Haplogroup J-M172 (Y-DNA)

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Haplogroup J-M172
Possible time of origin between 15,000 +/- 20,000 years ago.[1]
Possible place of origin Western Asia
Ancestor J-P209
Defining mutations M172
Highest frequencies Ingush 32[2]-88.8%,[3] Chechens 55.2%,[3] Georgians 21%[4]-72%,[4] Iraqis 25%[5]-43.6%,[6][7] Azeris 24%[8]-48%,[4] Yagnobis 32%,[4] Lebanese 25%[9]-30%,[4][10] Kurds 28%,[11] Syrians 14%[8]-29%, Turks 13%[12]-40%,[13] Cypriots 12.9%[14]-37%,[10] Abkhaz 25%,[2] Balkars 24%,[15] Greeks 10%[16]-48%,[16] Armenians 21%[4]-24%,[2] Ossetians 16%[3]-24%,[2] Circassians 21.8%,[3] Iranians 22.5%[17]-25%,[4] Italians 9%-36%,[18] Sephardi Jews 15%[11]-29%,[9] Palestinians 17%[11]-25%, Albanians 16%[15]-23.5%,[13] Ashkenazi Jews 15%[19]-24%,[11] Maltese 21%,[10] Yadavs 20%.[4] Kalash people 9.1% [20]

In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup J-P209. It is further divided into two complementary clades, J-M410 and J-M12 (M12, M102, M221, M314). J-M172 can be classified as Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia. It was carried by Bronze age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) that emerged in Southwest Asia around 35,000 years ago.[21]

Contents

Origins

Haplogroup J-M172 was until recently widely believed to be associated with the spread of agriculture from Mesopotamia (Iraq and Syria).[9][5]

Diffusion of metallurgy in western Europe. The darkest areas are the oldest (J-M172 Y-DNA).

However, the main spread of J-M172 into the Mediterranean area is now thought to have coincided with the expansion of metallurgical people's during the Bronze Age."[22][1] The age of J-M172 has been estimated as 15,000 +/- 20,000 years ago.[9] Newer estimations based on Y-chromosome sequencing and a CT split 70,000 years ago, confirm the IJ split around 36,000 years ago, and place the J-M267/J-M172 split around 26,000 years ago.[23] J-M172 distribution, centered in Western Asia and Southeastern Europe, its association with the presence of Neolithic archaeological artifacts, such as figurines and painted pottery,[24] and its association with annual precipitation had been interpreted as evidence that J-M172, and in particular its J-M410 subclade belonged to the agricultural innovators who followed the rainfall. However, new genetic data would link the first farmers to haplogroup G[25] Di Giacomo stressed the role of post-Neolithic migratory phenomenon, specifically that of the Ancient Greeks, as also being important in the dispersal of haplogroup J-M172.[8]

Distribution

J-M172 Distribution, "red" indicates Georgian Kazbegi people frequency 72%, and borders them the Ingush frequency 89%
subclades of J-M172 Haplogroup

Haplogroup J-M172 is found mainly in the Fertile Crescent, the Caucasus,[26] Anatolia, the Balkans, Italy, the Mediterranean littoral, and the Iranian plateau.[9]

The highest reported frequency of J-M172 ever was 87.4%, among Ingush in Malgobek.[3] J-M172 - Associated with Mediterranean, South Caucasian and Fertile Crescent populations, with its peaks at 87.4% in Ingushetia and 72% in Georgia's Kazbegi region (near Mount Kazbek). In the North Caucasus, the largest frequencies are those of Nakh peoples (Chechens (56.7%) and Ingush (88.8%).[26] Other notable values were found among North Caucasian Turkic peoples (Kumyks (25%)[27] and Balkars(24%)[28]). It is notable that according to both Nasidze's study in 2004 and then a later study on Dagestani peoples by Yunusbaev in 2006, J-M172 suddenly collapses as one enters the territory of non-Nakh Northeast Caucasian peoples, dropping to very low values among Dagestani peoples.[25][26][29][30] The overwhelming bulk of Chechen J-M172 is of the subclade J-M67), of which the highest frequencies by far are found among Nakh peoples- Chechens were 55.2% according to the Balanovsky study, while Ingush were 87.4%.

