From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Robert Henry Maxwell (Bobby) Gibbes|
Bobby Gibbes, North Africa, c. January 1942
|Born||6 May 1916
Young, New South Wales
|Died||11 April 2007
Sydney, New South Wales
|Service/branch||Royal Australian Air Force|
|Years of service||1940–46
|Unit||No. 23 Squadron (1940)
No. 450 Squadron (1941)
No. 2 OTU (1944)
No. 80 Wing (1944–45)
|Commands held||No. 3 Squadron (1942–43)|
World War II
|Awards||Distinguished Service Order
Distinguished Flying Cross and Bar
Medal of the Order of Australia
Robert Henry Maxwell (Bobby) Gibbes, DSO, DFC and Bar, OAM (6 May 1916 – 11 April 2007) was a leading Australian fighter ace of World War II, and the longest-serving wartime commanding officer of No. 3 Squadron RAAF. He was officially credited with 10¼ aerial victories, although his score is often reported as 12, including two shared. Gibbes was also credited with five aircraft probably destroyed, and a further 16 damaged. He commanded No. 3 Squadron in North Africa from February 1942 to April 1943, apart from a brief period when he was injured.
Born in rural New South Wales, Gibbes worked as a jackaroo and salesman before joining the Royal Australian Air Force in February 1940. Posted to the Middle East in April 1941, he flew with No. 3 Squadron in the Syria–Lebanon Campaign, and became commanding officer during the Western Desert Campaign, where his leadership and fighting skills earned him the Distinguished Service Order and the Distinguished Flying Cross and Bar. Subsequently posted to the South West Pacific, he served with No. 80 Wing of the Australian First Tactical Air Force, and took part in the "Morotai Mutiny" of April 1945. After the war he spent many years in New Guinea developing local industry, for which he was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia in 2004. He continued to fly until the age of 85, and died five years later in 2007.
Family and early career
The only son of Henry and Cora Gibbes, Robert Henry Maxwell (Bobby) Gibbes was born on 6 May 1916 in Young, New South Wales. He came from a family that had long been active in the government and military. His great-grandfather, Colonel John George Nathaniel Gibbes, built his residence "Wotonga" at Kirribilli; the property was later refurbished to become Sydney's Admiralty House. Gibbes' grandfather, Augustus Onslow Manby Gibbes, owned Yarralumla station, subsequently the official residence of Australia's Governor-General. His father was a grazier and his uncle Fred a Sopwith Camel pilot in World War I who was killed in action. Gibbes attended All Saints College in Bathurst, and various schools in Manly, before earning a living as a jackaroo.
Gibbes was working as a salesman when he joined the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) on 2 February 1940. He exaggerated his height, which was below the minimum requirement, to gain entrance. In a 1990 interview, he related that he had undertaken flying lessons at his own expense prior to enlisting, but "when war was declared, I thought I'd wait for King George to pay for the rest". He further recalled that he applied to join the Royal Australian Navy at the same time, but was still waiting for a response. After completing flying training at Mascot and Richmond, New South Wales, and Point Cook, Victoria, Gibbes was commissioned a pilot officer on 28 June 1940. His initial posting was to No. 23 Squadron, which operated CAC Wirraways and Lockheed Hudsons out of Archerfield, Queensland. He was promoted to flying officer on 26 December 1940.
Two of Gibbes' cousins—both born in 1915 and, like Bobby, only sons—were also pilots in the RAAF. Rodney Gibbes joined the Air Force in July 1936. Peter Gibbes, an airline pilot before the war, enlisted in December 1940. Each earned the Distinguished Flying Cross, Rodney in 1940 for his part in a Wellington bomber raid in Europe while serving with the Royal Air Force, and Peter in 1942 for his actions flying a Hudson bomber with No. 1 Squadron RAAF during the Malayan Campaign. Rodney died in action over Italy on 16 May 1943.
In April 1941, Gibbes was posted to the Middle East as adjutant of No. 450 Squadron. The following month he transferred to No. 3 Squadron, which was flying Hawker Hurricanes. In June, after converting to P-40 Tomahawks, the squadron commenced operations in the Syria–Lebanon Campaign. Gibbes was credited with a probable victory over a Junkers Ju 88 near Bierut on 13 June. On 11 July he claimed his first "kill", a Dewoitine D.520 fighter of the Vichy French air force, over Aleppo. He shared in its destruction with John Jackson, after which the pair tossed a coin to take full credit for it, and Gibbes won. In September, No. 3 Squadron transferred to the Western Desert Campaign, where it saw action against German and Italian forces. On 20 November, during Operation Crusader, Gibbes took part in the destruction of a Messerschmitt Bf 110 with three other pilots, crash landing back at base with damage to his own aircraft. He had a particularly successful day on 25 November, when he shot down two Fiat G.50s and damaged three more, as well as a Messerschmitt Bf 109. Five days later he destroyed a G.50 over Tobruk. On 22 January 1942, he brought down a Junkers Ju 87 and damaged two G.50s. He was promoted to acting flight lieutenant the same month.
