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Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Hal Ashby|
|Produced by||Andrew Braunsberg|
|Screenplay by||Jerzy Kosiński
Robert C. Jones (uncredited)
|Based on||Being There
by Jerzy Kosiński
|Music by||Johnny Mandel|
|Edited by||Don Zimmerman|
|Distributed by||United Artists|
Being There is a 1979 American comedy-drama film directed by Hal Ashby. Its screenplay was adapted by Jerzy Kosiński and the uncredited Robert C. Jones from the 1970 novel by Kosiński. The film stars Peter Sellers, Shirley MacLaine, Melvyn Douglas, Richard A. Dysart, Jack Warden, and Richard Basehart.
Douglas won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and Sellers was nominated for Best Actor. The screenplay won the British Academy Film Award for Best Screenplay and the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Comedy Adapted from Another Medium. It was also nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay.
The making of the film is portrayed in The Life and Death of Peter Sellers, a biographical film of Sellers' life. In 2015 the United States Library of Congress selected Being There for preservation in the National Film Registry, finding it "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
Chance (Peter Sellers) is a middle-aged man who lives in the townhouse of an old, wealthy man in Washington, D.C. He is simple-minded and has lived there his whole life, tending the garden. Other than gardening, his knowledge is derived entirely from what he sees on television. When his benefactor dies, Chance naively says he has no claim against the estate, and is ordered to move out. Thus he discovers the outside world for the first time.
Chance wanders aimlessly. He passes by a TV shop and sees himself captured by a camera in the shop window. Entranced, he steps backward off the sidewalk and is struck by a chauffeured car owned by Ben Rand (Melvyn Douglas), an elderly business mogul. In the car is Rand's much younger wife, Eve (Shirley MacLaine).
Eve brings Chance to their home to recover. She mishears "Chance, the gardener" as "Chauncey Gardiner." Chance is wearing expensive tailored clothes from the 1920s and '30s, which his benefactor had allowed him to take from the attic, and his manners are old-fashioned and courtly. When Ben Rand meets him, he takes "Chauncey" for an upper-class, highly educated businessman. Chance often misunderstands people and states the obvious, particularly about gardening, but his simple words are repeatedly misunderstood as profound, allegorical statements about life, business and the economy. Rand admires him, finding him direct, wise and insightful.
Rand is also a confidant and adviser to the President of the United States (Jack Warden), whom he introduces to "Chauncey." The President, who is concerned about the economy, asks Chance his opinion about "temporary incentives." Chance hears the words "stimulate growth" and following a pause goes on a short speech about the changing seasons of the garden. Chance goes on to say "there will be growth in the spring." The President completely misinterprets this as optimistic political and economic advice. Chance, as Chauncey Gardiner, quickly rises to national public prominence. He remains an adviser to Rand, attends important dinners, meets with the Russian ambassador and appears on a television talk show. During the show, Chance again goes into detail about the importance of gardening and what a serious gardener he is, the host and public misunderstand this to be Chance talking about running the country and being a serious President should he get the chance. Though he has now risen to the top of Washington society, he remains very mysterious. The Secret Service is unable to find any background information about him. Public opinion polls start to reflect just how much his "simple brand of wisdom" resonates with the jaded American public. The President even begins to fear Chance's popularity with the public. During this time Rand's physician, Dr. Allenby (Richard Dysart), becomes increasingly suspicious of Chance, and seems to be able to see what everyone else cannot that Chance is not a wise political expert and that the mystery of his identity may have a more mundane explanation. Dr. Allenby considers confiding his suspicions to Rand but when he realizes how happy Chance is making him during his final days he decides not to.
Rand, who is dying, encourages Eve to become close to "Chauncey." She is already attracted to him and makes a sexual advance. Chance has no interest in or knowledge of sex, but mimics a kissing scene from the 1968 film The Thomas Crown Affair, which happens to be on the TV. When the scene ends, Chauncey stops suddenly and Eve is confused. She asks what he likes, meaning sexually; he replies "I like to watch," meaning television. She is momentarily taken aback, but decides she is willing to masturbate for his voyeuristic pleasure. As she becomes involved in the act, she does not notice that he has turned back to the TV and is watching it, not her.
Chance is present at Rand's death and shows genuine sadness at his passing by crying. Chance then talks briefly with Rand's physician, Allenby finally asks what he has been wanting to and has his thoughts confirmed that "Chauncey" is merely a simpleminded gardener who knows nothing of finance or politics, Allenby does not appear bothered by this and it is left ambiguous what he will do about the knowledge. At Rand's funeral, while the President delivers a speech, the pall-bearers hold a whispered discussion over potential replacements for the President in the next term of office. They unanimously agree on "Chauncey Gardiner."
Oblivious to all this, "Chauncey" wanders through Rand's wintry estate. He straightens out a pine sapling, touches some flowers and then walks off across the surface of a small lake. He pauses, dips his umbrella into the deep water under his feet as if testing its depth, turns, and then continues to walk on the water as the President quotes Rand: "Life is a state of mind."
