From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|CSeries CS300 prototype with the gear almost retracted|
|Role||Narrow-body jet airliner|
|First flight||16 September 2013|
|Introduction||15 July 2016 with Swiss Global Air Lines|
|Primary users||Swiss Global Air Lines
|Number built||13 as of December 2016[update]|
|Program cost||US$ 5.4 billion as of February 2015[update]|
CS100: US$ 71.8 million
CS300: US$ 82.0 million
The Bombardier CSeries or C Series (officially BD-500-1A10 [CS100] / -1A11 [CS300]) is a family of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range jet airliners by Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace.
The 108 to 133-seat CS100 made its maiden flight on 16 September 2013, was awarded an initial type certification by Transport Canada on 18 December 2015 and entered service on 15 July 2016 with Swiss Global Air Lines.
The 130 to 160-seat CS300 first flew on 27 February 2015, received an initial type certification on 11 July 2016 and the first one entered service with launch customer airBaltic on 14 December 2016.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Orders and deliveries
- 4 Specifications
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Regional Jet expansion
When Fokker, which produced the Fokker 100 100-seat short-haul aircraft, was in difficulty, discussions were initiated with Bombardier on 5 February 1996. After having reviewed and evaluated the opportunities and challenges Fokker represented at the time, Bombardier renounced its acquisition on 27 February. On 15 March, Fokker was declared bankrupt.
On 8 September 1998, Bombardier launched the BRJ-X, or "Bombardier Regional Jet eXpansion", a larger regional jet than the Canadair Regional Jet due to enter service in 2003. Instead of 2–2 seating, the BRJ-X was to have a wider fuselage with 2–3 seating for 85 to 110 passengers, and underwing engine pods. It was abutting the smallest narrow-body jetliners, like the 2–3 DC-9/MD-80/Boeing 717 or the 3–3 A318 and 737-500/737-600. At the end of 2000, the project was shelved by Bombardier in favour of stretching the CRJ700 into the CRJ900.
Meanwhile, Embraer launched its four-abreast, under-wing powered E-jets for 70 to 122 passengers at the Paris Air Show in June 1999, which made its maiden flight in February 2002 and was introduced in 2004. Airbus launched its 107-117 passengers A318 shrink on April 21, 1999, which made its first flight in January 2002, as Boeing had the 737NG-600 first delivered in September 1998.
Bombardier appointed Gary Scott on 8 March 2004 to evaluate the creation of a New Commercial Aircraft Program. Bombardier launched a feasibility study for a five-seat abreast Cseries at Farnborough Airshow in July 2004 to replace aging DC-9/MD-80, Fokker 100, Boeing 737 Classic and BAe-146 with 20% lower operating costs, and 15% lower than aircraft produced at the time. The smaller version should carry 110 to 115 passengers and the larger 130 to 135 passengers over 3,200 nautical miles.
Bombardier's Board of Directors authorized marketing the aircraft on 15 March 2005, seeking firm commitments from potential customers, suppliers and government partners prior to program launch. The C110 was planned to weigh 133,200 lb (60,420 kg) at MTOW and have a length of 114.7 ft (35 m), while the C130 should be 125.3 ft (38.2 m) long and have a 146,000 lb (66,226 kg) MTOW. It would have 3-by-2 standard seating and 4-abreast business class, 7 ft (2.1 m) stand-up headroom, fly-by-wire and side stick controls. 20 percent of the aircraft weight would be in composite materials for the center and rear fuselages, tail cone, empennage and wings. First flight was planned for 2008 and Entry into service in 2010.
In May 2005, the CSeries development was evaluated at US$2.1 billion, shared with suppliers and partner governments for one-third each. The Government of Canada would invest US$262.5 million, the Government of Quebec US$87.5 million and the Government of the United Kingdom US$340 million (£180 million), repayable on a royalty basis per aircraft. The UK Government contribution is part of an investment partnership for the location of the development of the wings, engine nacelles and composite empennage structures at the Belfast plant, where Bombardier bought Short Brothers in 1989.
The CSeries' cross section was designed to give enhanced seating comfort for passengers, with features like broader seats and armrests for the middle passenger and larger windows at every seat to give every passenger the physical and psychological advantages of ample natural light.
On 31 January 2006, Bombardier announced that market conditions couldn't justify the launch of the program, and will reorient CSeries project efforts, team and resources to regional jet and turboprop aircraft. A small team of employees have been kept to develop the Cseries business plan, and would include other risk-sharing partners in the program.
