Brighton

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This article is about the town of Brighton in England. For the city, see Brighton and Hove. For other uses, see Brighton (disambiguation).
Brighton
Brighton.UK.JPG
The town of Brighton, East Sussex
Brighton is located in East Sussex
Brighton
Brighton
 Brighton shown within East Sussex
Population 273,400 [1]
Demonym Brightonian
OS grid reference TQ315065
Unitary authority Brighton and Hove
Ceremonial county East Sussex
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BRIGHTON
Postcode district BN1, BN2, BN50, BN88
Dialling code 01273
Police Sussex
Fire East Sussex
Ambulance South East Coast
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Brighton Kemptown
Brighton Pavilion
List of places
UK
England
East Sussex

Coordinates: 50°50′35″N 0°07′53″W / 50.842941°N 0.131312°W / 50.842941; -0.131312

Brighton Listeni/ˈbrtən/ is a town on the south coast of Great Britain.[2] It makes up half of the city and unitary authority of Brighton and Hove (formed from the previous towns of Brighton, Hove, Portslade and several other villages). Formerly part of the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex, it remains part of the ceremonial county of East Sussex, within the historic county of Sussex.

The ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" dates from before Domesday Book (1086). It developed in popularity as a health resort featuring sea bathing during the 18th century, and was used as a seaside getaway by the Prince Regent. After the railway reached the town in 1841, it became a highly popular destination for day-trippers from London.

Brighton had rapid population growth over the next century, reaching a peak of more than 160,000 by 1961.[3] Since then, it has had to compete with other coastal destinations. Modern Brighton forms part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation stretching along the coast, with a population of around 480,000 inhabitants.[4]

Etymology[edit]

The Palace Pier, Brighton

Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone (or Brighthelmston) was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries.[5][6]

Brighton was originally an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660; it gradually supplanted the longer name, and was in general use from the late 18th century. Brighthelmstone was the town's official name until 1810, though.[6] The name is of Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Saxon name associated with villages elsewhere in England.[6] The tūn element is common in Sussex, especially on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name.[7] An alternative etymology taken from the Saxon words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance.[6] Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church[8] and a pub in Brighton[9] and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex.[10]

Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", which is still widely used,[11] and "Old Ocean's Bauble".[12] Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s.[12] The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding, charity and church schools in the town at the time.[13]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Brighton
Brighton, The Front and the Chain Pier Seen in the Distance, Frederick William Woledge, 1840.

The first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill which has been dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC.[14] It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex. Archaeologists have only partially explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds, tools and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance.[15] There was also a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC,[14] and an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Camp on Hollingbury Hill. This Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet (300 m). Cissbury Ring, roughly 10 miles (16 km) from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital".[16]

Later, there was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, and much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally.[14] From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area.[17] After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. But, Anglo-Saxons began to invade the region in the late 5th century AD, and Brighton became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Aelle.[18]

Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton.[19] It was founded by Saxons and mentioned in the Domesday Book under the name Bristelmestune; it was a fishing and agricultural settlement, a rent of 4,000 herring was established, and its population was about 400.[5][14] Its importance grew from the Norman era onwards. By the 14th century there was a parish church, a market and rudimentary law enforcement (the first town constable was elected in 1285).[20] Sacked and burnt by French invaders in the early 16th century—the earliest depiction of Brighton, a painting of c. 1520, shows Admiral Pregent de Bidoux's attack of June 1514—the town recovered strongly based on a thriving mackerel-fishing industry.[21] The grid of streets in the Old Town (the present Lanes area) were well developed and the town grew quickly: the population rose from c. 1,500 in 1600 to c. 4,000 in the 1640s.[14] By that time Brighton was Sussex's most populous and important town.[21] Over the next few decades, though, events severely affected its local and national standing, such that by 1730 "it was a forlorn town decidedly down on its luck". More foreign attacks, storms (especially the devastating Great Storm of 1703), a declining fishing industry, and the emergence of nearby Shoreham as a significant port caused its economy to suffer.[21] By 1708 other parishes in Sussex were charged rates to alleviate poverty in Brighton, and Daniel Defoe wrote that the expected £8,000 cost of providing sea defences was "more than the whole town was worth". The population declined to 2,000 in the early 18th century.[14]

From the 1730s, Brighton entered its second phase of development—one which brought a rapid improvement in its fortunes. The contemporary fad for drinking and bathing in seawater as a purported cure for illnesses was enthusiastically encouraged by Dr Richard Russell from nearby Lewes. He sent many patients to "take the cure" in the sea at Brighton, published a popular treatise[note 1] on the subject, and moved to the town soon afterwards (the Royal Albion, one of Brighton's early hotels, occupies the site of his house).[23] Others were already visiting the town for recreational purposes before Russell became famous, and his actions coincided with other developments which made Brighton more attractive to visitors. From the 1760s it was a boarding point for boats travelling to France; road transport to London was improved[24] when the main road via Crawley was turnpiked in 1770;[25] and spas and indoor baths were opened by other entrepreneurial physicians such as Sake Dean Mahomed and Anthony Relhan (who also wrote the town's first guidebook).[24]

Photochrom of Brighton aquarium, 1890–1900

From 1780, development of the Georgian terraces had started, and the fishing village developed as the fashionable resort of Brighton. Growth of the town was further encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent (later King George IV) after his first visit in 1783.[26] He spent much of his leisure time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion during the early part of his Regency. In this period the modern form of the name Brighton came into common use.[27]

The arrival of the London and Brighton Railway in 1841 brought Brighton within the reach of day-trippers from London. The population grew from around 7,000 in 1801 to more than 120,000 by 1901.[28] Many of the major attractions were built during the Victorian era, such as the Grand Hotel (1864), the West Pier (1866), and the Palace Pier (1899). Prior to either of these structures, the famous Chain Pier was built, to the designs of Captain Samuel Brown. It lasted from 1823 to 1896, and is featured in paintings by both Turner and Constable.[29]

Because of boundary changes, the land area of Brighton expanded from 1,640 acres (7 km2) in 1854 to 14,347 acres (58 km2) in 1952.[30] New housing estates were established in the acquired areas, including Moulsecoomb, Bevendean, Coldean and Whitehawk. The major expansion of 1928 also incorporated the villages of Patcham, Ovingdean and Rottingdean, and much council housing was built in parts of Woodingdean after the Second World War.