More specifically it is found in Iraq,[5] Syria,[27] Lebanon,[28] Turkey,[12] Georgia,[26] Azerbaijan,[8] North Caucasus,[2] Armenia,[4] Iran,[2] Israel,[9] Palestine,[9] Cyprus,[10] Greece,[16] Albania,[13] Italy,[18] and Spain,[29] and more frequently in Iraqis 43.6%,[6] Chechens 51.0%-58.0%,[3] Georgians 21%[4]-72%,[4] Lebanese 25%,[9] Ossetians 24%,[2] Balkars 24%,[15] Syrians 23%,[27] Turks 13%[12]-40%,[13] Cypriots 12.9%[14]-37%,[10] Armenians 21%[4]-24%,[2] Circassians 21.8%,[3] Iranians 10%[2]-25%,[4] Albanians 16%[15]-24%,[13] Italians 9%-36%,[18] Sephardi Jews 15%[11]-29%,[9] Maltese 21%,[10] Palestinians 17%,[9] Saudis 16%,[30] Jordanians 14%, Omanis 10%-15%,[8][27] and Hazaras from Afghanistan 27%.[31]

J-M172 is found at very high frequencies in certain peoples of the Caucasus: among the Ingush 87.4%,[3] Chechens 55.2%,[3] Georgians 21%[4]-72%,[4] Azeris 24%[8]-48%,[4] Abkhaz 25%,[2] Balkars 24%,[15] Ossetians 24%,[2] Armenians 21%[4]-24%,[2] Circassians 21.8%,[3] and other groups.[2][26]

In Europe, the frequency of Haplogroup J-M172 drops dramatically as one moves northward away from the Mediterranean. In Italy, J-M172 is found with regional frequencies ranging between 9% and 36%.[18] In Greece, it is found with regional frequencies ranging between 10% and 48%. Approximately 24% of Turkish men are J-M172 according to a recent study,[12] with regional frequencies ranging between 13% and 40%.[13] Combined with J-M267, up to half of the Turkish population belongs to Haplogroup J-P209.

It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites.[32] Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%).[33]

Sephardi Jews have about 15%[11]-29%,[9] of haplogroup J-M172, and Ashkenazi Jews have 15%[19]-23%.[9] It was reported in an early study which tested only four STR markers[34] that a small sample of Italian Cohens belonged to Network 1.2, an early designation for the overall clade now known as J-L26, defined by the deletion at DYS413. However, a large number of all Jewish Cohens in the world belong to haplogroup J-M267 (see Cohen modal haplotype).

Haplogroup J-M172 has been shown to have a more northern distribution in the Middle East, although it exists in significant amounts in the southern middle-east regions, a lesser amount of it was found when compared to its brother haplogroup, J-M267, which has a high frequency southerly distribution. It was believed that the source population of J-M172 originated from the Levant/Syria (Syrid-J-M172), and that its occurrence among modern populations of Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia was a sign of the neolithic agriculturalists. However, as stated it is now more likely to have originated in regions farther to the north, with the first metallurgists of the Middle East.

J-M172 subclades are also found in Central Asia, and South Asia. A genetic study published led by Firasat (2007) on Kalash individuals found a frequency of 9.1%. Haplogroup J-M410 in India was found to be largely confined to the castes, with little or no occurrence in the tribals. The frequency of J-M172 is higher in South Indian castes (19%) than in North Indian castes (11%) or Pakistan (12%).[21] Haplogroup J-P209 was found to be even more common in India's Shia Muslim, of which 28.7% are predominantly are Sayyid belong to haplogroup J, with 13.7% in J-M410, 10.6% in J-M267 and 4.4% in J2b.[35] The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for J-M172, showing its distribution in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Algeria Oran 102 4.9 Robino et al. (2008)
Bosnia-Herzegovina Serbs 81 8.7 Battaglia et al. (2009)
Caucasus Abkhaz 58 13.8 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Avar 115 6 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Chechen 330 57 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Circassians 142 21.8 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Dargins 101 1 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Ingush 143 88.8 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Kaitak 33 3 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Kubachi 65 0 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Lezghins 81 2.5 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Ossets 357 16 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus Shapsug 100 6 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Caucasus 1525 28.1 Balanovsky et al. (2011)
Cyprus 164 12.9 El-Sibai et al. (2009)[14]
Egypt 124 7.6 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Egypt 147 12.0 Abu-Amero et al. (2009)
Europe Ashkenazim Jewish 442 19 Behar et al. (2004)
Greece 154 18.1 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Greece Crete 143 35 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Iberia 655 7 Fregel et al. (2009)
Iberia 1140 7.7 Adams et al. (2008)
Iran 92 25 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Iraq 154 43.6 Al-Zahery et al. (2011)[6]
Israel Akka 101 18.6 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Italy Sicily 212 22.6 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Italy Mainland 699 20 Capelli et al. (2007)
Italy Central Marche 59 35.6 Capelli et al. (2007)
Italy West Calabria 57 35.1 Capelli et al. (2007)
Italy Val Badia 34 8.8 Capelli et al. (2007)
Jordan 273 14.6 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Lebanon 951 29.4 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Malta 90 21.1 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Oman 121 10.0 Abu-Amero et al. (2009)
Morocco 221 4.1 Fregel et al. (2009)
North Africa Algeria, Tunisia 202 3.5 Fregel et al. (2009)
Pakistan 176 11.9 Abu-Amero et al. (2009) | Chitral District | | Firasat et al. (2007)
Portugal North, Center, South 303 6.9 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Portugal Tras-os-Montes (Jews) 57 24.5 Nogueiro et al. (2010)
Qatar 72 8.3 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Sardinia 81 9.9 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Saudi Arabia 157 15.9 Abu-Amero et al. (2009)
Spain Mallorca 62 8.1 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Sevilla 155 7.8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Leon 60 5 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Ibiza 54 3.7 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Cantabria 70 2.9 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Galicia 292 13 Brion et al. (2004)
Spain Canary Islands 652 10.5 Fregel et al. (2009)
Syria Syria 554 20.8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Tunisia Tunisia 62 8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Turkey 523 24.2 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
UAE 164 10.3 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Yemen 62 9.6 El-Sibai et al. (2009)

