Biharis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Bihari (disambiguation).
Bihari
(बिहारी समुदाय Bihāri Samudāy in Devanagari)
Total population
c. ~105 million
Regions with significant populations
 India 103,804,637[1]
 Pakistan A significant percentage of the 20 million Muhajirs[2][3][4][5][6]
 Bangladesh 250,000[7]
Languages
Bhojpuri, Awadhi (Caribbean Hindustani and Fiji Hindi are forms of Bhojpuri and Awadhi), Magahi, Maithili, Angika, and Bajjika dialects of Hindustani, Nepali, English
Religion
Predominantly:
Hinduism
Minorities:
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryan peoples

The Biharis (About this sound listen ) is a demonym given to an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who live in the Indian state of Bihar and Jharkhand. Bihar is home to many different ethnic groups and castes. Biharis speak languages such as Magahi, Bajjika, Maithili, Awadhi, Angika, Bhojpuri, Caribbean Hindustani, Fiji Hindi, and other local dialects, as well as Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) and Nepali. Besides, the state of Bihar, Biharis can be found throughout Purvanchal, North India, West Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra, and in the neighbouring countries of Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh. A large number of Biharis travelled to various parts of the world in the 19th century to serve as indentured labour on sugarcane and rubber plantations in Guyana, Suriname, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, the Caribbean, Fiji, Mauritius and Natal, South Africa. During the partition of India in 1947, many Muslim Biharis migrated to East Bengal (later East Pakistan and subsequently Bangladesh).[8][9] Bihari people are also well represented in Pakistan's (formerly West Pakistan) Muhajir people as a result of the partition of India,[10] as well as the recent relocation of some Bihari refugees from Bangladesh to Pakistan.[11]

Pre-history[edit]

Bihar, the state in northern India where majority of Bihari people live
The Magadha state circa 600 BCE, before it expanded

Mythological stories claim that Bihar was the place where Manu resided after the great flood, with the help of Matsya.[12] A king of the Yadus nicknamed "Mahabali" ruled over this last in ancient times. He was impotent. His guru was Dirghatamas. Mahabali had many wives and so Maharishi Dirghatamas with the permission of his king impregnated Mahabali's chief queen Sudeshna.[13] Queen Sudeshna bore five children or "Kshetrajas" (rulers of lands), one of them was King Anga, which is modern-day Bihar. From Anga sprang Anapana.[14]

According to the historian Asim Maitra, the history of Magadha from the earliest times to the dawn of the Buddhist era is not well known. The Vedas display open hostility and disgust towards Magadha because it was a great stronghold of the non-Aryans and refused to be absorbed in the stereotyped Brahmanical pattern.[15] Before the discovery of the ruins of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, the cyclopean walls on the hills of Rajgir were an ancient archaeological remains in India.[15]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Bihar

Ancient period[edit]

Modern Bihar is a combination of two great ancient kingdoms, Magadha and Mithila. From Magadha arose two traditions, Jainism and Buddhism. The first Indian empire, the Maurya Empire, originated from Magadha, with its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna) in 325 BCE.

Mithila is known for its literary traditions, education and culture. Four of the āstika (orthodox) schools of Indian philosophy - Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mīmāṃsā, and Samkhya - were developed in the Mithila region. Vidyapati and his work shaped the language and culture of the entirety of eastern India, comprising Bengal, Assam, Odisha and even up to some extent to Nepal.

The Maurya emperor Ashoka is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of India and the world. He became a Buddhist.[16]

According to indologist Arthur Llewellyn Basham:

The age in which true history appeared in India was one of great intellectual and spiritual ferment. Mystics and sophists of all kinds roamed through the Ganges Valley, all advocating some form of mental discipline and asceticism as a means to salvation; but the age of the Buddha, when many of the best minds were abandoning their homes and professions for a life of asceticism, was also a time of advance in commerce and politics. It produced not only philosophers and ascetics, but also merchant princes and men of action.

