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|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
|ATC code||C01CA14 (WHO)|
|Molar mass||429.43 g/mol|
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
Dopexamine is a synthetic analogue of dopamine that is administered intravenously in hospitals to reduce exacerbations of heart failure and to treat heart failure following cardiac surgery. It is not used often, as more established drugs like [epinephrine]], dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, and levosimendan work as well. It works by stimulating beta-2 adrenergic receptors and peripheral dopamine receptor D1 and dopamine receptor D2. It also inhibits of neuronal re-uptake of norepinephrine
The most common adverse effects include fast heart beats and nausea.
It was discovered by scientists at Fisons, which licensed it to Ipsen in 1993, and Ipsen in turn licensed it to Élan in 1999. Ipsen licensed rights in North America and Japan to Circassia in 2008; the drug had never been approved in those countries. Dopexamine went off-patent in 2010.
As of 2010 dopexamine was not often administered in cardiac care because other, more well established drugs can accomplish the same effect, other such drugs include epinephrine, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, and levosimendan.
It also should not be used in people with severe low blood pressure or reduced systemic vascular resistance. It should be used in caution in people with ischemic heart disease especially following heart attack or a recent episode of angina due to the risk of tachycardia. It should not be used in people with reduced blood volume.
Safety in pregnant women has not been established.
Very common (greater than 10%) adverse effects include fast heart beats and nausea. Common (between 1% and 10%) adverse effects include tremor, headache, transient low blood pressure, vomiting, increased sweating, sepsis, sinus and nodal slow heart beat, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, cardiac enzyme changes, non-specific ECG changes, high blood pressure, hemorrhage, respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, and kidney failure.
Dopexamine may potentiate the effects of other catecholamines like noradrenaline. Effects of depexamine may be suppressed by concomitant use with ß2-adrenergic and dopamine receptor antagonists requires caution.
The half-life of IV dopexamine is 6-7 minutes in healthy adults and 11 minutes in patients with heart failure.
Mechanism of action
Dopexamine stimulates beta-2 adrenergic receptors and peripheral dopamine receptor D1 and dopamine receptor D2. It also inhibits of neuronal re-uptake of norepinephrine (Uptake-1). These activities increase cardiac output and increase blood flow to peripheral vascular beds. It is not an α-adrenergic agonist, does not cause vasoconstriction, and is not a pressor agent.
As of 2004 there was some controversy surrounding the mechanism of dopexamine. Some held that its local effects of increased tissue perfusion were due only to increased output from the heart, while others held that were direct peripheral effects.
Dopexamine is a synthetic analogue of dopamine, a catecholamine. Its formula may be stated 4-[2-[4[[6-[(2-phenylethy)amino]-hexyl]amino]ethyl]-1,2-benzenediol or 4-[2-[4[[6-(phenethylamino)hexyl]-amino]ethyl]pyrocatechol.
The patent on dopexamine was controlled by Elan when it expired in 2003.
Dopexamine was approved for use in the European Union for treatment of symptoms related to heart failure in 2010.
In 2008 the UK company Circassia acquired the US, Canadian, and Japanese marketing rights to dopexamine from Ipsen; at the time, the company said it was planning to develop a new formulation of dopexamine in combination with fluids delivered via IV fluids, looking to improve outcomes following surgery. As of 2008 dopexamine had not been approved for any use in the US, Canada, or Japan. A
Teva recalled batches of dopexamine in the UK in 2014 due to quality control issues by the manufacturer, Cephalon.
Use in sepsis has been explored in clinical trials, but use of an inotropic agent like dobutamine or dopexamine did not reduce mortality compared with norepinephrine or epinephrine. Use of dopexamine may be harmful in sepsis 
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