Raised to acting squadron leader, Gibbes was appointed commanding officer of No. 3 Squadron on 26 February 1942. The unit's Tomahawks had by this time been replaced by Kittyhawks, and Gibbes emblazoned his with a cartoon depicting a kangaroo kicking a dachshund in the rear. He claimed a Bf 109 (possibly a misidentified Macchi C.202) during the Siege of Tobruk on 7 May. On 26 May, he was shot down while leading an attack on a heavily escorted force of Luftwaffe bombers near El Adem. After firing at and probably destroying a Bf 109, Gibbes was hit by fire from a Ju 88 and had to bail out. Part of his parachute became entangled with the tailplane of his stricken aircraft and he struggled to escape. He broke his ankle in the landing but within six weeks was flying again, his leg still in a cast. Due to his enforced absence, fellow ace Nicky Barr was given command of No. 3 Squadron until he himself was shot down and taken prisoner on 26 June, at which point Gibbes again took charge of the unit. Barr later said that although Gibbes was not a brilliant shot, he had the keenest eyesight of any pilot he knew when it came to locating enemy aircraft and alerting his fellows for the attack. Another No. 3 Squadron pilot, Tom Russell, also recalled that Gibbes was particularly adept at finding targets, and that "if we got scattered in a dogfight he had the uncanny ability to get us back into formation in a very short space of time".
Gibbes was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) on 28 July 1942 for his actions on 26 May, the citation noting his "exceptional skill and gallantry". On 1 September, he destroyed a Bf 109 and damaged two others during the Battle of Alam el Halfa, east of El Alamein. He claimed No. 3 Squadron's 200th victim, a Bf 109F, during the Battle of El Alamein on 28 October. Air Marshal Sir Peter Drummond, Deputy Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Middle East, sent him a signal reading "Heartiest congratulations to you and all ranks in the squadron on the achievement of your double century—not out". Around this time Gibbes also managed to fly Bf 109F and G fighters captured from the Germans, and came away impressed. He was credited with another Bf 109 on 17 November. On 21 December, he landed his Kittyhawk in rugged terrain near Hun, Libya, to rescue a fellow pilot who had been forced down. Gibbes threw out his own parachute to make room in the cockpit for his passenger and lost part of his undercarriage taking off, necessitating a one-wheeled landing back at base. Recommended for the Victoria Cross for this action, he was instead awarded the Distinguished Service Order, which was promulgated on 15 January 1943 and cited his "outstanding qualities of leadership and enthusiasm". Gibbes himself crash landed behind enemy lines on 14 January 1943, walking 50 miles (80 km) in the desert before being picked up by a British Army patrol. He was awarded a bar to his DFC for this feat, and for his "exceptional leadership, skill and courage, contributing in a large measure to the success of the squadron he commands". The award made him the most highly decorated pilot in the RAAF.
On 22 January 1943, Gibbes claimed his last kill, a C.202. He was officially credited with a total of 10¼ victories, though other estimates gave him a score of 12, including two shared. He was also credited with five "probables", and another 16 damaged. During his tour of duty in the Middle East, he flew 274 sorties and became No. 3 Squadron's longest-serving wartime commanding officer. Squadron member Bob Smith recalled him as lacking somewhat in administrative ability, but an "Errol Flynn" in the air. Gibbes, for his part, later admitted to being in "an absolute state of terror" before missions, only to "sort of become mechanical" once the shooting started. He described his post-combat feelings thus:
Man becomes animal when he thinks he is about to die. As you fly back to your base, now safe at last, a feeling of light-hearted exuberance comes over you. It is wonderful to still be alive and it is, I think, merely the after-effect of violent, terrible fear.