Gentrification since then has made Brighton more fashionable again. Recent housing in North Laine, for instance, has been designed in keeping with the area.

In 1997, Brighton and Hove were joined to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove, which was granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II as part of the millennium celebrations in 2000.

Geography and topography[edit]

To the east of Brighton, chalk cliffs protected by a sea-wall rise from the beach.
The underground Wellesbourne can rise to the surface during heavy rain, as in November 2000 when it flooded the London Road in Preston village.

Brighton lies between the South Downs and the English Channel to the north and south, respectively. The Sussex coast forms a wide, shallow bay between the headlands of Selsey Bill and Beachy Head; Brighton developed near the centre of this bay around a seasonal river, the Wellesbourne (or Whalesbone), which flowed from the South Downs above Patcham.[5][31] This emptied into the English Channel at the beach near the East Cliff, forming "the natural drainage point for Brighton".[32] Behind the estuary was a stagnant pond called the Pool or Poole, so named since the medieval era.[note 2] This was built over with houses and shops from 1793, when the Wellesbourne was culverted to prevent flooding,[32][33] and only the name of the road (Pool Valley, originally Pool Lane)[34] marks its site. One original house survives from the time of the pool's enclosure.[5] Behind Pool Valley is Old Steine (historically The Steyne), originally a flat and marshy area where fishermen dried their nets. The Wellesbourne occasionally reappears during times of prolonged heavy rain; author Mark Antony Lower referred to an early 19th-century drawing of the Royal Pavilion showing "quite a pool of water across the Steyne".[35] Despite 16th-century writer Andrew Boorde's claim that "Bryght-Hempston [is] among the noble ports and havens of the realm",[36] Brighton never developed as a significant port: rather, it was considered as part of Shoreham Port. Nevertheless the descriptions "Port of Brighthelmston" or "Port of Brighton" were sometimes used between the 14th and 19th centuries, as for example in 1766 when its notional limits were defined for customs purposes.[37]

The East Cliff runs for several miles from Pool Valley towards Rottingdean and Saltdean, reaching 24 metres (80 ft) above sea level. The soil beneath it, a mixture of alluvium and clay with some flint and chalk rubble, has experienced erosion for many years.[38] The cliff itself, like the rest of Brighton's soil, is chalk.[5] Below this are thin layers of Upper and Lower Greensand separated by a thicker band of Gault clay.[39] The land slopes upwards gradually from south to north towards the top of the Downs.

Main transport links developed along the floor of the Wellesbourne valley, from which the land climbs steeply—particularly on the east side. The earliest settlement was by the beach at the bottom of the valley,[31] which was partly protected from erosion by an underwater shale-bar. Changes in sea level affected the foreshore several times: 40 acres (16 ha) disappeared in the first half of the 14th century,[40] and the Great Storm of 1703 caused widespread destruction. The first sea defences were erected in 1723,[40] and a century later a long sea-wall was built.[38]

Climate[edit]

Brighton has a temperate climate: its Köppen climate classification is Cfb. It is characterised by mild, calm weather with high levels of sunshine, sea breezes and a "healthy, bracing air" attributed to the low level of tree cover.[41] Average rainfall levels increase as the land rises: the 1958–1990 mean was 740 millimetres (29 in) on the seafront and about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) at the top of the South Downs above Brighton.[41] Storms caused serious damage in 1703, 1806, 1824, 1836, 1848, 1850, 1896, 1910 and 1987. Snow is rare, but particularly severe falls were recorded in 1881 and 1967.[41]

Climate data for Brighton
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
9
(49)
12
(53)
16
(60)
18
(64)
20
(68)
21
(69)
18
(65)
15
(59)
11
(52)
9
(48)
14
(57)
Average low °C (°F) 3
(38)
3
(38)
4
(40)
6
(43)
9
(48)
12
(53)
14
(58)
14
(58)
12
(54)
9
(49)
6
(43)
4
(40)
8
(47)
Precipitation mm (inches) 88
(3.46)
60
(2.36)
51
(2.01)
58
(2.28)
56
(2.2)
50
(1.97)
54
(2.13)
62
(2.44)
67
(2.64)
105
(4.13)
103
(4.06)
97
(3.82)
851
(33.5)
Source: Met Office

Boundaries and areas[edit]

Date from Parish area[42]
c. 11th century 1,640 acres (660 ha)
31 October 1873 2,445 acres (989 ha)
1 October 1923 2,539 acres (1,027 ha)
1 April 1928 12,503 acres (5,060 ha)
1 April 1952 14,347 acres (5,806 ha)
31 March 1972 15,041 acres (6,087 ha)
1 April 1993 15,140 acres (6,130 ha)
1 April 1997[note 3] 21,632 acres (8,754 ha)

At the time of the Domesday survey in 1086, Brighton was in the Rape of Lewes and the Hundred of Welesmere. The new Hundred of Whalesbone, which covered the parishes of Brighton, West Blatchington, Preston and Hove, was formed in 1296. Parishes moved in and out several times, and by 1801 only Brighton and West Blatchington were included in the Hundred.[44]

Brighton's ecclesiastical and civil parish boundaries were coterminous until 1873. Since then, the latter have changed several times as the urban area has expanded.[45] In its original form, Brighton covered about 1,640 acres (660 ha) between the English Channel, Hove, Preston, Ovingdean and Rottingdean. The civil parish was first extended from 31 October 1873, when 905 acres (366 ha) was annexed from Preston. Its ecclesiastical parish was not affected.

