men, women and children) were slaughtered by joint Arab-Kurdish forces of the Iraqi Army. The Muslim population was fearful and resentful of the presence of well armed and well trained Assyrian Christian communities within the new state. The massacres of civilians followed a clash between armed Assyrian tribesmen and the Iraqi army, where the Iraqi forces suffered a defeat after trying to disarm the Assyrians, whom they feared would attempt to secede from Iraq. Armed Assyrian Levies were prevented by the British from going to the aid of these civilians, and the British government then whitewashed the massacres at the League of Nations.

Despite these betrayals, the Assyrians were allied with the British during World War II, with eleven Assyrian companies seeing action in Palestine/Israel and another four serving in Cyprus. The Parachute Company was attached to the Royal Marine Commando and was involved in fighting in Albania, Italy and Greece. Assyrians played a major role in the victory over Arab-Iraqi forces at the Battle of Habbaniya and elsewhere in 1941, when the Iraqi government decided to join World War II on the side of Nazi Germany. The British presence in Iraq lasted until 1955, and Assyrian Levies remained attached to British forces until this time, after which they were disarmed and disbanded.

A minority of Assyrians have converted to Protestantism during the 20th century, leaving the Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church and Syriac Orthodox church in favour of the Assyrian Pentecostal Church and Assyrian Evangelical Church.

A further persecution of Assyrians took place in the Soviet Union in the late 1940s and early 1950s when thousands of Assyrians settled in Georgia, Armenia and southern Russia were forcibly deported from their homes in the dead of night by Stalin without warning or reason to Central Asia, with most being relocated to Kazakhstan, where a small minority still remain.[60]

The period from the 1940s through to 1963 was a period of respite for the Assyrians in northern Iraq and north east Syria. The regime of Iraqi President Kassim in particular saw the Assyrians accepted into mainstream society. Many urban Assyrians became successful businessmen, a number of Assyrians moved south to cities such as Baghdad, Basra and Nasiriyah to enhance their economic prospects, others were well represented in politics, the military, the arts and entertainment, Assyrian towns, villages, farmsteads and Assyrian quarters in major cities flourished undisturbed, and Assyrians came to excel, and be over-represented in sports such as boxing, football, athletics, wrestling and swimming.

Assyrian wedding, diaspora in Belgium

However, in 1963, the Ba'ath Party took power by force in Iraq, and came to power in Syria the same year. The Baathists, though secular, were Arab nationalists, and set about attempting to Arabize the many non-Arab peoples of Iraq and Syria, including the Assyrians. Other non-Arab ethnic groups targeted for forced Arabization included Kurds, Armenians, Turcomans, Mandeans, Yezidi, Shabaki, Kawliya, Persians, Circassians, Mhallami and Syriac-Arameans]]. This policy included refusing to acknowledge the Assyrians as an ethnic group, banning the publication of written material in Eastern Aramaic, and banning its teaching in schools, banning parents giving Assyrian names to their children, banning Assyrian political parties, taking control of Assyrian churches, attempting to create divisions amongst Assyrians on denominational lines (e.g. Assyrian Church of the East vs Chaldean Catholic Church vs Syriac Orthodox vs Assyrian Protestant), forced relocations of Assyrians from their traditional homelands to major cities, together with an attempt to Arabize the ancient pre-Arab heritage of Mesopotamian civilisation.

A further schism within the Assyrian Church of the East led to the founding of a breakaway Ancient Church of the East in the late 1960s.

In response to Baathist persecution, the Assyrians of the Zowaa movement within the Assyrian Democratic Movement took up armed struggle against the Iraqi regime in 1982 under the leadership of Yonadam Kanna,[61] and then joined up with the IKF in early 1990s. Yonadam Kanna in particular was a target of the Ba'ath regime for many years.