South West Pacific
Gibbes handed over command of No. 3 Squadron to Squadron Leader Brian Eaton on 19 April 1943. With his rank of squadron leader confirmed the same month, Gibbes departed North Africa to serve at RAAF Overseas Headquarters, London, until October. While in England he converted to de Havilland Mosquito night fighters and was slated to command No. 464 Squadron RAAF, but was instead posted back to Australia, via Canada. There, according to Gibbes, he gave a series of morale-building lectures on air combat to Empire Air Training Scheme students: "So I, you know, went round and lied like hell. I said that it was all a piece of cake." In January 1944, he joined No. 2 Operational Training Unit (OTU) at Mildura, Victoria, becoming chief flying instructor in March. He worked with Clive Caldwell, Australia's top-scoring ace, to improve the success rate at No. 2 OTU by personally selecting the most promising pilots from local service flying training schools. Gibbes was promoted to temporary wing commander on 1 July. In October he was posted to Darwin in the Northern Territory, flying Supermarine Spitfires as wing leader of No. 80 Wing. The role made him deputy to Group Captain Caldwell, the wing's commanding officer. Gibbes later suffered burns in a crash landing following engine failure. In December he met, in his own words, "a little dark-haired popsy" named Jeannine Ince, a volunteer with the Red Cross who had nursed him in hospital. They married on 23 January 1945.
No. 80 Wing had begun transferring to the Dutch East Indies in December 1944, and the main body followed in January 1945. Gibbes' injuries prevented him from joining the formation at its base on Morotai, where it came under the control of the Australian First Tactical Air Force (No. 1 TAF), until 9 March. Once there, he took over as temporary commanding officer for a few days when Caldwell was called to Manila. In April, Gibbes was one of eight senior pilots, including Caldwell and fellow aces Wilf Arthur and John Waddy, who tendered their resignations in protest at the relegation of RAAF fighter squadrons to apparently worthless ground-attack missions. The incident became known as the "Morotai Mutiny". Gibbes later declared that "... after I myself had been operating for a week or so and had a really good look around and seen the futility of the operations which had been given, I could not see any point in carrying on. I certainly lost all keenness for remaining in the service." As a former jackaroo, he was especially upset about one sortie that involved attacking cattle: "I felt horrible about it, being an ex bushy ... at about lunch time I went out and darned if I didn't have to turn butcher. And Heavens, it was butchering too, in every sense of the word. No—not the Japs. Cattle ... If we are to get the Japs out of this area without loss of human lives, starvation will be our main weapon ... God, I hated doing it but could do nothing else. Felt as sick as hell." No action was taken against the "mutineers" for their attempted resignations; a subsequent government inquiry found that their protest was justified. In the meantime, Gibbes and Caldwell were court martialled for their involvement in alcohol trafficking on Morotai. Both were reduced to the rank of flight lieutenant; the Air Officer Commanding No. 1 TAF, Air Commodore Harry Cobby, himself shortly to be dismissed over the "mutiny", restored Gibbes to squadron leader effective 23 April.
Post-war career and later life
In July 1945, Gibbes was assigned to the staff of RAAF Headquarters, Melbourne. Following his discharge from the Air Force on 11 January 1946, he was initially employed as a stock and station agent in Coonamble, New South Wales. He flew a Butler Bat twin-engined aircraft to facilitate his work, reportedly the only New South Welshman in his profession to do so at the time. Gibbes spent much of the next 30 years in New Guinea, pioneering the island's transport, coffee and hospitality industries. In January 1948, he formed Gibbes Sepik Airways using, among other types, three German Junkers Ju 52s, one of which was said to have been the personal transport of senior Luftwaffe commander Albert Kesselring. He was joined briefly in this venture, headquartered at Wewak, by Nicky Barr. Gibbes also established a tea and coffee plantation at Mount Hagen, New Guinea, in 1950, and served as a member of the RAAF Active Reserve, based in Townsville, Queensland, from 1952 until 1957. In 1958, he sold his share in Gibbes Sepik Airways to Mandated Airlines, which was later bought out by Ansett Australia. He continued to develop coffee plantations in New Guinea, and built a large chain of hotels beginning with the Bird of Paradise in Goroka.
Gibbes sold his interests in New Guinea in 1972. He spent most of the remainder of the decade in the Mediterranean, aboard his catamaran Billabong. In his 60s, he sailed Billabong from England to Australia by himself, braving heavy seas and Malaysian pirates along the way. By 1979 he was living in Sydney and had begun building his own twin-engined plane, which he eventually took to the air in 1990. In 1994, Gibbes published his autobiography, You Live But Once. He continued to fly until forced to give up his civil aviation licence at the age of 85. In 2002, he appeared in an episode of the television series Australian Story dedicated to Nicky Barr. Gibbes was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia on 26 January 2004 for "service to aviation and to tourism, particularly in Papua New Guinea". He died of a stroke at Mona Vale Hospital in Sydney on 11 April 2007, aged 90, and was survived by his wife and two daughters. His funeral service at St Thomas' Church, North Sydney, was attended by 350 mourners, including the Chief of Air Force, Air Marshal Geoff Shepherd, and 40 members of No. 3 Squadron led by the commanding officer. A Spitfire in the "Grey Nurse" livery of one of Gibbes' World War II aircraft overflew the church, along with four F/A-18 Hornet jet fighters from No. 3 Squadron in a "missing man" formation.