On 1 October 1923, 94 acres (38 ha) were added to Brighton from Patcham parish: Brighton Corporation was developing the Moulsecoomb council estate there at the time. On 1 April 1928, Brighton became a county borough and grew by nearly five times by adding Ovingdean and Rottingdean parishes in their entirety and parts of Falmer, Patcham and West Blatchington.[45] From 1 April 1952, more of Falmer and part of the adjacent Stanmer parish were added; 20 years later, land and marine territory associated with the new Brighton Marina development also became part of Brighton. Except for a small addition of rural land in 1993 (from Pyecombe parish), Brighton Borough's boundaries remained the same until it was joined to Hove Borough in 1997 to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.[43]

The old boundary between Brighton and Hove is most clearly seen on the seafront, where the King Edward Peace Statue (1912) straddles the border, and in a twitten called Boundary Passage which runs northwards from Western Road to Montpelier Road.[46] There is a Grade II-listed parish boundary marker stone in this passageway.[47] Between Western Road and the seafront, the boundary runs up Little Western Street (pavement on eastern side, in Brighton), but it is not visible.[46] Northwards from Western Road, it runs to the west of Norfolk Road, Norfolk Terrace, Windlesham Road and Windlesham Gardens in the Montpelier area, then along the south side of Davigdor Road to Seven Dials. From there it runs along the west side of Dyke Road as far as Withdean Road in Withdean, at which point it crosses Dyke Road so that the section north of that is part of Hove parish. The boundary continues to follow Dyke Road towards Devil's Dyke on the South Downs.[48]

Panorama of Brighton seen from Tenantry Down to the east
December 2013 panorama of Brighton seen from Tenantry Down (to the east).

Governance and politics[edit]

For the local council, see Brighton and Hove.
Brighton Town Hall dates from 1830.

Brighton is covered by two constituencies in the Parliament of the United Kingdom: Brighton Kemptown and Brighton Pavilion. Both are marginal constituencies which were held by Labour from 1997 to 2010.[49][50] At the 2010 general election, Brighton Kemptown elected the Conservative MP Simon Kirby, while Brighton Pavilion elected Caroline Lucas, the first Green Party MP elected to Westminster. Lucas won 16,238 votes (31.3%), compared with Labour's 14,986 votes (28.9%) and the Conservative's 12,275 votes (23.7%).[51] In European elections, Brighton is part of the European Parliament constituency of South-East England.

As of 2014, there are 21 wards in the city of Brighton and Hove, of which 12 are in Brighton. Regency, St Peter's & North Laine, Preston Park, Withdean, Patcham, Hollingdean & Stanmer and Hanover & Elm Grove are part of the Brighton Pavilion constituency; Moulsecoomb & Bevendean, Queen's Park, East Brighton, Woodingdean and Rottingdean Coastal are covered by the Brighton Kemptown constituency.[52]

The newly created Borough of Brighton consisted of six wards in 1854: St Nicholas, St Peter, Pier, Park, Pavilion and West. When the territory was extended to include part of Preston parish in 1873, the new area became a seventh ward named Preston. The seven were split into 14 in 1894: Hanover, Kemp Town (renamed King's Cliff in 1908), Lewes Road, Montpelier, Pavilion, Pier, Preston, Preston Park, Queen's Park, Regency, St John, St Nicholas, St Peter, and West. Preston ward was extended in 1923 to incorporate the area taken into the borough from Patcham parish in 1923 for the construction of the Moulsecoomb estate, and in 1928 the ward was divided into four: Hollingbury, Moulsecoomb, Preston and Preston Park. Elm Grove and Patcham wards were created at the same time, bringing the total to 19. There were further changes in 1952, 1955 and 1983, at which time there were 16 wards.[53] This situation continued until 1 April 1997, when Hove and its wards became part of the new unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.[54]

Brighton Town Hall occupies a large site in The Lanes. Medieval Brighthelmston had a town hall, although it was called the Townhouse and functioned more like a market hall. A later building (1727) known as the Town Hall was principally used as a workhouse. Work on the first purpose-built town hall began in 1830; Thomas Read Kemp laid the first stone, and Thomas Cooper designed it on behalf of the Brighton Town Commissioners (of which he was a member). Brighton Corporation spent £40,000 to extend it in 1897–99 to the Classical design of Brighton Borough Surveyor Francis May. Despite this, the building was too small for municipal requirements by the mid-20th century, and extra council buildings were built in various locations throughout Brighton Borough Council's existence: the most recent, Bartholomew House and Priory House next to the town hall, were finished in 1987.[55][56] The town hall ceased to be responsible solely for Brighton's affairs when Brighton and Hove were united in 1997, but it is still used by Brighton & Hove City Council—particularly for weddings and civil ceremonies.[57]

The political campaigning group Justice? and its SchNEWS newspaper are based in Brighton,[58] at the Cowley Club libertarian social centre. This was named after Harry Cowley (1890–1971), "one of the earliest and best-loved proponents of 'people power' activism in Brighton".[59] Also operating locally is a branch of the Palestine Solidarity Campaign. The presence of a British subsidiary of the United States arms company EDO Corporation on the Home Farm Industrial Estate in Moulsecoomb has been the cause of protests since 2004. The premises were significantly damaged in January 2009 when protesters broke in.[60]

Economy[edit]

About 3,500 people work for American Express at Amex House.

In 1985, the Borough Council described three "myths" about Brighton's economy. Common beliefs were that most of the working population commuted to London every day; that tourism provided most of Brighton's jobs and income; or that the borough's residents were "composed entirely of wealthy theatricals and retired businesspeople" rather than workers.[61] Brighton has been an important centre for commerce and employment since the 18th century. It is home to several major companies, some of which employ thousands of people locally; as a retail centre it is of regional importance; creative, digital and new media businesses are increasingly significant; and, although Brighton was never a major industrial centre, its railway works contributed to Britain's rail industry in the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly in the manufacture of steam locomotives.