- Peter Sellers as Chance the gardener, a.k.a. Chauncey Gardiner
- Shirley MacLaine as Eve Rand
- Melvyn Douglas as Ben Rand
- Richard A. Dysart as Dr. Robert Allenby
- Jack Warden as The President
- Richard Basehart as Vladimir Skrapinov, Soviet Ambassador to the United States
- Than Wyenn as Ambassador Gaufridi
- David Clennon as Thomas Franklin
- Fran Brill as Sally Hayes
- Ruth Attaway as Louise
- Denise DuBarry as Johanna
- Sam Weisman as Colson
- Alice Hirson as The First Lady
- Arthur Rosenberg as Morton Hull
- Jerome Hellman as Gary Burns
- James Noble as Kaufman
- John Harkins as Courtney
- Elya Baskin as Karpatov
- Oteil Burbridge as Lolo (Boy on Corner)
- Hoyt Clark Harris, Jr. as Riff, Secret Service agent
Melvyn Douglas's granddaughter, Illeana, had a chance to visit the set and got to meet Peter Sellers, whom she considers to be her favorite actor. She has since credited the film for inspiring her to pursue a career in acting. According to Illeana, Sellers and Douglas had known each other since the 1940s when they first met in Burma during World War II. They often reminisced about the war days while on the set.
According to MacLaine, "(Peter) believed he was Chauncey. He never had lunch with me... He was Chauncey Gardiner the whole shoot, but believing he was having a love affair with me."
Incidental music is used very sparingly. What little original music is used was composed by Johnny Mandel, and primarily features two recurrent piano themes based on "Gnossiennes" No. 4 and No. 6 by Erik Satie. The other major piece of music used is the Eumir Deodato jazz/funk arrangement of the opening fanfare from Also Sprach Zarathustra by Richard Strauss.
The film opened to positive reviews and helped revitalize Sellers' comic career; many of his recent films had flopped except for the Pink Panther movies. Film critic Roger Ebert mentions the final scene in his 2005 book The Great Movies II (p. 52), stating that his film students once suggested that Chance may be walking on a submerged pier. Ebert writes, "The movie presents us with an image, and while you may discuss the meaning of the image, it is not permitted to devise explanations for it. Since Ashby does not show a pier, there is no pier — a movie is exactly what it shows us, and nothing more."
Sellers won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy for his performance in Being There. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor as well at the 52nd Academy Awards, but he lost to Dustin Hoffman for Kramer vs. Kramer.
The credits at the film's end roll over an outtake, known as the "Rafael outtake". Sellers was later displeased that the outtake ran because he believed it took away from Chauncey's mystique. He also believed the outtake was what prevented him from winning the Oscar.
An alternative credit sequence has waves on a television set as they would appear on an "unoccupied" channel.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
In popular culture
The Wolfgang Press sampled the final line of the film on the original release version of their song "Mother Valentine" from their 1991 album Queer.
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- "Being There, Box Office Information". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- "The 52nd Academy Awards (1980) Nominees and Winners". SAMPAS.
- Mike Barnes (December 16, 2015). "'Ghostbusters,' 'Top Gun,' 'Shawshank' Enter National Film Registry". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Henion, Leigh Ann (March 2011). "A Behind-the-Scenes Visit to Biltmore". Our State. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Vigil, Delfin (February 15, 2009). "Illeana Douglas inspired by Melvyn's 'Being There'". San Francisco Gate. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
- Mell, Eila (2005). Casting Might-Have-Beens: A Film by Film Directory of Actors Considered for Roles Given to Others. McFarland. ISBN 9781476609768.
- Dawson, Nick (2009). Being Hal Ashby: Life of a Hollywood Rebel. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813139197.
- "Shirley MacLaine On What Peter Sellers Was Really Like" on YouTube
- Stoehr, Ingo Roland (2001). German Literature of the Twentieth Century: From Aestheticism to Postmodernism. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 9781571131577.
- "Miles Goodman, 47, Composer for Films". The New York Times. August 20, 1996. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- Jablon, Robert (August 18, 1996). "MILES GOODMAN, FILM COMPOSER AND JAZZ RECORD PRODUCER, DIES". Associated Press. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- Oliver, Myrna (August 20, 1996). "Miles Goodman; Record Producer, Film Composer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "Miles Goodman: Composer". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. August 22, 1996. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "Record producer, composer Miles Goodman dies at 47". The Daily Gazette. August 21, 1996. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- Ebert, Roger (2006), The Great Movies II, Random House, Inc., p. 52, ISBN 978-0-7679-1986-9
- Ebert, Roger (May 25, 1997). "Being There review". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- Flint, Peter B. (August 5, 1981). "MELVYN DOUGLAS DEAD; ACTOR, 80, WON 2 OSCARS". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Reid, Joe (February 24, 2014). "The Oscar Ballot Explained: Best Supporting Actor/Actress". Thewire.com. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Kim, Wook (November 26, 2012). "After 'The End': 10 Memorable End-Credit Scenes". Time. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Dawson, Nick (2009). Being Hal Ashby: Life of a Hollywood Rebel. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813173344.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- "Being There Album Review". Rolling Stone. October 4, 1996. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Finkelstein, Joanne (2007). The Art of Self Invention: Image and Identity in Popular Visual Culture. I.B. Tauris. pp. 9, 98–99. ISBN 1-84511-395-0.
- Beech, Christopher (2009). The Films of Hal Ashby. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-3415-7.
- Nichols, Peter M.; A. O. Scott; Vincent Canby (2004). The New York Times Guide to the Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made. Macmillan. pp. 93–94. ISBN 0-312-32611-4.
- Sikov, Ed (2002). Mr. Strangelove: A Biography of Peter Sellers. Hyperion. ISBN 0-7868-8581-5.
- Tichi, Cecelia (1991). Electronic Hearth: Creating an American Television Culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507914-0.
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