Subclades

Haplogroup J-M172 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J-M410, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J-M12, defined by the M12 genetic marker.

Tree

Below are the subclades of Haplogroup J-P209 with their defining mutations, according to the ISOGG tree (as of April2009). Note that the descent-based identifiers may be subject to change, as new SNPs are discovered that augment and clarify the tree.

  • J-M172 (M172) Typical of populations of the Near East, Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, with a moderate distribution through much of Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa
    • J-M410 (M410) Found in Georgia (Svan)DYS 434=7; Found in North Ossetia DYS 438=7 ;
      • J-M340 (M340)
      • J-P279 (P279)
      • J-L26 (DYS413≤18, L26/S57, L27)
        • J-M47 (M47, M322) Found with low frequency in Georgia,[15] southern Iran,[36] Qatar,[37] Saudi Arabia,[30] Syria,[8] Tunisia,[38] Turkey,[8][12] the UAE,[37] and Central Asia/Siberia[39]
        • J-M67 (M67) formerly J2f Highest frequencies associated with Nakh peoples. Found at very high (majority) frequencies among Ingush in Malgobek (87.4%), Chechens in Dagestan (58%), Chechens in Chechnya (56.8%) and Chechens in Malgobek, Ingushetia (50.9%).[3] In the Caucasus, it is found at significant frequencies among Georgians (13.3%),[9] Iron Ossetes (11.3%), South Caucasian Balkars (6.3%),[9] Digor Ossetes (5.5%), Abkhaz (6.9%), Cherkess (5.6%).[3] It is also found at notable frequencies in the Meditteranean and Middle East, including Cretans (10.2%), North-central Italians (9.6%), Southern Italians (4.2%; only 0.8% mamong N. Italians), Anatolian Turks (2.7-5.4%), Greeks (4-4.3%), Albanians (3.6%), Ashkenazi Jews (4.9%), Sephardis (2.4%), Catalans (3.9%), Andalusians (3.2%), Calabrians (3.3%), Albanian Calabrians (8.9%).[9][8]
          • J-M92 (M92, M260)
            • J-M327 (M327)
          • J-M163 (M163, M166)
        • J-M68 (M68)
        • J-M319 (M319) Found with low to moderate frequency in Cretan Greeks,[16][33] Iraqi Jews,[19] and Moroccan Jews[19]
        • J-M339 (M339)
        • J-M419 (M419)
        • J-P81 (P81)
        • J-L24 (L24, M530)
    • J-M12 (M12, M102, M221, M314)
      • J-M205 (M205)
      • J-M241 (M241)
        • J-M99 (M99)
        • J-M280 (M280)
        • J-M321 (M321)
        • J-P84 (P84)
        • J-DYS455≤9 (DYS455≤9)

References

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Bibliography

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External links


Evolutionary tree of Human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A0 A1
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
G H IJK
IJ K
I J LT K(xLT)
L T M NO P S
N O Q R