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Not to be confused with caffeine.
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Legal status
Routes of
Pharmacokinetic data
Biological half-life 1.8-8.6 h[1]
CAS Registry Number 492-39-7 YesY
ATC code A08AA07
PubChem CID: 441457
DrugBank DB01486 YesY
ChemSpider 390189 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C9H13NO
Molecular mass 151.206 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Cathine, also known as d-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which acts as a stimulant. Along with cathinone, it is found naturally in Catha edulis (khat), and contributes to its overall effects.[2] It has approximately 10-14% the potency of amphetamine.[2]


Like amphetamines, cathinone, and ephedrine, cathine acts as a releasing agent of norepinephrine and epinephrine, or as a norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA).[2] It also acts as a dopamine releasing agent (DRA) to a lesser extent.[2]


Cathine is one of the optical isomers of phenylpropanolamine (PPA).


The World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances (used for the Olympic Games among other athletic events) bars cathine in concentrations of over 5 micrograms per milliliter in urine. Cathine is a Schedule III drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[3] In the United States, it is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance.

Cathine is found in shrub Catha edulis.

In Hong Kong, cathine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. Unlawful possession is punishable by severe fines and imprisonment.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pharmacokinetics of cathinone, cathine and norephedrine after the chewing of khat leaves.. Toennes SW, et al. (2003 Jul). Retrieved on 2014-01-31.
  2. ^ a b c d Hoffman, R; Al'Absi, M (December 2010). "Khat use and neurobehavioral functions: suggestions for future studies." (PDF). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 132 (3): 554–63. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.033. PMC 2976806. PMID 20553832. 
  3. ^ "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-31.