Bihar remained an important place of power, culture and education during the next one thousand years. The Gupta Empire, which again originated from Magadha in 240, is referred to as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, religion and Indian philosophy. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavours. Historians place the Gupta dynasty alongside the Han and China and the Roman Empire as a model of a classical civilisation. The capital of the Gupta Empire was Pataliputra.

A number of viharas (Buddhist monasteries) grew up during the Pala Empire in Magadha and ancient Bengal. According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out: Nalanda University were among the oldest and best centres of education in ancient India, Vikramashila, the premier university of the era, was established by the second Pala emperor, Dharmapala (783 to 820); Somapura Mahavihara (now in Bangladesh) was built by king Dharmapala of Pala dynasty, Odantapurā Mahavihara was established by king Dharmapala in the 8th century, and Jagaddala was founded by the later emperors of the Pala Empire, Ramapala (c.1077–1120) (now in northwest Bangladesh). Some writers believe the period between 400 and 1000 saw gains by Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.[18][19][20][21] Although the Hindu kings gave much grants to the Buddhist monks for building Brahmaviharas. A National Geographic edition[22] reads, "The essential tenets of Buddhism and Hinduism arose from similar ideas, best described in the Upanishads, a set of Hindu treatises set down in India largely between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C."

Arrival of Islam[edit]

The Buddhism of Magadha was swept away by the Islamic invasion under Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed and thousands of Buddhist monks and nuns were massacred in the 12th century.[23][24][25][26] The region saw a brief period of glory for six years (1540 -1546 CE) during the rule of Sher Shah Suri, who built the longest road of the Indian subcontinent, the Grand Trunk Road. The economic reforms carried out by Sher Shah Suri, like the introduction of Rupee and Custom Duties, are still used in the Republic of India. He revived the city of Patna, where he built up his headquarters.[27][28] During 1557–1576, Akbar, the Mughal emperor, annexed Bihar and Bengal to his empire.[29] With the decline of the Mughal Empire, Bihar passed under the control of the Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad. During 1742 to 1751 Marathas under the two Maratha chiefs, the Peshwa and Raghuji attacked eastern India (Bihar, Bengal & Orissa). The Marathas defeated the nawab Alivardi Khan (1740–1756) and took charge of these provinces. Thus, the medieval period was mostly one of anonymous provincial existence. Many South Asian rulers recruited soldiers from Bihar and neighbouring Awadh who were referred to as Purbiyas who gained a reputation in there use of firearms.[30] The 10th and the last Sikh guru, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna.

British rule[edit]

Coin of Samudragupta

After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. From this point, Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of the British Raj until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. In 1935, certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa. The British recruited many soldiers from the Bihar and Awadh region, mainly from the Rajput and Brahmin caste.[31] These soldiers were referred to as Purbiyas.

Babu Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur and his army, as well as countless other persons from Bihar, contributed to the India's First War of Independence (1857), also called the Sepoy Mutiny by some historians. Resurgence in the history of Bihar came during the struggle for India's independence. It was from Bihar that Mahatma Gandhi launched his pioneering civil-disobedience movement, Champaran Satyagraha. Raj Kumar Shukla drew the attention of Mahatma Gandhi to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. Champaran Satyagraha received the spontaneous support from many Biharis, including Sri Krishna Sinha, the first Chief Minister of Bihar, Rajendra Prasad, who became the first President of India and Anugrah Narayan Sinha who ultimately became the[32] first Deputy Chief Minister and Finance Minister of Bihar.

Independence movements[edit]

In North and Central Bihar, a peasant movement was an important side effect of the independence movement. This movement aimed at overthrowing the zamindari system instituted by British Raj. It was being led by Sahajanand Saraswati and his followers Yamuna Karjee, Rahul Sankrityayan, Karyanand Sharma, Nagarjun and others. Karjee along with Rahul Sankritayan and a few others started publishing a Hindi weekly Hunkar from Bihar in 1940. Hunkar later became the mouthpiece of the peasant movement and the agrarian movement in Bihar and was instrumental in spreading the movement.