The policies of the Baathists have also long been mirrored in Turkey, whose nationalist governments have refused to acknowledge the Assyrians as an ethnic group since the 1920s, and have attempted to Turkify the Assyrians by calling them "Semitic Turks" and forcing them to adopt Turkish names and language. In Baathist Syria too, the Assyrian (and Syriac-Aramean) Christians faced pressure to identify as "Arab Christians", while in Iran, Assyrians continued to enjoy full cultural, religious and ethnic rights for a time, until the Islamic Revolution of 1979, where after they suffered by being forcibly subject to strict Islamic Law.

Many persecutions have befallen the Assyrians since, such as the Anfal campaign and Baathist, Arab, Kurdish, Turkish nationalist and Islamist persecutions.

In recent years, particularly since 2014, the Assyrians in northern Iraq and north east Syria have become the target of unprovoked Islamic terrorism. As a result, Assyrians have taken up arms, alongside other groups (such as the Kurds, Turcomans and Armenians) in response to unprovoked attacks by Al Qaeda, ISIL, Nusra Front, and other Wahhabi terrorist Islamic fundamentalist groups. In 2014 Islamic terrorists of ISIS attacked Assyrian towns and villages in the Assyrian homelands of northern Iraq and north east Syria, together with cities such as Mosul, Kirkuk and Hasakeh which have large Assyrian populations. There have been reports of a litany of religiously motivated atrocities committed by ISIS terrorists since, including; beheadings, crucifixions, child murders, rape of women and girls, torture, forced conversions, ethnic cleansing, robbery, kidnappings, theft of homes, and extortion in the form of illegal taxes levied upon non Muslims. Assyrians forced from their homes in cities such as Mosul have had their houses and possessions stolen, and given over to ISIS terrorists or Sunni Arabs.[62]

In addition, the Assyrians have suffered seeing their ancient indigenous heritage desecrated, in the form of Bronze Age and Iron Age monuments and archaeological sites, as well as numerous Assyrian churches and monasteries,[62] being systematically vandalised and destroyed by ISIS. These include the ruins of Nineveh, Kalhu (Nimrud, Assur, Dur-Sharrukin and Hatra.[63][64]

Assyrians in both northern Iraq and north east Syria[65][66] have responded by forming armed Assyrian militias to defend their territories,[67] and despite being heavily outnumbered and outgunned have had success in driving ISIS from Assyrian towns and villages, and defending others from attack.[68][69] Armed Assyrian militias have also joined forces with other peoples persecuted by ISIS and Sunni Muslim extremists, including; the Kurds, Turcoman, Yezidis, Syriac-Aramean Christians, Shabaks, Armenian Christians, Kawilya, Mandeans, Circassians and Shia Muslim Arabs and Iranians.

Thus far, the only people who have been attested with a high level of genetic, historical, linguistic, anthropological and cultural research to be the descendants of the ancient Mesopotamians are the Assyrian Christians of northern Iraq and its surrounding areas in north west Iran, north east Syria and south eastern Turkey (see Assyrian continuity), although others have made unsubstantiated claims of continuity.[citation needed] Assyria continued to exist as a geopolitical entity until the Arab-Islamic conquest in the mid-7th century, and Assyrian identity, personal, family and tribal names, and both spoken and written evolutions of Mesopotamian Aramaic (which still contain many Akkadian loan words and an Akkadian grammatical structure) have survived among the Assyrian people from ancient times to this day, and an Assyrian calendar has been revived. (See Assyrian people.)

Culture[edit]

Language[edit]

The past time of Assyrian King by F.A. Bridgman

In ancient times, Assyrians spoke a dialect of the Akkadian language, an eastern branch of the Semitic languages, the oldest historically attested of the Semitic languages, which began to appear in written form in the 29th century BC. The first inscriptions in Assyria proper, called Old Assyrian (OA), were made in the Old Assyrian period.[70]

During the 3rd millennium BC, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism.[11] The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence.[11] This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the 3rd millennium BC as a sprachbund.[11]

Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere around the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate),[12] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD.

