Battle of West Suiyuan
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In 1937 the Chinese government picked up intelligence that the Japanese planned a puppet Hui Muslim country around Suiyuan and Ningxia, and had sent agents to the region.
The Japanese planned to invade Ningxia from Suiyuan in 1939 and create a Hui Muslim puppet state. The next year in 1940, the Japanese were defeated militarily by the Kuomintang Muslim General Ma Hongbin, who caused the plan to collapse. Ma Hongbin's Hui Muslim troops launched further attacks against Japan in the Battle of West Suiyuan.
Muslim Generals Ma Hongkui and Ma Hongbin defended west Suiyuan, especially in Wuyuan in 1940 against the Japanese. Ma Hongbin commanded the 81st corps and had heavy casualties, but eventually repulsed the Japanese and defeated them.
- ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Volume 67 of Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 55. ISBN 0415582644. http://books.google.com/books?id=rsLQdBUgyMUC&pg=PA65&dq=ma+hongkui+japanese+abolish+prince&hl=en&ei=P4uvTIztJoL_8AaHq-2dCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=sino-muslims%20japanese%20muslim%20state%20western%20mongolia&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ Xiaoyuan Liu (2004). Frontier passages: ethnopolitics and the rise of Chinese communism, 1921-1945 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 131. ISBN 0804749604. http://books.google.com/books?id=mpqApZWrJyIC&dq=battle+of+suiyuan+ma&q=suiyuan#v=onepage&q=ma%20hongbin%20japanese%20plot&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ The China monthly review, Volumes 80-81. J.W. Powell. 1937. p. 320. http://books.google.com/books?ei=qm_sTavcGIObtwfE6aTCAQ&ct=result&id=foATAAAAIAAJ&dq=31000+Mohammedan+troops+%28Kansu%2C+Ninghsia%2C+Chinghai%29+40000+Communist+army+%28Kansu&q=Mohammedan. Retrieved 2011-06-06.
- ^ George Barry O'Toole, Jên-yü Tsʻai, ed (1941). The China monthly, Volumes 3-5. The China monthly incorporated.. http://books.google.com/books?id=Bk3VAAAAMAAJ&q=Ma-Hung-kwei&dq=Ma-Hung-kwei&hl=en&ei=96-VTNLGD4GClAeC35GjCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBQ. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from the University of Michigan)
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