Bihar's contribution to the Indian independence struggle was immense, producing outstanding leaders like Sahajanand Saraswati, Rajendra Prasad, Krishna Sinha, Dr.Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Brajkishore Prasad, Maulana Mazharul Haque, Jayaprakash Narayan, Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha, Ram Dulari Sinha, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, Basawon Singh, Rameshwar Prasad Sinha, Yogendra Shukla, Baikuntha Shukla, Sheel Bhadra Yajee, Yamuna Karjee and many others who worked for India's independence.[33]

Modern era[edit]

The state of Jharkhand was carved out of Bihar in the year 2000.[34] 2005 Bihar assembly elections ended the 15 years of continuous Rashtriya Janata Dal rule in the state, giving way to NDA led by Nitish Kumar.

Cuisine[edit]

Main article: Cuisine of Bihar

The food culture of Bihar is both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Most of the people are non vegetarian. Among all the varieties of food eaten by the people of Bihar, Litti-Chokha is the most famous. Beside Pedhaa, Dal Puri, Puwa etc are also famous. In snacks bhuja (roasted gram, flat rice commonly known as chewra, peanut, maize, etc) Thekua, Purukia etc are prepared.

Clothing[edit]

The traditional dress of Bihar is same as rest of Indian states like UP ,Mp,Jharkhand,West Bengal includes the dhoti-mirjai (a modified form of the flowing jama)[35] or the kurta (replacing the older outfit of the dhoti and chapkan which is a robe fastened on the right)[36] for men and Ghagra-Choli for women but ghagra choli is limited to folk dances or celebrations and is considered the ancient or historical dress of women of Bihar. In everyday life women wear saree or Kameez-Salwar. The saree is worn in "Seedha Aanchal" style traditionally.[37] Nevertheless, Western shirts and trousers are becoming popular among the both rural and urban male population.[37] And Salwar-Kameez for women in urban Bihar. Jewelery such as rings for men and bangles for women are popular. However, there are some traditional Bihari jewelries like "Chhara", "Hansuli", "Kamarbandh",etc.[37]

Language and literature[edit]

Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the state, whilst the majority of the people speak one of the Bihari languagesBajjikaa, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili and Angika, along with Nepali in the border regions. Bihari languages were once mistakenly thought to be dialects of Hindi. However, that does not hold true as they have been more recently shown to be derived from the language of the erstwhile Magadha kingdom – Magadhi Prakrit, along with Bengali, Nepali, Assamese, and Oriya. Bhojpuri is spoken throughout the Bhojpuri region by the majority of Biharis living there. Maithili is used by the Maithils in the Mithila region.

The number of speakers of the Bihari languages is difficult to count because of unreliable sources. In the urban region, most educated speakers of the language name Hindi as their language because this is what they use in formal contexts and believe it to be the appropriate response because of unawareness. The uneducated and the rural population of the region regards Hindi as the generic name for their language.[38]

Despite of the large number of speakers of Bihari languages, they have not been constitutionally recognized in India. Hindi is the language used for educational and official matters in Bihar.[39] These languages was legally absorbed under the subordinate label of Hindi in the 1961 Census. Such state and national politics are creating conditions for language endangerment.[40] The first success for spreading Hindi occurred in Bihar in 1881, when Hindi displaced Urdu as the sole official language of the province. In this struggle between competing Hindi and Urdu, the potential claims of the three large mother tongues in the region – Magahi, Bhojpuri and Maithili were ignored. After independence Hindi was again given the sole official status through the Bihar Official Language Act, 1950.[41] Urdu became the second official language in the undivided State of Bihar on 16 August 1989. Bihar also produced several eminent Urdu writers including Sulaiman Nadvi, Manazir Ahsan Gilani, Abdul Qavi Desnavi, Paigham Afaqui, Jabir Husain, Sohail Azimabadi, Hussain Ul Haque, Dr. Shamim Hashimi,[42] Wahab Ashrafi[43] etc.