In the Neo-Assyrian period the Aramaic language became increasingly common,[71] more so than Akkadian—this was thought to be largely due to the mass deportations undertaken by Assyrian kings,[72] in which large Aramaic-speaking populations, conquered by the Assyrians, were relocated to Assyria and interbred with the Assyrians, and due to the fact that Tiglath-pileser II made it the lingua franca of Assyria and its empire in the 8th century BC.

The ancient Assyrians also used the Sumerian language in their literature and liturgy,[72] although to a more limited extent in the Middle- and Neo-Assyrian periods, when Akkadian became the main literary language.[72]

The destruction of the Assyrian capitals of Nineveh and Assur by the Babylonians, Medes and their allies, ensured that much of the bilingual elite (but not all) were wiped out. By the 7th century BC, much of the Assyrian population used distinct Akkadian influenced Eastern Aramaic dialects and not Akkadian itself. The last Akkadian inscriptions in Mesopotamia date from the 1st century AD. The Syriac language also emerged in Assyria during the 5th century BC, and during the Christian era Syriac literature and Syriac script were to become hugely influential.

However, the descendant Eastern Aramaic dialects from the Neo-Assyrian Empire, as well as Akkadian and Mesopotamian Aramaic personal, tribal, family and place names, still survive to this day among Assyrians in the regions of northern Iraq, southeast Turkey, northwest Iran and northeast Syria that constituted old Assyria, and are spoken fluently by up to 1,000,000 Assyrians, with a further number having lesser and varying degrees of fluency.[72] These dialects are very different from the now almost extinct Western Aramaic of the Arameans in the Levant and Trans-Jordan, which does not have an Akkadian grammatical structure or loan words.

After 90 years of effort, the University of Chicago in 2011 completed an Assyrian dictionary, the style of which is more like an encyclopedia than a dictionary.[73]

Religion[edit]

Main article: Mesopotamian Religion

The Assyrians, like the rest of the Mesopotamian peoples, followed the Sumero-Akkadian Mesopotamian Religion, with the national god Ashur having pride of place at the head of the pantheon. This religion survived in Assyria from c. 3500 BC through to its gradual decline in the face of Christianity between the 1st and 10th centuries AD.[44]

Other major gods within the pantheon were Anu, Baal, Ea, Enlil, Ishtar (Astarte), Shamash, Tammuz, Adad/Hadad, Sin (Nanna), Dagan, Ninurta, Nisroch, Nergal, Tiamat, Ninlil, Mullissu, Zababa and El.

Native religion was still strongly followed at least until the 4th century AD, and survived in pockets until at least the 10th century AD,[44] although Assyrians had begun to adopt Eastern Rite Christianity (as well as for a time Manicheanism and Gnosticism) which, like Syriac literature, had its birthplace in Assyria between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD. Assyrians today are exclusively Christian, with most following the Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Ancient Church of the East, Syriac Orthodox Church, Assyrian Pentecostal Church and Assyrian Evangelical Church.

Architecture[edit]

Assyrian architecture, like that of Babylonia, was influenced by Sumero-Akkadian styles (and to some degree Mitanni), but early on developed its own distinctive style. Palaces sported colourful wall decorations, and seal-cutting (an art learned from Mittani) developed apace. Schools for scribes taught both the Babylonian and Assyrian dialects of Akkadian, and Sumerian and Akkadian literary works were often copied with an Assyrian flavour.

The Assyrian dialect of Akkadian was used in legal, official, religious, and practical texts such as medicine or instructions on manufacturing items. During the 13th to 10th centuries, picture tales appeared as a new art form: a continuous series of images carved on square stone steles. Somewhat reminiscent of a comic book, these show events such as warfare or hunting, placed in order from the upper left to the lower right corner of the stele with captions written underneath them. These and the excellent cut seals show that Assyrian art was beginning to surpass that of Babylon. Architecture saw the introduction of a new style of ziggurat, with two towers and colorful enameled tiles.