On 31 January 2007, Bombardier announced that work on the aircraft would continue, with entry into service planned for 2013. In November 2007, Bombardier selected the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan, now the PW1000G, already selected to power the Mitsubishi Regional Jet, to be the exclusive powerplant for the CSeries, rated at 23,000 lb thrust (102 kN).
On 22 February 2008, the Board of Directors authorized Bombardier to offer formal sales proposals to airline customers of the CSeries family, providing 20% better fuel burn, and up to 15% better cash operating costs versus similarly sized aircraft produced at the time, with the interest of Lufthansa, Qatar Airways and ILFC.
On 13 July 2008, in a press conference on the eve of the opening of the Farnborough Airshow, Bombardier Aerospace formally launched the CSeries, with a letter of interest from Lufthansa for 60 aircraft, including 30 options, at a US$46.7 million list price. The aircraft fuel efficiency would be 2 litres per 100 kilometres (120 mpg-US) per passenger in a dense seating. The final assembly of the aircraft would be done at Mirabel, wings would be developed and manufactured at Belfast and the aft fuselage and cockpit would be manufactured in Saint-Laurent, Quebec. The fuselage should be built by China Aviation Industry Corporation (AVIC)'s affiliate Shenyang Aircraft Corporation.
Bombardier estimated the market for the 100- to 149-seat market segment of the Cseries to be 6,300 units over 20 years, representing more than $250 billion revenue over the next 20 years, and expects to capture up to half of this.
The new Pratt & Whitney engine should yield 12 percent better fuel economy than existing jets while being quieter, with further improvements from the airplane aerodynamics and lightweight materials. The 15% better cash operating costs come from the engines and high use of composite materials, like the wide-body Boeing 787 Dreamliner and Airbus A350 XWB.
In November 2009, the program was estimated at $3.5 billion, shared with suppliers and governments.
The CSeries programme has several major suppliers, including Shenyang Aircraft (centre fuselage), Alenia Aeronautica (composite horizontal and vertical stabilisers), Fokker Elmo (wiring and interconnection systems), C&D Zodiac (interiors), Parker Hannifin (flight control, fuel and hydraulics systems), Liebherr-Aerospace (air management system), United Technologies Corporation (air data system, flap and slat actuation systems, and engine nacelles), and Rockwell Collins (avionics).
The CSeries aircraft will use the Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics suite, an integrated cockpit system which incorporates 15 inch displays, with comprehensive navigation, communications, surveillance, engine-indicating and crew-alerting system (EICAS), and aircraft maintenance systems.
The composite wings are manufactured and assembled at a purpose built state of the art factory at the Bombardier Aerostructures and Engineering Services (BAES) site in Belfast, Northern Ireland. A section of the fuselage is also manufactured at the Belfast site. The rest of the airframe is built in Montreal, Quebec, Canada; the aircraft is also assembled in Montreal.
In March 2009, Bombardier redesignated the C110 and C130 respectively CS100 and CS300. The models were offered in normal and extended range (ER) versions, additionally, an extra thrust (XT) version of the CS300 was also offered. The ER and XT versions were removed in 2012 by Bombardier, providing a standard range equal to the one previously identified as extended range.
In January 2010, JP Morgan reported that Bombardier was considering a 150-seat version of the CSeries. Bombardier called the report speculative, noting that the CSeries development program "is in the joint definition phase where we will be able to add greater product definition and that includes the ability to make changes before the final design is frozen".
At the Farnborough Airshow in July 2012, Bombardier started discussions with AirAsia about a proposed 160-seat configuration for the CS300 airliner. In November 2012, this configuration was included in the CS300 project, although AirAsia rejected this proposal.
In May 2015, Wall Street Journal's Jon Ostrower reported that Bombardier was studying a CS500 further stretched variant to compete with the core 160 to 180 seats versions of the Boeing 737 and A320 airliners, but development has not been committed to yet.
In February 2012, the first CS100 delivery remained scheduled for the end of 2013. In March 2012, Bombardier precised the target date for the first flight as the second half of 2012. In June 2012, Bombardier reaffirmed this first flight should happen before the end of the year and the entry into service by 2013.
During a conference call in November 2012, Bombardier Aerospace acknowledged a delay of six months, for both first flight to June 2013 and entry into service of the CS100 one year later, due to issues with some unspecified suppliers.