- "The "Fighting Gibbes" of the RAAF". Daily News. Perth: National Library of Australia. 30 July 1943. p. 5. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Chisholm, Who's Who in Australia 1947, p. 361
- Humpherson, Andrew (3 June 2004). "Tribute to Mr Bobby Gibbes". Hansard & Papers. Parliament of NSW. Archived from the original on 12 February 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Dulhunty, Beryl (1959). "The Dulhunty Papers: Chronicle of a Family". Archived from the original on 28 August 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- Gibbes; Stokes, "Gibbes, Robert Henry Maxwell 'Bobby'", p. 5
- Carman, Gerry (14 April 2007). "Air ace was born to fly: Bobby Gibbes 1916–2007". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2007.
- Gibbes; Stokes, "Gibbes, Robert Henry Maxwell 'Bobby'", p. 3
- Garrisson, Australian Fighter Aces, p. 133
- "Gibbes, Robert Henry Maxwell". World War 2 Nominal Roll. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- Gibbes; Stokes, "Gibbes, Robert Henry Maxwell 'Bobby'", pp. 3–4
- "Wing Commander Robert Henry Maxwell (Bobby) Gibbes, DSO, DFC and bar". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- Newton, Australian Air Aces, p. 87
- RAAF Historical Section, Bomber Units, pp. 69–70
- "Gibbes, Augustus Rodney". World War 2 Nominal Roll. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "Gibbes, Peter John". World War 2 Nominal Roll. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- The London Gazette: . 13 September 1940. Retrieved on 6 August 2013.
- The London Gazette: . 29 December 1942. Retrieved on 6 August 2013.
- "Augustus Rodney Gibbes". Roll of Honour. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Gibbes; Stokes, "Gibbes, Robert Henry Maxwell 'Bobby'", p. 7
- "Wing Commander Bobby Gibbes". The Times. London. 1 May 2007. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2007.
- Thomas, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk Aces, p. 8
- Thomas, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk Aces, p. 9
- Shores; Williams, Aces High, p. 161
- Shores; Ring, Fighters Over the Desert, pp. 63–64
- Thomas, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk Aces, p. 18
- "Wing-Commander Robert Gibbes". The Scotsman. 18 April 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Thomas, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk Aces, pp. 31–32
- Herington, Air War Against Germany and Italy, pp. 231, 244
- "Wg Cdr Bobby Gibbes". The Telegraph. London. 25 April 2007. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- Barr; Stokes, "Barr, Andrew William 'Nicky'", pp. 15–16
- Russell; Stokes, "Russell, Thomas Leslie", p. 17
- The London Gazette: . 28 July 1942. Retrieved on 16 November 2008.
- Shores; Ring, Fighters Over the Desert, p. 169
- Thomas, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk Aces, p. 43
- Shores; Ring, Fighters Over the Desert, p. 197
- "Double century—not out". The Argus. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. 2 November 1942. p. 12. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Wilson, The Brotherhood of Airmen, pp. 88–89
- Thomas, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk Aces, p. 45
- The London Gazette: . 15 January 1943. Retrieved on 16 November 2008.
- Stackpool, Andrew (3 May 2007). "WWII ace farewelled". Air Force News. Archived from the original on 14 September 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2007.
- The London Gazette: . 25 May 1943. Retrieved on 16 November 2008.