Arts and Sciences[edit]

Main article: Art of Mesopotamia
Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th century BC)

Assyrian art preserved to the present day predominantly dates to the Neo-Assyrian period. Art depicting battle scenes, and occasionally the impaling of whole villages in gory detail, was intended to show the power of the emperor, and was generally made for propaganda purposes. These stone reliefs lined the walls in the royal palaces where foreigners were received by the king. Other stone reliefs depict the king with different deities and conducting religious ceremonies. Many stone reliefs were discovered in the royal palaces at Nimrud (Kalhu) and Khorsabad (Dur-Sharrukin). A rare discovery of metal plates belonging to wooden doors was made at Balawat (Imgur-Enlil).

Assyria. Head of winged bull, 9th c. B.C.; Brooklyn Museum Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

Assyrian sculpture reached a high level of refinement in the Neo-Assyrian period. One prominent example is the winged bull Lamassu, or shedu that guard the entrances to the king's court. These were apotropaic meaning they were intended to ward off evil. C. W. Ceram states in The March of Archaeology that lamassi were typically sculpted with five legs so that four legs were always visible, whether the image were viewed frontally or in profile.

Although works of precious gems and metals usually do not survive the ravages of time, some fine pieces of Assyrian jewelry were found in royal tombs at Nimrud.

There is ongoing discussion among academics over the nature of the Nimrud lens, a piece of quartz unearthed by Austen Henry Layard in 1850, in the Nimrud palace complex in northern Iraq. A small minority believe that it is evidence for the existence of ancient Assyrian telescopes, which could explain the great accuracy of Assyrian astronomy. Other suggestions include its use as a magnifying glass for jewellers, or as a decorative furniture inlay. The Nimrud Lens is held in the British Museum.[74]

The Assyrians were also innovative in military technology, with the use of heavy cavalry, sappers, siege engines etc.

Legacy[edit]

Austen Henry Layard in Nineveh, 1852

Achaemenid Assyria (539–330 BC) retained a separate identity (Athura), official correspondence being in Imperial Aramaic, and there was even a determined revolt of the two Assyrian provinces of Mada and Athura in 520 BC. Under Seleucid rule, however, Aramaic gave way to Greek as the official administrative language. Aramaic was marginalised as an official language, but remained spoken in both Assyria and Babylonia by the general populace. It also remained the spoken tongue of the indigenous Assyrian/Babylonian citizens of all Mesopotamia under Persian, Greek and Roman rule, and indeed well into the Arab period it was still the language of the majority, particularly in the north of Mesopotamia, surviving to this day among the Assyrian Christians.

Between 150 BC and 226 AD, Assyria changed hands between the Parthian Iranians and Romans (Roman Province of Assyria) until coming under the rule of Sassanid Persia in 226–651 AD, where it was known as Asuristan.

A number of at least partly neo-Assyrian kingdoms existed in the area between in the late classical and early Christian period also; Adiabene, Hatra and Osroene.

Classical historiographers and Biblical writers had only retained a fragmented, very dim and often inaccurate picture of Assyria. It was remembered that there had been an Assyrian empire predating the Persian one, but all particulars were lost. Thus Jerome's Chronicon lists 36 kings of the Assyrians, beginning with Ninus, son of Belus, down to Sardanapalus, the last king of the Assyrians before the empire fell to Arbaces the Median. Almost none of these have been substantiated as historical, with the exception of the Neo-Assyrian and Babylonian rulers listed in Ptolemy's Canon, beginning with Nabonassar.