An extensive update on the CSeries program was presented on 7 March 2013; the first "flight test vehicle" (FTV) was displayed in an almost completed state, along with three other FTVs in various states of assembly and confirming the 160-seat "Extra Capacity" version of the CS300, featuring two sets of over wing emergency exits. The electrical system of the first flight test aircraft was successfully powered up in March 2013 and tests on the static test airframe proceeded satisfactorily and on schedule.
In June 2013, due to upgrades of the aircraft's software and final ground testing, Bombardier shifted the timeline for the first flight into July 2013. On 24 July 2013, due to a longer than expected system integration process, the first flight was delayed into "the coming weeks". On 30 August 2013, Bombardier received the flight test permit from Transport Canada, granting permission to perform high speed taxi testing and flight testing.
On 16 September 2013, The CS100 took its maiden flight from Mirabel Airport. Over 14,000 data points were gathered on this first flight, and after some reconfigurations and software upgrades, the aircraft flew for the second time on 1 October 2013. On 16 January 2014, the planned entry-into-service date was delayed again, due to difficulties with certification flight testing, by at least 12 months, to the second half of 2015; the CS300 was still to follow approximately six months after the CS100.
On 29 May 2014, one of the four test aircraft suffered an uncontained engine failure. The test program was suspended until an investigation of the incident could be completed. The incident kept Bombardier from showcasing the CSeries at the week-long 2014 Farnborough Airshow, one of the most important events for the aerospace and defence industry. In August 2014, after slashing its workforce, Bombardier changed the management overseeing the still-grounded aircraft.
Flight testing was resumed on 7 September 2014, after the engine problem had been identified as a fault in the lubrication system. Bombardier chairman Laurent Beaudoin stated that the CSeries is expected to be in commercial service in 2016.
On 27 February 2015, the CS300 prototype took off for its maiden flight at Bombardier's facility at Montreal Mirabel International airport in Quebec. Test flight results showed the aircraft exceeds noise, economic and performance guarantees which may allow for longer range than advertised.
The fifth CS100 first flew on 18 March 2015. On 27 March 2015, Bombardier stated that Canadian certification for the CS100 should come in late 2015 with entry into service in 2016. At the 2015 Paris Air Show, Bombardier released updated performance data, showing improvements with respect to the initial specifications.
On 20 August 2015, Bombardier disclosed it had completed over 80% of the required certification tests for the CS100. On 14 October 2015, Bombardier disclosed it had completed over 90% of the required certification tests for the CS100 and that the first production CS100 aircraft would soon commence function and reliability tests. The CS100 completed its certification testing program in mid-November 2015. On 25 November 2015, Bombardier completed the first phase of its route proving capabilities, with a 100% dispatch reliability.
After a development process that cost US$5.4 billion to December 2015, including a US$3.2 billion writeoff, the smallest model in the series, the 110-125 seat CS100 received initial type certification from Transport Canada on 18 December 2015. At the time, the company had 250 firm orders and letters of intent, plus commitments for another 360, but most of these were for the CS300 model, expected to be certified by the summer of 2016. The first CS100 is expected to be in service with Lufthansa's subsidiary Swiss by mid-2016.
The final prototype, Flight Test Vehicle 8 (FTV8), the second CS300, made its first flight on 3 March 2016.
In October 2015 Airbus confirmed that they had turned down Bombardier's offer to sell a majority share of the CSeries to them. Bombardier then said they would explore alternatives. Just days before, the Government of Quebec reiterated that it would be willing to provide Bombardier with financial aid, should the company request it. Richard Aboulafia, Teal Group vice president of analysis, and a long-time critic of the CSeries, indicated that the cancellation of the program and coverage of losses by the Canadian federal government were both likely.
On the other hand, Bombardier said it was fully committed to the CSeries and had the financial resources in place to support the program.
On 29 October 2015, Bombardier took a $3.2 billion writedown on the CSeries. The incoming federal Canadian government indicated that it would reply to Bombardier's request for $350 million in assistance after the new Liberal government takes power in early November. On the same day, the Quebec government invested $1 billion in the company to save the struggling programme.
A Scotiabank report in early November 2015 indicated that the company and the program would probably need a second bailout, and that even then the CSeries would probably not make money. Scotiabank analyst Turan Quettawala said, "we believe that the writedown corroborates our long-held view that the CSeries is not going to be value accretive under any scenario."
In April 2016, the Federal government offered an aid package to the company without divulging the amount or conditions it imposed. On that date, some media reported that Bombardier had rejected the offer, but an unnamed source advised Reuters that in fact, negotiations were still underway. On 14 April 2016, Bombardier shares were at a six month high based on then-unconfirmed rumours that Delta had ordered CSeries jets.