Since the amalgamation of Brighton and Hove, economic and retail data has been produced at a citywide level only. Examples of statistics include: Brighton and Hove's tourism industry contributes £380m to the economy and employs 20,000 people directly or indirectly; the city has 9,600 registered companies; and a 2001 report identified it as one of five "supercities for the future".[62] In December 2013, Brighton was the third-highest ranked place on the UK Vitality Index Report, which measures the economic strength of towns and cities in the United Kingdom. It was "among the top performing towns and cities on almost all" of the 20 measures used by the index.[63]

Commerce and industry[edit]

Events at the Brighton Centre are important to Brighton's economy.

Brighton's largest private sector employer is American Express, whose European headquarters—the 300,000-square-foot (28,000 m2) Amex House at Carlton Hill—opened in 1977.[64] As of 2008, 3,500 people worked there.[62] Planning permission to demolish the offices and build a replacement was granted in 2009, and work started in March 2010. The £130 million scheme is expected to support 1,000 jobs in the construction industry.[65] Other major employers include Lloyds Bank, Asda (which has hypermarkets at Hollingbury and Brighton Marina), Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company and call-centre operator Inkfish.[62] In 2012, it was reported that about 1,500 of Gatwick Airport's 21,000 workers lived in the city of Brighton and Hove.[66]

Brighton is a popular destination for conferences, exhibitions and trade fairs, and has had a purpose-built conference centre—the Brighton Centre—since 1977. Direct income from the Brighton Centre's 160 events per year is £8 million,[note 4] and a further £50 million is generated indirectly by visitors spending money during their stay. Events range from political party conferences to concerts.[67]

.
.
The Hollingbury Industrial Estate has large industrial, commercial and retail buildings such as Sussex House (left) and Exion 27 (right).

The Hollingbury Industrial Estate is one of the largest such facilities in Brighton; in its early days about 6,000 people were employed, principally in industrial jobs, but in the late 20th and early 21st centuries its focus has switched to commercial and retail development,[68] limiting Brighton's potential for industrial growth. Brighton Corporation laid out the estate on 18 acres (7.3 ha) of land around Crowhurst Road in 1950. By 1956, large-scale employment was provided at a bakery, a typewriter factory and a machine tools manufacturer among others. Most of the large factories closed during the recessions of the 1980s and 1990s, employment fell to 1,000, and structural changes started in the mid-1980s with a move towards small-scale industrial units (the Enterprise Estate was finished in October 1985) and then retail warehouses. Asda's superstore opened in November 1987, MFI followed two years later, and other retail units were built in the 1990s.[69] Two large headquarters buildings were vacated in quick succession when British Bookshops left in March 2011[70] and The Argus newspaper moved out of its headquarters in 2012—although the Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company signed a contract to move its 1,250 employees into the latter building.[71]

Brighton has a high density of businesses involved in the media sector, particularly digital or "new media", and since the 1990s has been referred to as "Silicon Beach".[72] By 2007, over 250 new media business had been founded in Brighton. Examples include Midnight Communications, Madgex, Makemedia and Brightplace (an e-learning provider), which have all won or been nominated for various local and national awards. Cogapp started in 1985 and was initially focused on floppy disk manufacture, but it now deals with all aspects of information technology and has been involved with the Apple iPad. Brandwatch is a social media monitoring company based in offices near Brighton station. Computer game design company Black Rock Studio was founded in 1998 and was taken over by Disney Interactive Studios,[62][72] who closed it down in 2011.[73] The Gamer Network, whose portfolio of websites relating to computer gaming (including Eurogamer) and creative industries was founded in 1999, is based in Brighton.[74]

By the early 21st century, the market for office accommodation in the city was characterised by fluctuating demand and a lack of supply of high-quality buildings. As an example, the Trafalgar Place development (c. 1990), "now considered a prime office location", stood partly empty for a decade.[75] Exion 27 (built in 2001), a high-tech, energy-efficient office development at Hollingbury, remained empty for several years and is still not in commercial use: it houses some departments of the University of Sussex. It was Brighton's first ultramodern commercial property and was intended for mixed commercial and industrial use, but its completion coincided with a slump in demand for high-tech premises.[76][77]

Retail[edit]

The Lanes form a retail, leisure and residential area near the seafront, characterised by narrow alleyways following the street pattern of the original fishing village. The Lanes contain predominantly clothing stores, jewellers, antique shops, restaurants and pubs. The North Laine area is a retail, leisure and residential area immediately north of the Lanes. Its name derives from the Anglo-Saxon "Laine" meaning "fields". The North Laine contains a mix of businesses dominated by cafés, independent and avant-garde shops, bars and theatres.

Churchill Square is a shopping centre with a floor space of 470,000 sq ft (44,000 m2) and over 80 shops, several restaurants and 1,600 car-parking spaces.[78] It was built in the 1960s as an open-air, multi-level pedestrianised shopping centre, but was rebuilt and enlarged in 1998 and is no longer open-air. Further retail areas include Western Road and London Road.