Mesopotamian empires such as the Akkadian Empire, Babylonian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire, Neo Assyrian Empire and Neo Babylonian Empire asserted Mesopotamian dominance from the Caucasus Mountains to Arabia and Egypt, and from Cyprus and the east Mediterranean to Persia. Thus the influence exerted by the Babylonian-Assyrian religion was particularly profound on other Semites, including the Hebrews, Chaldeans, Canaanites, Arameans, Phoenicians and Arabs, while their astral theology affected the ancient world in general, including the Persians, Greeks, Armenians and the later Romans. The impetus to the purification of the old Semitic polytheistic religions to which the Hebrews for a long time clung in common with their fellows—the various branches of nomadic Arameans and Arabs—was largely furnished by the remarkable civilization unfolded in the Euphrates valley and in many of the traditions, myths and legends embodied in the Old Testament; traces of direct adaptation from and responses to Babylonia and Assyria may be discerned, while the indirect influences in the domain of the prophetical books, as also in the Psalms and in the so-called "wisdom literature", are even more noteworthy. Stories in the Tanakh, Old Testament and Quran such as; the Genesis creation narrative, Tower of Babel, The Great Flood and the book of Esther, as well as various biblical characters such as Noah, Nimrod, Lilith and Asnapper bear clear influence from Assyria and Babylonia.[75][76][77]

Even when we reach the New Testament period, we have not passed entirely beyond the sphere of Babylonian-Assyrian influences. In such a movement as early Christian gnosticism, Assyrio-Babylonian elements—modified, to be sure, and transformed—are largely present, while the growth of an apocalyptic literature is ascribed with apparent justice by many scholars to the recrudescence of views, the ultimate source of which is to be found in the astral-theology of the Babylonian and Assyrian Priests.

The Assyrians began to form and adopt a distinct Eastern Rite Christianity, with its accompanying Syriac literature, between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD, however native religion was still alive and well into the 4th century AD, and pockets survived into the 10th century AD and possibly as late as the 17th century in Mardin. However, the religion is now dead, and the indigenous Assyrian (a.k.a. Chaldo-Assyrian) people, though still retaining Eastern Aramaic dialects as a mother tongue, are now wholly Christian.

The modern discovery of Babylonia and Assyria begins with excavations in Nineveh in 1845, which revealed the Library of Ashurbanipal. Decipherment of cuneiform was a formidable task that took more than a decade; but, by 1857, the Royal Asiatic Society was convinced that reliable reading of cuneiform texts was possible. Assyriology has since pieced together the formerly largely forgotten history of Mesopotamia. In the wake of the archaeological and philological rediscovery of ancient Assyria, Assyrian nationalism became increasingly popular among the surviving remnants of the Assyrian people, and has come to strongly identify with ancient Assyria.

See also[edit]