- Odgers, The Royal Australian Air Force, p. 125
- Dornan, Nicky Barr, pp. 279–280
- Thomas, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk Aces, p. 102
- Smith; Stokes, "Smith, Robert Bruce 'Bob'", p. 12
- Gibbes; Stokes, "Gibbes, Robert Henry Maxwell 'Bobby'", p. 15
- Gibbes, Bobby. "Bobby Gibbes writes on fear". 3 Sqn Association. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- RAAF Historical Section, Fighter Units, p. 7
- Gibbes; Stokes, "Gibbes, Robert Henry Maxwell 'Bobby'", pp. 40–41
- Alexander, Clive Caldwell, pp. 139, 158
- Alexander, Clive Caldwell, pp. 166, 272
- Alexander, Clive Caldwell, pp. 166–168, 178
- Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 123–124
- Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 443–445
- Alexander, Kristen (1 September 2004). ""Cleaning the Augean stables". The Morotai Mutiny?". Sabretache. Military Historical Society of Australia. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Alexander, Clive Caldwell, pp. 202–203, 212
- "R. H. Gibbes reduced in rank to squadron leader". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney: National Library of Australia. 1 June 1945. p. 1. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Turner, The RAAF at War, p. 162
- "Bobby Gibbes in air with job". The Barrier Miner. Broken Hill, New South Wales: National Library of Australia. 17 September 1946. p. 7. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Dornan, Nicky Barr, p. 273
- Alexander, Who’s Who in Australia 1955, p. 308
- "The Quiet Man". Australian Story. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1 April 2002. Archived from the original on 17 August 2002. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "Gibbes, Robert Henry: Medal of the Order of Australia". It's an Honour. 26 January 2004. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "WWII veteran Bobby Gibbes farewelled by Spitfire". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 17 April 2007. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- Alexander, Joseph A. (ed.) (1955). Who's Who in Australia 1955. Melbourne: Colorgravure. OCLC 221681426.
- Alexander, Kristen (2006). Clive Caldwell: Air Ace. St. Leonards, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-705-0.
- Barr, Nicky; Stokes, Edward (3 July 1990). Barr, Andrew William 'Nicky' (Squadron Leader), interviewed by Edward Stokes (PDF). The Keith Murdoch Sound Archive of Australia in the War of 1939–45. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.
- Chisholm, Alec H. (ed.) (1947). Who's Who in Australia 1947. Melbourne: The Herald and Weekly Times. OCLC 221679476.
- Dornan, Peter (2005) . Nicky Barr: An Australian Air Ace. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-529-5.
- Garrisson, A.D. (1999). Australian Fighter Aces 1914–1953. Fairbairn, Australian Capital Territory: Air Power Studies Centre. ISBN 0-642-26540-2.
- Gibbes, Bobby; Stokes, Edward (28 April 1990). Gibbes, Robert Henry Maxwell 'Bobby' (Wing Commander), interviewed by Edward Stokes (PDF). The Keith Murdoch Sound Archive of Australia in the War of 1939–45. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.
- Herington, John (1954). Australia in the War of 1939–1945: Series Three (Air) Volume III – Air War Against Germany and Italy 1939–1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 3633363.
- Newton, Dennis (1996). Australian Air Aces. Fyshwyck, Australian Capital Territory: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-25-0.
- Odgers, George (1968) . Australia in the War of 1939–1945: Series Three (Air) Volume II – Air War Against Japan 1943–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 1990609.
- Odgers, George (1984). The Royal Australian Air Force: An Illustrated History. Brookvale, New South Wales: Child & Henry. ISBN 0-86777-368-5.
- RAAF Historical Section (1995). Units of the Royal Australian Air Force: A Concise History. Volume 2: Fighter Units. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0-644-42794-9.
- RAAF Historical Section (1995). Units of the Royal Australian Air Force: A Concise History. Volume 3: Bomber Units. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0-644-42795-7.
- Russell, Thomas; Stokes, Edward (27 April 1990). Russell, Thomas Leslie (Flight Lieutenant), interviewed by Edward Stokes (PDF). The Keith Murdoch Sound Archive of Australia in the War of 1939–45. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.
- Shores, Christopher; Williams, Clive (1966). Aces High: The Fighter Aces of the British and Commonwealth Air Forces in World War II. London: Neville Spearman. OCLC 8013035.
- Shores, Christopher; Ring, Hans (1969). Fighters Over the Desert: The Air Battles in the Western Desert June 1940 to December 1942. London: Neville Spearman. OCLC 164897156.
- Smith, Robert; Stokes, Edward (18 October 1990). Smith, Robert Bruce 'Bob' (Corporal), interviewed by Edward Stokes (PDF). The Keith Murdoch Sound Archive of Australia in the War of 1939–45. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.
- Stephens, Alan (2006) . The Royal Australian Air Force: A History. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-555541-4.
- Thomas, Andrew (2005). Tomahawk and Kittyhawk Aces of the RAF and Commonwealth. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84176-083-4.
- Turner, Jim (1999). The RAAF at War. East Roseville, New South Wales: Kangaroo Press. ISBN 0-86417-889-1.
- Wilson, David (2005). The Brotherhood of Airmen. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-333-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bobby Gibbes.|
- Gibbes, R.H. (1994). You Live But Once. Collaroy, New South Wales: Self-published.