Economic history[edit]

The mainstay of Brighton's economy for its first 700 years was fishing. Open land called the Hempshares (the site of the present Lanes) provided hemp for ropes; sails were made from flax grown in Hove;[79] nets were dried and boats were kept on the open land which became Old Steine;[80] and fishermen lived and worked on the foreshore below the East Cliff, in an area known as Lower Town.[79] Herring and mackerel were sometimes used in ecclesiastical and manorial transactions, a tradition which ended in the 19th century.[79] As Brighton grew, many fishermen moved to the Carlton Hill area and used its many warehouses and workshops to cure and smoke their catches.[81] The industry was so important in the town's early history that in 1579 a commission of important residents, formed at the Privy Council of England's request, commanded the fishermen to document how they worked and how they divided and distributed their catches and profits. These customs were then enshrined in law. Two original copies of The Book of All The Auncient Customs heretoforeused amonge the fishermen of the Toune of Brighthelmstone [sic] survive.[82][83] In 1580, the year it was published, Brighton's 80-boat, 10,000-net fleet was the largest in southern England and employed 400 men. Herring and mackerel were the main products, but plaice, cod and conger eels were also fished. By 1790 there were 100 boats, but this declined to 48 by 1948. A fish market established below King's Road in 1864, replacing the ancient open-air market on the beach, moved to Carlton Hill in 1960 but closed in 2005. The present, much smaller fleet is based at Brighton Marina.[84]

In the 18th century the economy diversified as the town grew. Small-scale foundries were established, especially in the North Laine area; coal importers such as the Brighthelmston Coal Company set up business to receive fuel sent from Newcastle; and the rise of tourism and fashionable society was reflected in the proliferation of lodging house keepers, day and boarding school proprietors, dressmakers, milliners and jewellers. Many women worked: more than half of working women in Brighton in the late 18th century were in charge of lodging houses, and domestic service and large-scale laundries were other major employers.[85] Brewing was another of Brighton's early specialisms. The industry started in the 17th century and took off after 1800. Major names included the Kemp Town Brewery (1840s–1964),[note 5] Cannon Brewery (1821–1969), Griffiths (later Rock) Brewery (1809–1960), the Albion, the Longhurst and the Bristol Steam Brewery. Many others failed to survive the 19th century. The Black Lion Brewery in The Lanes, founded by Dirick Carver in 1545, stopped brewing in 1901 but its buildings survived until 1968. The biggest brewery was Tamplins (1821–1973), which owned over 200 pubs in Brighton at one time and bought many smaller breweries such as the Smithers (1851) and West Street (1767) companies.[87]

Landmarks[edit]

The Royal Pavilion is a former royal palace built as a home for the Prince Regent during the early 19th century, under the direction of the architect John Nash, and is notable for its Indo-Saracenic architecture and Oriental interior. Other Indo-Saracenic buildings in Brighton include the Sassoon Mausoleum, now, with the bodies reburied elsewhere, in use as a chic supper club.

Brighton Marine Palace and Pier (long known as the Palace Pier) opened in 1899. It features a funfair, restaurants and arcade halls.[88][89][90]

The West Pier was built in 1866 and is one of only two Grade I listed piers in the United Kingdom. It has been closed since 1975. For some time it was under consideration for restoration, but two fires in 2003, and other setbacks, led to these plans being abandoned.[91] Plans for a new landmark in its place – the i360, a 183 m (600 ft) observation tower designed by London Eye architects Marks Barfield – were announced in June 2006. Plans were approved by the council on 11 October 2006.[92] As of early 2009, construction had yet to begin, but the area has been cordoned off.

Brighton clocktower, built in 1888 for Queen Victoria's jubilee, stands at the intersection of Brighton's busiest thoroughfares.

Volk's Electric Railway runs along the inland edge of the beach from Brighton Pier to Black Rock and Brighton Marina. It was created in 1883 and is the world's oldest operating electric railway.[93]

The Grand Hotel was built in 1864. The Brighton hotel bombing occurred there. Its nighttime blue lighting is particularly prominent along the foreshore.[94]

The Brighton Wheel opened with some controversy, directly north east of the Brighton Marine Palace and Pier in October 2011 after a previous attempt to locate it in a more central location near the Metropole Hotel, at which time it was to have been the "Brighton O" – a special spokeless design[95] rather than the traditional spoked wheel eventually purchased from its previous home in South Africa.

The Brighton i360 observation tower is expected to be completed in 2016. At 162 metres (531.49 feet) high, and with an observation pod rising to 138 metres (452.75 feet), the i360 will be Britain's highest observation tower outside London – taller even than the London Eye.

Churches and places of worship[edit]

The 11th century (1086)[96] St Nicholas Church is the oldest building in Brighton, commonly known as "The Mother Church".[97] Other notable churches include the very tall brick-built St Bartholomew's (1874) designed by the architect Edmund Scott,[98] St Peter's (1828), and St. Martin's, noted for its decorated interior. Brighton's Quakers run the Friends' Meeting House in the Lanes. There is an active Unitarian community based in a Grade 2 listed building in New Road, and a Spiritualist church in Norfolk Square.[99] There are also a number of New Age outlets and groups.

Brighton has three synagogues: the Middle Street Synagogue is a Grade II-listed building built in 1874–75. It is being gradually restored by English Heritage. Brighton and Hove Reform Synagogue, Palmeira Avenue, Hove; and the progressive Synagogue, Lansdowne Road, Hove are also active. There are also several mosques[100][101] and Buddhist centres.[102]

Brighton has become known as one of the least religious places in the UK, based upon analysis of the 2011 census which revealed that 42 per cent of the population profess no religion, far higher than the national average of 25%.[103] As part of the Jedi census phenomenon, 2.6 per cent claimed their religion was Jedi Knight, the largest percentage in the country.[104]

Beaches[edit]

Cliff Beach: Britain's first naturist beach
Boats on Brighton Beach

Brighton has a 5.4-mile (8.7 km) expanse of shingle beach,[40] part of the unbroken 8-mile (13 km) section within the city limits.[note 6] The seafront has bars, restaurants, nightclubs, sports facilities and amusement arcades,[105] principally along the central section between the West and Palace Piers. This part is the most popular: daily visits exceed 150,000 at weekends in high summer.[106] During a heatwave in October 2011, 200,000 tourists visited in a single weekend and spent about £5 million.[107] Neighbouring Hove is well-known for its hundreds of painted timber beach huts, but brick-walled chalets are also available on Brighton seafront, especially towards Rottingdean and Saltdean.[108] Especially east of the Palace Pier, a flat sandy foreshore is exposed at low tide.[40] The Palace Pier section of the beach has been awarded blue flag status.[109] Part of the beach adjoining Madeira Drive, to the east of the city centre, has been redeveloped into a sports complex and opened to the public in March 2007, with courts for pursuits such as beach volleyball and ultimate Frisbee among others.