Portal icon Assyrians portal
Portal icon Ancient Near East portal

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq, p. 187
  2. ^ a b Winkler, Church of the East: a concise history, p. 1
  3. ^ Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, pp. 161–191.
  4. ^ Parpola, Simo (2004). "National and Ethnic Identity in the Neo-Assyrian Empire and Assyrian Identity in Post-Empire Times" (PDF). Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies (JAAS)
  5. ^ Y Odisho, George (1998). The sound system of modern Assyrian (Neo-Aramaic). Harrowitz. p. 8. ISBN 3-447-02744-4. 
  6. ^ Saggs notes that: "the destruction of the Assyrian empire did not wipe out its population. They were predominantly peasant farmers and, since Assyria contains some of the best wheat land in the Near East, their descendants would, as opportunity permitted, build new villages over the old cities and carry on with agricultural life, remembering traditions of the former cities. After seven or eight centuries and various vicissitudes, these people became Christians" (The Might That Was Assyria, p. 290).
  7. ^ "Parpola identity_article" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  8. ^ a b John Huehnergard and Christopher Woods, Akkadian and Eblaite, in Roger D. Woodard, ed., The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 83
  9. ^ Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq p. 148
  10. ^ Bertman, Stephen (2003). Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Oxford University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-019-518364-1. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Deutscher, Guy (2007). Syntactic Change in Akkadian: The Evolution of Sentential Complementation. Oxford University Press US. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-19-953222-3. 
  12. ^ a b Woods C. 2006 "Bilingualism, Scribal Learning, and the Death of Sumerian". In S.L. Sanders (ed) Margins of Writing, Origins of Culture: 91–120 Chicago [1]
  13. ^ Cory's Ancient Fragments, Isaac Preston Cory, 1832, p. 74.
  14. ^ Roman History, Book 1, Chapter 6.
  15. ^ The History of Antiquity by Maximilian Duncker, 1877, p. 26–30.
  16. ^ ^ Jump up to: a b Rogers 2000, p. 1271.
  17. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Georges_Roux.2C_Ancient_Iraq was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Saggs, The Might, 24.
  19. ^ Malati J. Shendge (1 January 1997). The language of the Harappans: from Akkadian to Sanskrit. Abhinav Publications. p. 46. ISBN 978-81-7017-325-0. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  20. ^ Malati J. Shendge (1 January 1997). The language of the Harappans: from Akkadian to Sanskrit. Abhinav Publications. p. 46. ISBN 978-81-7017-325-0. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  21. ^ According to the Assyrian King List and Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, p. 187.
  22. ^ a b Homosexuality in the Ancient World, by Wayne R. Dynes, Taylor & Francis, 1992, p. 8 and 460
  23. ^ a b Homoeroticism in the Biblical World: A Historical Perspective, by Martti Nissinen, Fortress Press, 2004, p. 24–28
  24. ^ The Origins and Role of Same-Sex Relations in Human Societies, by James Neill, McFarland, 27 Oct 2008, p.83
  25. ^ a b c EB, "Tiglath-Pileser" (1911).
  26. ^ Bryce, Trevor. The Routledge Handbook of The People and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the fall of the Persians Empire, p.563
  27. ^ Killebrew, Ann E. (2013), "The Philistines and Other "Sea Peoples" in Text and Archaeology", Society of Biblical Literature Archaeology and biblical studies (Society of Biblical Lit) 15, p. 2, ISBN 978-1-58983-721-8 . Quote: "First coined in 1881 by the French Egyptologist G. Maspero (1896), the somewhat misleading term "Sea Peoples" encompasses the ethnonyms Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Teresh, Eqwesh, Denyen, Sikil / Tjekker, Weshesh, and Peleset (Philistines). [Footnote: The modern term "Sea Peoples" refers to peoples that appear in several New Kingdom Egyptian texts as originating from "islands" (tables 1–2; Adams and Cohen, this volume; see, e.g., Drews 1993, 57 for a summary). The use of quotation marks in association with the term "Sea Peoples" in our title is intended to draw attention to the problematic nature of this commonly used term. It is noteworthy that the designation "of the sea" appears only in relation to the Sherden, Shekelesh, and Eqwesh. Subsequently, this term was applied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional ethnonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in their earliest appearance as invaders from the north during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses Ill (see, e.g., Sandars 1978; Redford 1992, 243, n. 14; for a recent review of the primary and secondary literature, see Woudhuizen 2006). Hencefore the term Sea Peoples will appear without quotation marks.]"
  28. ^ The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C., Robert Drews, p48–61 Quote: "The thesis that a great "migration of the Sea Peoples" occurred ca. 1200 B.C. is supposedly based on Egyptian inscriptions, one from the reign of Merneptah and another from the reign of Ramesses III. Yet in the inscriptions themselves such a migration nowhere appears. After reviewing what the Egyptian texts have to say about 'the sea peoples', one Egyptologist (Wolfgang Helck) recently remarked that although some things are unclear, "eins ist aber sicher: Nach den agyptischen Texten haben wir es nicht mit einer 'Volkerwanderung' zu tun." Thus the migration hypothesis is based not on the inscriptions themselves but on their interpretation."