Bihar has produced a number of writers of Hindi, including Raja Radhika Raman Singh, Shiva Pujan Sahay, Divakar Prasad Vidyarthy, Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar', Ram Briksh Benipuri, Phanishwar Nath 'Renu', Gopal Singh "Nepali" and Baba Nagarjun. Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, the great writer and Buddhist scholar, was born in U.P. but spent his life in the land of Lord Buddha, i.e., Bihar.Hrishikesh Sulabh and Neeraj Singh (from Ara) are the prominent writer of the new generation. They are short story writer, playwright and theatre critic. Arun Kamal and Aalok Dhanwa are the well-known poets. Different regional languages also have produced some prominent poets and authors. Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay, who is among the greatest writers in Bengali, resided for some time in Bihar. Upamanyu Chatterjee also hails from Patna in Bihar. Devaki Nandan Khatri, who rose to fame at the beginning of the 20th century on account of his novels such as Chandrakanta and Chandrakanta Santati, was born in Muzaffarpur, Bihar. Vidyapati Thakur is the most renowned poet of Maithili (c. 14–15th century). Satyapal Chandra[44] has written many English bestseller novels and he is one of India's emerging young writer.

Castes and Tribes[edit]

Bihari society follows a very rigid caste system which influences daily life and politics.[45]

The 2011 Census of India indicated that Scheduled Castes constituted 15% of Bihar's 10.4 crores population.[46][47] The census identified 21 of 23 Dalit sub-castes as Mahadalits.[48] The Mahadalit community consists of the following sub-castes: Bantar, Bauri, Bhogta, Bhuiya, Chaupal, Dabgar, Dom (Dhangad), Ghasi, Halalkhor, Hari (Mehtar, Bhangi), Kanjar, Kurariar, Lalbegi, Musahar, Nat, Pan (Swasi), Rajwar, Turi, Dhobi, Pasi, Chamar and Paswan (Dusadh).[49] The Paswan caste was initially left out of the Mahadalit category, to the consternation of Ram Vilas Paswan.[50][51]Adivasis (Scheduled Tribes) constituted around 1.3% of the Bihari population.[52][53][54] They include the Gond, Santhal and Tharu communities.[55][56] There are about 130 Extremely Backward Castes (EBCs) in Bihar.[57][58]

Castes of Bihar[59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67]
Caste Population (%) Notes
OBC/EBC 51% Yadavs - 14%
Kurmis - 4%
Kushwaha(Koeri)- 8%
(EBCs - 26%[57][68][69][70][71] -includes,[72][73][74] Teli-3.2%))
Mahadalits*+ Dalits(SCs) 16%[75][76] includes Dusadh- 5%, Musahar- 2.8%[77]
Muslims 16.9 %[78] includes Shershahbadi, Surjapuri, Ansari castes[79][80]
Forward caste 15% [81] Bhumihar-6%
Brahmin -5%[82]
Rajputs - 3%
Kayastha -1%
Adivasis(STs) 1.3% [83][84]
Others 0.4% includes Christians,Sikhs,Jains

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Bihar

According to the 2011 census, 82.7% of Bihar's population practiced Hinduism, while 16.9% followed Islam.[85]

Religion Population
Hindu 82.7
Muslim 16.9
Others 0.4

Bihar Movement[edit]