The company continues to request a $1 billion aid package from the federal government.
Certification and entry into service
US Federal Aviation Administration and European Aviation Safety Agency certification for the CS100 was granted in June 2016. The first CSeries, a CS100, was delivered to Swiss Global Air Lines on 29 June 2016 at Montréal–Mirabel International Airport. Swiss began revenue flight on 15 July 2016 with a flight between Zurich and Paris. Bombardier targets a 99% dispatch reliability at entry into service. After four months of service with Swiss, this goal seems to have been met based on only three aircraft and 1,500 hours flown; "nuisance messages" from the integrated avionics suite and the PW1000G start-up delays have been the main griefs.
The CS300 aircraft was awarded its type certificate by Transport Canada on 11 July 2016. The CS100 and CS300 were awarded a common type rating on November 23, 2016 from EASA and Transport Canada, allowing pilots to qualify on both types interchangeably. Its was first delivered to AirBaltic on 28 November 2016. Revenue service began on 14 December 2016 with a flight from Riga to Amsterdam in a 145-seat two-class configuration, the same date it was awarded type validation by the FAA.
Upon introduction, both variants are performing above their original specifications and the CS300 range is 2% longer than the brochure, as are its per seat and per trip cost. Production will ramp from seven CSeries deliveries in 2016 to 30-35 aircraft in 2017 after Pratt & Whitney PW1000G supply and start issues are resolved. Production could increase to 90-120 aircraft by 2020.
The Bombardier CSeries aircraft will contain a high usage of composite materials and larger windows. The CSeries cabin will feature large, rotating overhead storage bins, allowing each passenger to stow a sizeable carry-on bag overhead. Compared to the cabins of current in-service narrowbody aircraft, the CSeries is to provide airlines with the highest overhead bin volume per passenger and a wider aisle that would allow for faster boarding and disembarkation of passengers.
The CSeries aircraft contain 70% advanced materials comprising 46% composite materials and 24% aluminium-lithium. Bombardier announced in total 15% lower seat-mile costs, 20% fuel burn and CO2 emissions advantage, a 25% reduction in maintenance costs and 4x smaller noise footprint compared to in-production aircraft. Computer software design tools were used on the project, including CATIA, HyperSizer, and similar technology that was employed in the Learjet 85 programme.
Orders and deliveries
The effect of stiff competition and production delays was apparent in early 2016. On 20 January, United Continental Holdings ordered 40 Boeing 737-700 aircraft instead. Aside from ready availability of aircraft already in full production, the purchase of Boeing vs. the Bombardier CSeries was financially prudent. Since United already flies 310 of the 737, there will be savings for pilot training and fewer spare parts will need to be stocked. Boeing also reportedly gave United a massive 73% discount on the 737 deal, dropping the price to $22 million per aircraft, well below the CS300 market value at $36 million. In November 2016, United deferred this order to save $1.6Bn in CAPEX or $26 million per 61 aircraft.
David Tyerman, an analyst with Canaccord Genuity offered the following assessment of the impact of this news to the Toronto Star: "This just shows how difficult it is for Bombardier to win orders these days. It’s not the end of the world, but this loss illustrates what they are up against. It also raises the question of how profitable the next C Series order they win will be for them."
On 17 February 2016, Air Canada signed a letter of intent with Bombardier for up to 75 CS300 aircraft as part of its narrowbody fleet renewal plan. This comprised 45 firm orders, plus options for an additional 30 aircraft. It includes substitution rights to CS100 aircraft in certain circumstances, with deliveries to occur from late 2019 to 2022. The $3.8 billion order for 45 CS300 aircraft was finalized on 28 June 2016.
On 28 April 2016, Bombardier and Delta Air Lines announced a sale for 75 CS100 firm orders and 50 options, the first aircraft should enter service in spring 2018. Airways News believe that a substantial 65 to 70% discount off the $71.8 million list price was provided making the final sale at $24.6–28.7 million price per aircraft; this large order from a major carrier could help Bombardier to break the Boeing/Airbus duopoly on narrowbody aircraft. With those 127 firm orders in early 2016, introduction should be with a firm backlog of more than 300 orders and up to 800 aircraft including options, conditional orders, letters of intent and purchase rights; they imply an onerous contract provision of around $500 million, $3.9 million per order.