  29. ^ Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq
  30. ^ According to Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, pp. 282–283.
  31. ^ Chart of World Kingdoms, Nations and Empires—All Empires
  32. ^ Assyria 1995: Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project / Helsinki, September 7–11, 1995.
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  34. ^ Van de Mieroop, History, p. 293.
  35. ^ Curtis, John (November 2003). "The Achaemenid Period in Northern Iraq". L'archéologie de l'empire achéménide (Paris, France): 12.
  36. ^ "The Terms "Assyria" and "Syria" Again" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  37. ^ Mohsen, Zakeri (1995). Sasanid soldiers in early Muslim society: the origins of 'Ayyārān and Futuwwa. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 135. ISBN 978-3-447-03652-8. 
  38. ^ Crone & Cook 1977, p. 55
  39. ^ Charlotte Higgins. "When Syrians, Algerians and Iraqis patrolled Hadrian's Wall". the Guardian. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  40. ^ |url=http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/assyria.html |date=20081012000000 |df=y Assyria Archive copy at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ http://phoenicia.org/xtiantranslateforarabs.html
  42. ^ H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 219.
  43. ^ Clinton Bennett (2005). Muslims and Modernity: An Introduction to the Issues and Debates. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 163. ISBN 0-8264-5481-X. Retrieved 2012-07-07
  44. ^ a b c http://www.nineveh.com/parpola_eng.pdf
  45. ^ Fuller, 1864, pp. 200–201.
  46. ^ Ecclesiastical History of Bar Hebraeus (ii 354)
  47. ^ Woods 1977, pp. 49–50
  48. ^ Nováček et al. 2008, p. 261
  49. ^ Grousset, p. 379
  50. ^ Sourdel 2010
  51. ^ Grousset, p. 383
  52. ^ According to Georges Roux and Simo Parpola
  53. ^ "History of Ashur". Assur.de. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  54. ^ Aboona, H (2008). Assyrians and Ottomans: intercommunal relations on the periphery of the Ottoman Empire. Cambria Press. pp. 218–219. ISBN 978-1-60497-583-3.
  55. ^ Akçam, Taner (2012). The Young Turks' Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton University Press. pp. xx–xxi. ISBN 978-1-4008-4184-4. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  56. ^ Genocide Scholars Association Officially Recognizes Assyrian Greek Genocides. 16 December 2007. Retrieved 2010-02-02
  57. ^ Khosoreva, Anahit. "The Assyrian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire and Adjacent Territories" in The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. Ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2007, pp. 267–274. ISBN 1-4128-0619-4.
  58. ^ Travis, Hannibal. "Native Christians Massacred: The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I." Genocide Studies and Prevention, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 2006.
  59. ^ Len Deighton (1993), Blood, Tears and Folly
  60. ^ "Assyrian Community in Kazakhstan Survived Dark Times, Now Focuses on Education". The Astana Times. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  61. ^ "زوعا". Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
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  63. ^ "ISIL video shows destruction of Mosul artefacts", Al Jazeera, 27 Feb 2015
  64. ^ Buchanan, Rose Troup and Saul, Heather (25 February 2015) Isis burns thousands of books and rare manuscripts from Mosul's libraries The Independent
  65. ^ Sheren KhalelMatthew Vickery (25 February 2015). "Syria’s Christians Fight Back". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  66. ^ Martin Chulov. "Christian militia in Syria defends ancient settlements against Isis". the Guardian. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  67. ^ Matt Cetti-Roberts. "Inside the Christian Militias Defending the Nineveh Plains — War Is Boring". Medium. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  68. ^ "8 things you didn't know about Assyrian Christians". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  69. ^ Patrick Cockburn (22 February 2015). "Isis in Iraq: Assyrian Christian militia keep well-armed militants at bay - but they are running out of ammunition". The Independent. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  70. ^ Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, p. 188
  71. ^ Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, p. 308.
  72. ^ a b c d Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, p. 382
  73. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/07/science/07dictionary.html
  74. ^ Lens, British Museum.
  75. ^ Julian Jaynes (2000). The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Mariner Books. Retrieved 2013-06-16
  76. ^ Georges Contenau La Magie chez les Assyriens et les Babyloniens, Paris, 1947
  77. ^ Harris, Stephen L. (2002). Understanding the Bible. McGraw-Hill. pp. 50–51.ISBN 978-0-7674-2916-0

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°00′N 43°18′E / 36.0°N 43.3°E / 36.0; 43.3