The city council owns all the beaches, which are divided into named sections by groynes—the first of which were completed in 1724. Eastwards from the Hove boundary, the names are Boundary, Norfolk, Bedford, Metropole, Grand (referring to the four hotels with those names), Centre, King's, Old Ship, Volk's, Albion, Palace Pier, Aquarium, Athina (where the MS Athina B ran aground), Paston, Banjo, Duke's, Cliff, Crescent and Black Rock. Cliff Beach is a nudist beach. Beyond Black Rock, the cliffs (part of the Brighton to Newhaven Cliffs Site of Special Scientific Interest) rise to more than 100 feet (30 m) and there are three small beaches at Ovingdean Gap, Rottingdean Gap and Saltdean Gap. All are connected by the Undercliff Walk,[40] which has been affected by several cliff falls since 2000.[110]

Since the demolition in 1978 of the Black Rock open-air lido at the eastern end of Brighton's seafront, the area has been developed and now features one of Europe's largest marinas. However, the site of the pool itself remains empty except for a skate park and graffiti wall. Since 2003 a series of developments have been proposed but have come to nothing, including housing, a five-star hotel with a winter garden, and an 11,000-seat sports arena.[111]

Culture[edit]

Cinema[edit]

Brighton featured in a number of popular movies including Quadrophenia (1979), The End of the Affair (1999), MirrorMask (2005), Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging (2008), The Young Victoria (2009), Brighton Rock (2010 and 1947) and The Boat that Rocked (2009).[112]

The Duke of York's Picturehouse,[113] dating from 1910, It was opened by Mrs Violet Melnotte-Wyatt, is the country's oldest purpose-built cinema and was Brightons first Electric Bioscope, which still operates as an arthouse cinema. The Duke of Yorks Picturehouse has expanded the cinema range in Brighton to include two more screens at the Komedia Theatre situated in Gardner Street central Brighton. There are also two multiplex cinemas.

Festivals and rallies[edit]

"The Big Beach Boutique II": over 250,000 watched Fatboy Slim (July 2002)
Seafront display of Minis after a London to Brighton drive

Each May the city hosts the Brighton Festival, the second largest arts festival in the UK (after Edinburgh). This includes processions such as the Children's Parade, outdoor spectaculars often involving pyrotechnics, and theatre, music and visual arts in venues throughout the city, some brought into this use exclusively for the festival. The earliest feature of the festival, the Artists' Open Houses, are homes of artists and craftspeople opened to the public as galleries, and usually selling the work of the occupants. Since 2002, these have been organised independently of the official Festival and Fringe.

Brighton Fringe runs alongside Brighton Festival, and has grown to be the second largest fringe festival in the world.[114] Together with the street performers from Brighton Festival's "Streets of Brighton" events, and the Royal Mile-esque outdoor performances that make up "Fringe City", outdoor spectacles and events more than double during May.[115]

Other festivals include The Great Escape, featuring three nights of live music in venues across the city; the Soundwaves Festival in June, which shows classical music composed in the 21st Century, and involves both amateur and professional performers; Paddle Round the Pier; Brighton Live which each September stages a week of free gigs in pubs to show local bands; Burning the Clocks, a winter solstice celebration; and Brighton Pride (see lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community, below). For a number of years, Andrew Logan's Alternative Miss World extravaganza was held in the city.

The Kemptown area has its own small annual street festival, the Kemptown Carnival, and the Hanover area similarly has a "Hanover Day". Local resident Fatboy Slim puts on a "Big Beach Boutique" show most years. An inaugural White Nights (Nuit Blanche) all-night arts festival took place in October 2008. 2009 saw the first Brighton Zine Fest[116] celebrating zine and DIY culture within the city.

On 1 September 2007, competitors from the United Kingdom, United States, Germany and other countries convened for the World Beard and Moustache Championship. Hosted by the Handlebar Club, categories include Dali moustache, goatee and full beard freestyle.[117]

Brighton is the terminus of a number of London-to-Brighton rides, and runs, such as the veteran car run and bike ride. Transport rallies are also hosted on the seafront. Groups of mods and Rockers still bring their scooters and motorbikes to the town, but their gatherings are now much more sedate than the violent 1960s confrontations depicted in Quadrophenia.

Food and drink related festivals include the traditional Blessing of the Fisheries, where barbecued mackerel are eaten on the beach and the more recent Fiery Foods Chilli Festival.[118] There is also a twice-yearly general food festival.[119] The main Sussex beer festival is held in nearby Hove, and there is a smaller beer festival in the Hanover area. Foodies Festival[120] also counts Brighton as one of its seven national venues, with the event taking place between 25–27 May at Hove Lawns and including top chefs such as Loyd Grossman.

Brighton is the home of the UK's first Walk of Fame which celebrates the many rich and famous people associated with the city.[121]

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community[edit]

Brighton has a substantial LGBT community served by shops, bars, night-clubs, and support organisations. It is often referred to as "the gay capital of Europe".[122] The Gay Pride carnival every August attracts thousands. It consists of a carnival parade and a party and funfair in Preston Park.

Museums[edit]

Brighton museums include Brighton Museum & Art Gallery, Preston Manor, Booth Museum of Natural History, Brighton Toy and Model Museum, and Brighton Fishing Museum, the long established social epicentre of the seafront, which includes artefacts from the West Pier. The Royal Pavilion is also open to the public, serving as a museum to the British Regency.