|Cockpit crew||2 pilots|
|Passengers||108 (8F + 108Y) to 133 (1-class)||130 (12F + 118Y) to 160 (1-class)|
|Seat pitch||28 in (71 cm) in max. density
to 36 in (91 cm) in 2-class
|28 in (71 cm) in max. density
to 38 in (97 cm) in 2-class
|Seat width||18.5 in (47 cm) to 20 in (51 cm)|
|Length||114 ft 9 in / 35.0 m||127 ft 0 in / 38.7 m|
|Wingspan||115 ft 1 in / 35.1 m|
|Wing Area||1,209 sq ft / 112.3 m²|
|Height||37 ft 8 in / 11.5 m|
|Fuselage diameter||12 ft 2 in / 3.7 m|
|Cabin width||129.0 in / 3.28 m|
|Cabin height||83.0 in / 2.11 m|
|Cabin length||77 ft 10 in / 23.7 m||90 ft 1 in / 27.5 m|
|Cargo volume||838 cu ft / 23.7 m³||1,116 cu ft / 31.6 m³|
|Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)||base : 121,000 lb / 54,885 kg
max : 134,000 lb / 60,781 kg
|base : 132,000 lb / 59,874 kg
max : 149,000 lb / 67,585 kg
|Maximum landing weight (MLW)||base : 112,500 lb / 51,029 kg
max : 115,500 lb / 52,390 kg
|base : 124,500 lb / 56,472 kg
max : 129,500 lb / 58,740 kg
|Maximum Zero Fuel Weight||111,000 lb / 50,349 kg||123,000 lb / 55,792 kg|
|Maximum cargo payload||8,000 lb / 3,629 kg||10,700 lb / 4,853 kg|
|Maximum payload (total)||base : 30,350 lb / 13,767 kg
max : 33,350 lb / 15,127 kg
|base : 36,750 lb / 16,670 kg
max : 41,250 lb / 18,711 kg
|Operating Empty Weight||77,650 lb (35,221 kg)||81,750 lb (37,081 kg)|
|Fuel capacity[a]||38,875 lb / 17,630 kg||37,950 lb / 17,213 kg|
|Maximum range||3,100 nmi / 5,741 km||3,300 nmi / 6,112 km|
|Range for urban operations: LCY||2,350 nmi (4,352 km)|
|Cruise speed, maximum||Mach 0.82 (470 knots / 871 km/h)|
|Cruise speed, typical||Mach 0.78 (447 kn / 829 km/h)|
|Take off run at base weight||4,000 ft / 1,219 m||5,000 ft / 1,524 m|
|Take off run at MTOW||4,800 ft / 1,463 m||6,200 ft / 1,890 m|
|Landing field length at base weight||4,450 ft / 1,356 m||4,800 ft / 1,463 m|
|Landing field length at MLW||4,550 ft / 1,387 m||4,950 ft / 1,509 m|
|Service ceiling||41,000 ft / 12,497 m|
|Engines||2× Pratt & Whitney PW1500G|
|Fan diameter||73 in (185 cm)|
|Thrust per Engine||PW1519G (CS100) : 18,900 lbf / 84.1 kN
PW1521G : 21,000 lbf / 93.4 kN
PW1524G : 23,300 lbf / 103.6 kN
PW1525G : 23,300 lbf / 103.6 kN
- at 0.809 kg/l (6.75 lb per US gal) 2.2046 lb per kg
- Related development
- Bombardier CRJ700/900/1000
- Comac C919 (agreement between Comac and Bombardier for program commonalities)
- Irkut MC-21 (agreement between Irkut and Bombardier for joint customer support)
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "Bombardier CSeries Aircraft Awarded Transport Canada Flight Test Permit" (Press release). Montreal: Bombardier Aerospace. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "SWISS Launches Revenue Service with State-of-the-Art Bombardier C Series Aircraft" (Press release). Montreal: Bombardier Aerospace. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Bombardier BD-500 CSeries Production List". planespotters.net. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Marowits, Ross (20 February 2015). "Larger Bombardier CSeries set for first flight next week in Mirabel". Toronto Star. Montreal. The Canadian Press. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "List Prices - Commercial Aircraft". Bombardier. January 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Type certificate data sheet" (PDF). EASA. 28 Nov 2016.
- "Bombardier Ends Talks With Fokker" (Press release). Bombardier. February 27, 1996.
- "The CSeries: a timeline". Montreal Gazette.
