Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist)
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In April 1955, 7 Victorian federal MPs and 18 state MPs were expelled from the ALP. The federal MPs were:
The expelled ALP members formed the new party under the influence of B. A. Santamaria. At the 1955 Victorian election held in May, only one of the 12 expelled MPs in the Victorian Legislative Assembly was reelected, the one MP facing re-election in the Victorian Legislative Council. Frank Scully was a Minister in the Cain Government and a member of the Catholic Social Studies Movement ("The Movement") in Victoria, and was expelled from the ministry and the ALP as part of the Australian Labor Party split of 1955. He then was a member of the Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist) (and then the Democratic Labor Party) from 1955 to 1958. Scully won the seat of Richmond in the Victorian Legislative Assembly in the May 1955 Victorian election and was the only member of the DLP in the lower house of the Victorian parliament during these three years. Five MPs whose terms had not expired remained in the Legislative Council until the expiry of their terms at the 1958 Victorian election, and all who recontested their seats were defeated.
All the 7 expelled federal MPs were defeated at the 1955 federal election held in December. However, Frank McManus was elected as a senator for Victoria at the 1955 election, and successful ALP candidate George Cole had chosen before the election to become part of this party.
The parliamentary membership of the ALP (Anti-Communist) was almost entirely Roman Catholic. The only two non-Catholics were its federal leader, Bob Joshua, who represented Ballarat in the Australian House of Representatives, and Jack Little, who led the party in the Victoria Legislative Council between 1955 and 1958. It has been suggested that the party was substantially a party of Irish-ethnics, a result of the ALP split of 1955 being a 'de-ethnicisation', a forcible removal of the Irish-Catholic element within the ALP. However, many ALP (Anti-Communist) members were not of Irish descent. The party attracted many voters among migrants from Catholic countries in southern Europe, and among anti-Communist Eastern European refugees. In 1957, the party became the Democratic Labor Party, which became formally defunct in 1978. Those party members who refused to accept the party's dissolution, formed a successor party, the Democratic Labour Party.
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