Night-life and popular music[edit]

The Odeon Kingswest on Brighton seafront opened in 1973.
Theatre Royal, city centre

Brighton has many night-life hotspots[123] and is associated with popular musicians including Fatboy Slim, Kirk Brandon, Tim Booth, Nick Cave, Robert Smith and Jimmy Somerville. Live music venues include the Concorde2,[124] Brighton Centre and the Brighton Dome, where ABBA received a substantial boost to their career when they won the Eurovision Song Contest 1974. Many events and performance companies operate in the city.

Popular alternative rock band The Eighties Matchbox B-Line Disaster, alternative rock duo Blood Red Shoes, indie rock band The Kooks, metalcore band Architects and hip-hop duo Rizzle Kicks originated in Brighton.

There are over 300 pubs in the town.[125]

Notable residents[edit]

Restaurants[edit]

Brighton has about 400 restaurants, more per head than anywhere else outside London.[126] A wide range of cuisines is available.

Theatre[edit]

Theatres include the Brighton Dome and associated Pavilion Theatre, the expanded Komedia (primarily a comedy and music venue but also a theatre), The Old Market which was renovated and re-opened in 2010, and the Theatre Royal[127] which celebrated its 200th anniversary in 2007. There are also smaller theatres such as the Marlborough Theatre and Nightingale Theatre, both above pubs, which attract mostly local productions, and the Brighton Little Theatre.

Education[edit]

Checkland Building, University of Brighton

Brighton & Hove City Council is responsible for 80 schools, of which 54 are in Brighton.[128]

The University of Sussex established in 1961 is a campus university between Stanmer Park and Falmer, four miles (6 km) from the city centre. Served by frequent trains (to Falmer railway station) and 24-hour buses, it has a student population of 12,500 of which 70% are undergraduates.[129] The university is currently ranked 21st in the UK[130] and 110th in the world by the World University Rankings.[131]

The University of Brighton, the former Brighton Polytechnic, has a student population of 20,017 of which 80% are undergraduates.[132] The university is on several sites with additional buildings in Falmer, Moulsecoomb, Eastbourne and Hastings.[133]

In 2003, the universities of Sussex and Brighton formed a medical school, known as Brighton and Sussex Medical School. The school was one of four new medical schools to be created as part of a government programme to increase the number of qualified NHS doctors. The school is also based in Falmer and works closely with the Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust.

A range of non-university courses for students over 16, mainly in vocational education subjects, is provided at the further education college, City College Brighton and Hove. More academic subjects can be studied by 16–18-year-olds at Brighton Hove & Sussex Sixth Form College (BHASVIC) in the Seven Dials area. Varndean College in North Brighton occupies a commanding position. The 1920s building is celebrated for its façade and internal quads. The college offers academic A levels, The International Baccalaureate and vocational courses.

There are state schools and some faith schools. Notable state schools include[134] Longhill High School, Varndean School, Patcham High School, Dorothy Stringer High School, Blatchington Mill School and Sixth Form College and Brighton Aldridge Community Academy.

There are also a number of private schools, including Brighton College, Roedean School, Steiner School, BHHS and a Montessori School. As with the state schools, some independents are faith-based; Torah Academy, the last Jewish primary school, became a Pre-K/Nursery School at the end of the 2007. The Brighton Institute of Modern Music, a fully accredited music college, opened in 2001 and has since expanded to five locations throughout the UK.

In spring and summer, thousands of students from all over Europe gather to attend language courses at the many language schools.

Sport[edit]

Brighton Marina

Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club is the city's professional football team. After playing at the Goldstone Ground for 95 years, the club spent two years ground-sharing at Gillingham before returning to the town as tenants of the Withdean Athletics Stadium. However, in 2011 the club moved to a permanent home at Falmer at the start of the 2011/12 season, with the first match happening in July 2011. The new stadium, the Falmer Stadium, was built by The Buckingham Group, who also built the MK Dons stadium. The club's notable achievements including winning promotion to the Football League First Division for the first time in 1979, staying there for four seasons, during the last of which they reached the FA Cup Final and took Manchester United to a replay before losing 4–0. Notable former managers of the club include Brian Clough, Peter Taylor (born 1928), Peter Taylor (born 1953), Jimmy Melia, Liam Brady, Jimmy Case, Steve Gritt, Brian Horton, Steve Coppell and Mark McGhee. Notable former players include Gareth Barry, Dave Beasant, Justin Fashanu, Dennis Mortimer, Gordon Smith, Frank Stapleton, Howard Wilkinson and Bobby Zamora.

Brighton and Hove is home to the Sussex County Cricket Club based on Eaton Road in Hove.

Brighton Football Club (RFU) is one of the oldest Rugby Clubs in England.[135]

Brighton & Hove Hockey Club is a large hockey club, with a homeground based in Hove. The men's 1XI gained promotion to the England Hockey League system, Conference East, in 2013.[136]

Throughout the year many events take place on Madeira Drive (a piece of roadway on Brighton's seafront), which was constructed to host what is commonly held to be the world's oldest motor race, the Brighton Speed Trials, which has been running since 1905. The event is organised by the Brighton and Hove Motor Club and normally takes place on the second Saturday in September each year.

There is also an from time to time a beach soccer competition in a temporary stadium on imported sand on the beach. The inaugural contest in June 2002 featured football stars such as Eric Cantona and Matt Le Tissier.

Brighton has a horse-racing course, Brighton Racecourse, with the unusual feature that when the full length of the course is to be used, some of the grass turf of the track has to be laid over the tar at the top of Wilson Avenue, a public road, which therefore has to be closed for the races.

There is a greyhound racing circuit – the Brighton & Hove Greyhound Stadium – in Hove, run by Coral, at which Motorcycle speedway racing was staged in 1928.

Basketball team Brighton Bears were in the British Basketball League before dropping out at the end of the 2005/06 season. Their home venue was at The Triangle Leisure Centre in Burgess Hill.