- Lewis, Paul (19 September 2000). "Bombardier puts BRJ-X on hold". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Bombardier Aerospace appoints head of new commercial aircraft program" (Press release). Bombardier. February 26, 2004.
- "Bombardier announces new commercial aircraft family name at Farnborough Airshow 2004" (Press release). July 19, 2004.
- "Bombardier Aerospace Granted Authority to Offer CSeries Aircraft to Customers" (Press release). Bombardier. March 15, 2005.
- "Bombardier Announces Location of Final Assembly Site and Work Packages for the CSeries" (Press release). Bombardier. May 13, 2005.
- "Bombardier and U.K. Government Sign Letter of Intent on CSeries". Bombardier. May 13, 2005.
- "Bombardier Unveils CSeries Mockup at Paris Air Show" (Press release). Bombardier. June 12, 2005.
- "Bombardier Announces CSeries Decision" (Press release). Bombardier. January 31, 2006.
- "Bombardier Updates Market on Status of its CSeries Commercial Aircraft Program" (Press release). Bombardier. January 31, 2007.
- Warwick, Graham (13 November 2007). "Bombardier chooses geared turbofan to power CSeries". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Bombardier Grants Authority to Offer CSeries" (Press release). Bombardier. February 22, 2008.
- "Bombardier Launches CSeries Aircraft Program" (Press release). 13 July 2008.
- "Bombardier Plans New Jetliner". Wall Street Journal. 14 July 2008. p. B3.
- "Bombardier Launches CSeries". Aviation Today. 17 July 2008.
- "A New Bombardier Jet Draws Only Tepid Demand". The New York Times. 14 July 2008.
- Tomesco, Frederic (9 November 2009). "Bombardier's Beaudoin Sees Further Aerospace Cutbacks (Update2)". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 20 October 2015.
- "Bombardier awards contract to Ghafari to redevelop CSeries Aircraft Manufacturing Complex". Air Transport World. Aviation Week. 16 August 2010.(subscription required)
- Kirby, Mary (1 June 2009). "Majority of CSeries supplier contracts already awarded". Philadelphia: Flightglobal. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Bombardier – China". Cn.bombardier.com.
- "Bombardier C-Series - Alenia Aermacchi". aleniaaermacchi.it. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Bombardier Selects Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion(TM) for CSeries". Rockwell Collins. 13 July 2008.
- Kirby, Mary (11 March 2009). "Bombardier makes tweaks to CSeries specs". Philadelphia: Flightglobal. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "CSeries brochure" (PDF). Bombardier. June 2015.
- Kirby, Mary (6 January 2010). "Talk of 150-seat CSeries in the fray following analyst report". Philadelphia: Flightglobal. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
- Govindasmy, Siva (12 July 2012). "AirAsia boss confirms talks for 100 CSeries CS300". Farnborough: Flightglobal. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen (29 November 2012). "Bombardier moves CS300 into detailed design with high-density variant included". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Jon Ostrower (21 May 2015). "Bombardier Weighs Third CSeries Jet Model". Wall Street Journal.
- Ranson, Lori (17 November 2009). "Bombardier officially begins construction of Belfast CSeries site". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (27 January 2010). "CSeries poised for design freeze as joint definition phase concludes". London: Flightglobal. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Baker, Liana B. (16 February 2012). "UPDATE 1-Bombardier satisfied with C-Series orders, CEO says". Reuters.
- "CSeries 'On Track' for First Flight in Second-Half of 2012". Aviation International News.
- "Bombardier's Beaudoin still upbeat on CSeries". The Vancouver Sun. 13 June 2012.
- "Bombardier Announces Financial Results for the Third Quarter Ended September 30, 2012" (Press release). Bombardier. 7 November 2012.
- Bombardier Inc. (20 February 2013). "Transport Canada Certifies Pratt & Whitney PurePower PW1500G Engine for Bombardier CSeries Aircraft".
- "CSeries Aircraft Program Making Excellent Progress Towards First Flight" (Press release). Bombardier. 7 March 2013.
- "Bombardier Powers On the First CSeries Flight Test Vehicle and Completes Wing Static Testing Required for First Flight" (Press release). Bombardier. 25 March 2013.
- "Bombardier Completes CSeries Aircraft Ground Vibration Tests and Final Software Upgrades In Preparation for First Flight" (Press release). Bombardier. 26 June 2013.
- "Bombardier CSeries Aircraft First Flight to Take Place in the Coming Weeks" (Press release). Bombardier. 24 July 2013.