Bihar Movement was a movement initiated by students in the Indian state of Bihar in 1974 and led by the veteran Gandhian Socialist Jayaprakash Narayan against misrule of and corruption in the government. By 1975 it had attracted a mass following amongst all sections of the population in Bihar and in some other states. It is also called "total revolution". It led to giving up of surnames by many Biharis in the 1970s.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census of india 2011" (PDF). Government of India. 
  2. ^ Kashmir and Sindh: Nation-building, Ethnicity and Regional Politics in South Asia. The total population of Pakistan is about 120 million, out of which 20 million have migrated from India 
  3. ^ National Security: Imperatives and Challenges. There are 20 million Muhajirs in Pakistan (2004) 
  4. ^ Understanding the Cultural Landscape. 
  5. ^ Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities
  6. ^ The Man who Divided India: An Insight Into Jinnah's Leadership and It. 
  7. ^ "Biharis of Bangladesh". Flaqs. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  8. ^ "Bangladesh: Stateless Biharis Grasp for a Resolution and Their Rights". Refugees International. Archived from the original on 21 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  9. ^ "Stateless in Bangladesh and Pakistan". Stateless People in Bangladesh Inc. Archived from the original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  10. ^ "Pakistan under attack!". The Tribune (Editorial). Chandigarh. 2000-09-20. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  11. ^ "Assessment for Biharis in Bangladesh". Center for International Development and Conflict Management. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  12. ^ P. 1543 Encyclopaedia of Hinduism By Nagendra Kumar Singh
  13. ^ Chakravarti, P. 99 The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through the Ages
  14. ^ Political History of Pre-Buddhist India By Asim Kumar Chatterjee
  15. ^ a b Maitra Asim, Magahi culture, Cosmo Publication, 1983, pp. 45
  16. ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-hsien (chapter27)
  17. ^ Basham, A. L. (2004). The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before the Coming of the Muslims (3rd ed.). Picador. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-330-43909-1. 
  18. ^ Flood, Gavin (2009-08-24). "History of Hinduism". BBC. 
  19. ^ Nath, Pathak Prabhu (1988). Society and culture in early Bihar: (c. A. D. 200 - 600). New Delhi: Commonwealth Publ. pp. 134–140. OCLC 614685504. 
  20. ^ Thakur, U. (1956). Studies in Jainism and Buddhism in Mithila. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office. p. 150. OCLC 644537718. 
  21. ^ Chaudhary, R. K. (1956). Bihar the Home-land of Buddhism. Patna: Sri. Sidhartha Press. p. 87. 
  22. ^ O'Neill, Tom (January 2008). "India's Ancient Art". National Geographic. Vol. 213 no. 1. p. 132. 
  23. ^ Gopal 1994, p. 20.
  24. ^ The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 8)
  25. ^ O'Malley 1909, p. 35.
  26. ^ Smith V. A., Early history of India
  27. ^ O'Malley 1909, p. 36.
  28. ^ Elliot, History of India, Vol 4
  29. ^ O'Malley, L. S. S. (2005) [First published 1909]. History of Magadha. Delhi: Veena Publications. p. 37. ISBN 978-8189224011. 
  30. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=9eKbW3ukh9oC&pg=PA57&dq=purbia+malwa&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=purbia%20malwa&f=false
  31. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=Fh_fAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA103&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  32. ^ Indian Post. "First Bihar Deputy CM and Finance Minister; Dr. A N Sinha". official Website. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  33. ^ Kamat. "Great freedom Fighters". Kamat's archive. Archived from the original on 20 February 2006. Retrieved 2006-02-25. 
  34. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  35. ^ Winer, Lise (2009) Dictionary of the English/Creole of Trinidad & Tobago: On Historical Principles [1]
  36. ^ O`malley, L.S.S. (1924) Bihar And Orissa Gazetteers Shahabad
  37. ^ a b c "Bihari Clothing". Web India 123. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  38. ^ Jain, Dhanesh; Cardona, George (2003). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 500. The number of speakers of Bihari languages are difficult to indicate because of unreliable sources. In the urban region, most educated speakers of the language name either Hindi or Urdu as their language because this is what they use in formal contexts and believe it to be the appropriate response because of unawareness. The uneducated and the rural population of the region regards Hindi or Urdu as the generic name for their language. 