Brighton Ultimate, an ultimate Frisbee team[137] was set up in 1985.

The Brighton and Hove Pétanque Club runs an annual triples, doubles and singles competition, informal KOs, winter and summer league, plus Open competitions with other clubs. The club is affiliated to Sussex Pétanque, the local region of the English Pétanque Association, so they can also play at a Regional and National level. The Peace Statue terrain is the official pétanque terrain situated on the seafront near the West Pier.[138]

There are yachting clubs and other boating activities run from Brighton Marina.

Brighton has two competitive swimming clubs. Brighton SC[139] formed in 1860 claims to be the oldest swimming club in England. Brighton Dolphin SC[140] was formed in 1891 as Brighton Ladies Swimming

Transport[edit]

The Brighton Main Line (left) and A23 road link Brighton to London and the rest of the country.

Brighton has several railway stations, many bus routes, coach services and taxis. A Rapid Transport System has been under consideration for some years.[141][142] Trolleybuses, trams, ferries and hydrofoil services have operated in the past.

Brighton is connected to the national road network by the A23 (London Road) northwards, and by two east–west routes: the A259 along the coast and the A27 trunk route inland. The A23 joins the M23 motorway at Pease Pottage near Gatwick Airport.[143] The A27 originally ran through the urban area along Old Shoreham Road and Lewes Road, but it now follows the route of the Brighton Bypass (opened in 1990) and the old alignment has become the A270. A bypass was first proposed in 1932, six routes were submitted for approval in 1973, and the Department of the Environment published its recommended route in 1980. Public enquiries took place in 1983 and 1987, construction started in 1989 and the first section—between London Road at Patcham and the road to Devil's Dyke—opened in summer 1991.[144] By 1985 there were about 5,000 parking spaces in central Brighton. The largest car parks are at London Road, King Street, and the Churchill Square/Regency Road/Russell Road complex.[145] In 1969, a 520-space multi-storey car park was built beneath the central gardens of Regency Square.[145][146]

Frequent trains operate from Brighton railway station. Many Brighton residents commute to work in London[147] and destinations include London Victoria, London Bridge and St Pancras International. Many trains serve Gatwick Airport, and those operated by Thameslink continue to Luton, Luton Airport and Bedford. The fastest service from London Victoria takes 51 minutes.[148] The West Coastway Line serves stations to Hove, Worthing, Portsmouth and Southampton; and the East Coastway Line runs via Lewes to Newhaven, Eastbourne, Hastings and Ashford, Kent, crossing the landmark London Road viaduct en route and providing "a dramatic high-level view" of Brighton.[148] A wider range of long-distance destinations was served until 2007–08 when rationalisation caused the ending of InterCity services via Kensington (Olympia) and Reading to Birmingham, Manchester and Edinburgh.[148] Twice-daily long-distance services to Bristol and Great Malvern are operated by First Great Western via the West Coastway Line.

Until deregulation in 1986, bus services in Brighton were provided by Southdown Motor Services and Brighton Borough Transport under a joint arrangement called "Brighton Area Transport Services". Southdown were part of the nationalised NBC group and were based at Freshfield Road in the Kemptown area; Brighton Borough Transport were owned by the council and used the former tram depot at Lewes Road as their headquarters. Joint tickets were available and revenue was shared.[149] The Brighton & Hove Bus Company, owned by the Go-Ahead Group since 1993, now runs most bus services in Brighton. Its fleet has about 280 buses.[150] Compass Travel, The Big Lemon, Metrobus, Stagecoach South and The Sussex Bus also operate some services to central Brighton. The city had 1,184 bus stops in 2012, 456 of which had a shelter.[151] Real-time travel information displays are provided at many stops.[150]

.
.
Buses in Brighton are operated by companies including The Big Lemon (left) and Brighton & Hove (right).

The only park and ride facility in Brighton is based at the Withdean Stadium. It does not offer a dedicated shuttle bus service: intending passengers must join the Brighton & Hove Bus Company's route 27 service to Saltdean—which travels via Brighton railway station, the Clock Tower and Old Steine—and pay standard fares.[152] The 20-year City Plan released in January 2013 ruled out an official park-and-ride facility, stating it would be an "inefficient use of public money, particularly in an era of declining car use". Councillors and residents in Woodingdean and Rottingdean have claimed that streets and car parks in those areas have become unofficial park-and-ride sites: drivers park for free and take buses into the city centre.[153]

Shoreham Airport, which offers chartered and scheduled flights using light aircraft, is 9 miles (14 km) west of Brighton near the town of Shoreham-by-Sea. In 1971, the borough councils of Worthing, Hove and Brighton bought it and operated it jointly as a municipal airport,[143][154] but since 2006 it has been privately owned.[155] On 6 March 2013, newly established operator Brighton City Airways started running a scheduled service to Paris Pontoise–Cormeilles Airport in France. The airport was rebranded Brighton (Shoreham) Airport around the same time.[156]

Gatwick Airport, one of Britain's major international airports, is 30 miles (50 km) north on the A23; regular coach and rail services operate from Brighton.[143]

See also[edit]

Portal icon Brighton portal

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ De Tabe Glandulari, sive, De usu aquæ marinæ in morbis glandularum dissertatio (1750); translated into English in 1753 as Glandular Diseases, or a Dissertation on the Use of Sea Water in the Affections of the Glands.[22]
  2. ^ The name was documented as Poole in 1296 and 1497.[32]
  3. ^ Area of the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.[43]
  4. ^ 2009 figures.[67]
  5. ^ This is not the same as the present Kemp Town Brewery, founded in 1988 and based at the Hand in Hand pub in Kemptown.[86]
  6. ^ Until the extension of Brighton's boundaries to include Rottingdean and Saltdean in 1928, the coastline between the Hove and Rottingdean parish boundaries measured 2.2 miles (3.5 km).[40]

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External links[edit]