- "Bombardier CSeries jet completes maiden flight". CBC/Radio-Canada. 16 September 2013.
- "Bombardier's CSeries Aircraft Completes Historic First Flight" (Press release). Bombardier. 16 September 2013.
- "FTV1 Flies Again!" (Press release). Bombardier. 1 October 2013.
- "Bombardier Aerospace Confirms Change to its CSeries Aircraft's Entry-into-Service". Bombardier. 16 January 2014.
- Campion-Smith, Bruce (May 30, 2014). "Bombardier CSeries test jet suffers engine failure". Toronto Star.
- Wall, Robert (13 July 2014). "Bombardier Sees CSeries Test Flights Resuming in Weeks". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Ho, Solarina (19 August 2014). "More Bombardier executive reshuffling as CSeries still grounded". Reuters.
- Trimble, Stephen (8 September 2014). "CSeries flight ends 100-day grounding". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Work carried out in Belfast has contributed to one of the biggest changes in aerospace history, according to Bombardier Aerospace". Belfast Telegraph. 26 November 2014.
- Ostrower, John and Paul Vieira (8 January 2015). "Jet Maker Bombardier Finds Bigger Proves Far From Better". Wall Street Journal. p. A1.
- "CSeries aircraft program progressing well with more than 1,000 flight test hours achieved" (Press release). Bombardier. February 20, 2015.
- Trimble, Stephen (27 February 2015). "CS300 completes first flight". London: Flightglobal. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "Exclusive: CSeries performance better than guarantees, "favorable" to brochure; range better than advertised". leehamnews. 3 March 2015.
- "Bombardier FTV5 Takes To The Skies". Aero-News Network. March 20, 2015.
- "Bombardier Resets CSeries Debut to 2016 as Timeline Slips". Bloomberg. 27 March 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- "Flight Tests Show Bombardier C Series Aircraft Performance Better than Targets" (Press release). Bombardier. 14 June 2015.
- Bombardier (20 August 2015). "Certification Tests Over 80 per cent Complete for Bombardier C Series Aircraft". Bombardier Inc. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- Bombardier (14 October 2015). "Bombardier C Series Aircraft Certification Program Over 90 per cent Complete" (Press release). Bombardier.
- "Bombardier Celebrates the Completion of its CS100 Aircraft's Certification Flight Test Program" (Press release). Bombardier. 17 November 2015.
- "Bombardier Completes First Phase of C Series Route Proving" (Press release). Bombardier. 25 November 2015.
- Lu, Vanessa (18 December 2015). "Bombardier's CSeries jet certified for commercial service". Toronto Star. Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "Bombardier receives CSeries certification from Transport Canada". CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Trimble, Stephen (18 December 2015). "Transport Canada announces type certification for CSeries". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Francois Tasse (March 3, 2016). "FTV8 First Flight". flickr.
- Tomesco, Frederic (September 29, 2015). "Bombardier Called 'Huge Asset' as Quebec Vows Aid If Needed". Bloomberg.
- Kristine Owram (7 October 2015). "Bombardier Inc's Airbus talks signal 'the beginning of the end' for CSeries, experts say". Financial Post.
- Van Wagenen, Juliet (8 October 2015). "Is the CSeries Doomed?". Aviation Today. Access Intelligence.
- Ross Marowits, The Canadian Press (8 October 2015). "Bombardier says it has no plans to kill CSeries after approaching Airbus". Canadian Business.
- "Quebec makes high-risk bet with $1-billion Bombardier investment". The Globe and Mail. 29 October 2015.
- Valiante, Giuseppe (29 October 2015). "Bombardier CSeries, aerospace industry too important to give up: Quebec government". the Toronto Star. The Canadian Press.
- Kristine Owram (2 November 2015). "Bombardier Inc could need a second bailout within 12-18 months: Scotiabank". Financial Post.
- Wingrove, Josh; Deveau, Scott (April 15, 2016). "Bombardier Rejects Aid Proposal From Canadian Government". Bloomberg.
A spokesman for Innovation Minister Navdeep Bains, who is leading the review of Bombardier’s request, declined to comment on the government offer
- Lampert, Allison; Ljunggren, David (April 15, 2015). "Canada government, Bombardier still far apart in aid talks: sources". Thomson Reuters.
Federal government officials have said they do not want to imitate the structure of a separate 2015 deal the province of Quebec struck to support the CSeries, which some felt did not impose enough conditions on the company.