  39. ^ History of Indian languages, "Bihari is actually the name of a group of three related languages—Bhojpuri, Maithili, and Magahi—spoken mainly in northeastern India in Bihar. Despite its large number of speakers, Bihari is not a constitutionally recognized language of India. Even in Bihar, Hindi is the language used for educational and official matters."
  40. ^ Verma, Mahandra K. "Language Endangerment and Indian languages: An exploration and a critique". Linguistic Structure and Language Dynamics in South Asia. 
  41. ^ Brass Paul R., The Politics of India Since Independence, Cambridge University Press, pp. 183
  42. ^ DR.Shamim Hashimi. Urdu Literature (1947-08-14). Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  43. ^ Professor Dr. Syed Abdul Wahab Ashrafi, Sahitya Academy Award winner, brought to you by Bihar Anjuman, the largest online group from Bihar or Jharkhand. Biharanjuman.org (1936-06-02). Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  44. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/patna/After-11-novels-Bihar-lad-set-for-Bollywood-debut/articleshow/20938614.cms
  45. ^ https://books.google.com/books? id=lGNuAAAAMAAJ&q=Bihar+rigid+caste+system&dq=Bihar+rigid+caste+system&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y
  46. ^ Utpal Bhaskar. "Foreign diplomats line up for Bihar elections". livemint.com. 
  47. ^ "How Bihar Elections Could Shape India's Future". The Huffington Post. 
  48. ^ "Bihar polls: Jitan Ram Manjhi announces alliance with BJP". 
  49. ^ "Ram Vilas Paswan-Jitan Ram Manjhi battle for Mahadalit leadership making it tough for BJP in Bihar". 
  50. ^ "Non-inclusion of Paswans in Mahadalit list angers Paswan". 
  51. ^ "Bihar CM includes Paswan caste in Mahadalit category". 
  52. ^ "Does Bihar know how many tribals live in the State?". 
  53. ^ "27 lakh SC & ST families to benefit from Food Law in Bihar". 
  54. ^ "Bihar assembly elections 2015: Experiments in the caste lab of Bihar". Tehelka - Investigations, Latest News, Politics, Analysis, Blogs, Culture, Photos, Videos, Podcasts. 
  55. ^ "Special package for Tharu tribals in Bihar". 
  56. ^ "Stage set for tribal all-woman battalion". 
  57. ^ a b "Nitish Kumar's gambit: temple fund, 2 EBCs added to SC/ST list". 
  58. ^ "Bihar state EBC list" (PDF). 
  59. ^ "Election Commission in a spot: Bihar has 6.01 crore adults, but more than 6.21 crore voters". 
  60. ^ "How Bihar was won". 
  61. ^ "Now Lalu wants to do a Maya in Bihar". 
  62. ^ "The caste factor while casting votes in Indian elections". 
  63. ^ AM Jigeesh. "Caste determines Bihar's electoral arithmetic". The Hindu Business Line. 
  64. ^ "Nitish gives 'Maha Dalit' benefits to Paswan community". 
  65. ^ "Why did Narendra Modi suddenly turn to caste?". 
  66. ^ "Bihar poised to return to politics of caste, religion". 
  67. ^ "Nitish in caste trouble". 
  68. ^ "Voice of unity for EBC voters". The Telegraph. 
  69. ^ "Bihar elections still remain about slicing and dicing caste, EBCs are the wild card". 
  70. ^ "Frenemies: BJP's tie-up with Jitan Ram Manjhi could give it edge in Bihar polls". 
  71. ^ "Bihar voters in dilemma". 
  72. ^ "BJP ties up with OBC leader Upendra Kushwaha in Bihar". 
  73. ^ "Jitan Ram Manjhi emerges critical player in poll-bound Bihar". The Times of India. 
  74. ^ "BJP may bring in Kushwaha as OBC face". 
  75. ^ "Can RJD-JD(U) stop BJP's rise in Bihar?". 
  76. ^ "Bihar's Mahadalits pick sides in Nitish-Manjhi tussle". 
  77. ^ "Bihar polls: Rallying behind Jitan Ram Manjhi, Musahars vow to unseat Nitish Kumar". 
  78. ^ "Bihar elections among factors in religious data of Census 2011 release". 
  79. ^ http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/bihar-polls-people-made-me-cry-a-lot-says-bjps-pucca-musalman/
  80. ^ "Will the Muslim militia polarise community on caste lines in Bihar's Imamganj?". 
  81. ^ "Is Nitish Kumar working on a new Bihar poll strategy that excludes Laloo and Mulayam?". 
  82. ^ "Brahmins In India". 
  83. ^ "Bihar brings all Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes' families under National Food Security Act". 
  84. ^ "Nitish banks on caste calculations, Muslims". 
  85. ^ "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]