- Lu, Vanessa (April 28, 2016). "Despite Delta's order, Bombardier wants Ottawa's help". The Star. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- "European and U.S. aviation bodies certify Bombardier CSeries 100 aircraft finally clearing the way for takeoff". financialpost.com. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- Walker, Karen; Warwick, Graham (June 29, 2016). "First CSeries aircraft is delivered to SWISS". Air Transport World.
- "Bombardier Delivers First C Series Aircraft to Launch Operator SWISS" (Press release). Bombardier. June 29, 2016.
- "Bombardier's CSeries holds its maiden commercial flight from Zurich to Paris". Retrieved 2016-07-16.
- Trimble, Stephen (29 June 2016). "Breakthrough CSeries gets ready for a 'flawless' EIS". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Stephen Trimble (29 November 2016). "Swiss grades CS100 after four months in service". Flight Global. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
- "Bombardier CS300 Aircraft Awarded Type Certification by Transport Canada" (Press release). Bombardier. July 11, 2016.
- "Bombardier Obtains Same Type Rating for Both C Series Jetliners" (Press release). Bombardier. 23 November 2016.
- Stephen Trimble (28 November 2016). "Bombardier delivers first CS300 to Air Baltic". Flight Global.
- van der Linde, Damon (28 November 2016). "Bombardier hands over its largest CSeries jet to Latvian carrier, the first in 20-plane order". The Financial Post. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Gregory Polek (December 14, 2016). "Bombardier's CS300 Enters Service with Air Baltic". Aviation International News.
- Victoria Moores (Dec 6, 2016). "Bombardier: CSeries aircraft performing better than expected". Air Transport World. Aviation Week Network.
- "Bombardier meets goal of seven CSeries deliveries in 2016". FlightGlobal. 5 January 2017.
- "Aerospace > Products > Commercial Aircraft > CSeries". Bombardier.com.
- Karen Wood (1 November 2010). "Learjet 85 composite pressurized cabin a cost cutter". Composites World. High-Performance Composites. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- "Bombardier CSeries program status report" (PDF). September 30, 2016.
- "Bombardier BD-500 CSeries Operators". planespotters.net. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- "Embraer challenges Bombardier's CSeries with orders for second generation E-Jets". CAPA - Centre for Aviation. 28 June 2013.
- Van Praet, Nicolas (21 January 2016). "Bombardier snubbed as United to buy 40 Boeing jets". Globe and Mail. Toronto, Ontario. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- Scott Hamilton (8 March 2016). "Boeing Gives United A Smoking Deal On 737s To Block Bombardier From Gaining Traction". Forbes.
- "Report: Where Are the Sales for Bombardier's CSeries Jet?". Airways News. February 19, 2015.
- "Boeing loses in United deferral". AirInsight. November 16, 2016.
- The Canadian Press (21 January 2016). "Boeing beats Bombardier to United airliner sale". Toronto Star. Montreal.
- "Air Canada agrees to buy up to 75 Bombardier CS300s". Air Transport World. 17 February 2016.
- "Air Canada finalizes $3.8B order for 45 Bombardier CSeries jets". Toronto Star. June 28, 2016.
- "Delta orders state-of-art, fuel-efficient Bombardier C Series" (Press release). Delta Air Lines. April 28, 2016.
- "ANALYSIS: Delta Becomes the Largest CSeries Customer". Airways News. April 28, 2016.
- "Bombardier Announces Major C Series Order and Reports Financial Results for the First Quarter of 2016" (Press release). Bombardier. April 28, 2016.
- "CS100 Factsheet" (PDF). Bombardier. June 2015.
- "CS300 Factsheet" (PDF). Bombardier. June 2015.
- Gregory Polek (July 13, 2016). "C Series Can Do LCY-NYC, or Moscow". Aviation International News.
- Pratt & Whitney. "PurePower PW1500G Engine for the Bombardier CSeries" (PDF). Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Bombardier Inc. (21 March 2012). "COMAC and Bombardier Sign Definitive Agreement to Establish Commonality Opportunities Between C919 and CSeries Aircraft". Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- Bombardier Inc. (28 August 2013). "Bombardier, IRKUT Entering Exploratory Discussions on Customer Support for the MS-21 Aircraft". Retrieved 13 September 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bombardier CSeries.|
- Official website
- "CSeries production list and orders". ABCDlist.
- Bjorn Fehrm (November 9, 2016). "Flying the CSeries". Leeham News.
- Mike Gerzanics (November 11, 2016). "Flight Test: We put Bombardier's CSeries through its paces". Flight Global.