Haplogroup J-M172 (Y-DNA)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Possible time of origin||between 15,000 +/- 20,000 years ago.|
|Possible place of origin||Western Asia|
|Highest frequencies||Ingush 32-88.8%, Chechens 55.2%, Georgians 21%-72%, Iraqis 25%-43.6%, Azeris 24%-48%, Yagnobis 32%, Lebanese 25%-30%, Kurds 28%, Syrians 14%-29%, Turks 13%-40%, Cypriots 12.9%-37%, Abkhaz 25%, Balkars 24%, Greeks 10%-48%, Armenians 21%-24%, Ossetians 16%-24%, Circassians 21.8%, Iranians 22.5%-25%, Italians 9%-36%, Sephardi Jews 15%-29%, Palestinians 17%-25%, Albanians 16%-23.5%, Ashkenazi Jews 15%-24%, Maltese 21%, Yadavs 20%. Kalash people 9.1% |
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup J-P209. It is further divided into two complementary clades, J-M410 and J-M12 (M12, M102, M221, M314). J-M172 can be classified as Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia. It was carried by Bronze age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) that emerged in Southwest Asia around 35,000 years ago.
However, the main spread of J-M172 into the Mediterranean area is now thought to have coincided with the expansion of metallurgical people's during the Bronze Age." The age of J-M172 has been estimated as 15,000 +/- 20,000 years ago. Newer estimations based on Y-chromosome sequencing and a CT split 70,000 years ago, confirm the IJ split around 36,000 years ago, and place the J-M267/J-M172 split around 26,000 years ago. J-M172 distribution, centered in Western Asia and Southeastern Europe, its association with the presence of Neolithic archaeological artifacts, such as figurines and painted pottery, and its association with annual precipitation had been interpreted as evidence that J-M172, and in particular its J-M410 subclade belonged to the agricultural innovators who followed the rainfall. However, new genetic data would link the first farmers to haplogroup G Di Giacomo stressed the role of post-Neolithic migratory phenomenon, specifically that of the Ancient Greeks, as also being important in the dispersal of haplogroup J-M172.
The highest reported frequency of J-M172 ever was 87.4%, among Ingush in Malgobek. J-M172 - Associated with Mediterranean, South Caucasian and Fertile Crescent populations, with its peaks at 87.4% in Ingushetia and 72% in Georgia's Kazbegi region (near Mount Kazbek). In the North Caucasus, the largest frequencies are those of Nakh peoples (Chechens (56.7%) and Ingush (88.8%). Other notable values were found among North Caucasian Turkic peoples (Kumyks (25%) and Balkars(24%)). It is notable that according to both Nasidze's study in 2004 and then a later study on Dagestani peoples by Yunusbaev in 2006, J-M172 suddenly collapses as one enters the territory of non-Nakh Northeast Caucasian peoples, dropping to very low values among Dagestani peoples. The overwhelming bulk of Chechen J-M172 is of the subclade J-M67), of which the highest frequencies by far are found among Nakh peoples- Chechens were 55.2% according to the Balanovsky study, while Ingush were 87.4%.
More specifically it is found in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, North Caucasus, Armenia, Iran, Israel, Palestine, Cyprus, Greece, Albania, Italy, and Spain, and more frequently in Iraqis 43.6%, Chechens 51.0%-58.0%, Georgians 21%-72%, Lebanese 25%, Ossetians 24%, Balkars 24%, Syrians 23%, Turks 13%-40%, Cypriots 12.9%-37%, Armenians 21%-24%, Circassians 21.8%, Iranians 10%-25%, Albanians 16%-24%, Italians 9%-36%, Sephardi Jews 15%-29%, Maltese 21%, Palestinians 17%, Saudis 16%, Jordanians 14%, Omanis 10%-15%, and Hazaras from Afghanistan 27%.
J-M172 is found at very high frequencies in certain peoples of the Caucasus: among the Ingush 87.4%, Chechens 55.2%, Georgians 21%-72%, Azeris 24%-48%, Abkhaz 25%, Balkars 24%, Ossetians 24%, Armenians 21%-24%, Circassians 21.8%, and other groups.
In Europe, the frequency of Haplogroup J-M172 drops dramatically as one moves northward away from the Mediterranean. In Italy, J-M172 is found with regional frequencies ranging between 9% and 36%. In Greece, it is found with regional frequencies ranging between 10% and 48%. Approximately 24% of Turkish men are J-M172 according to a recent study, with regional frequencies ranging between 13% and 40%. Combined with J-M267, up to half of the Turkish population belongs to Haplogroup J-P209.
It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites. Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%).
Sephardi Jews have about 15%-29%, of haplogroup J-M172, and Ashkenazi Jews have 15%-23%. It was reported in an early study which tested only four STR markers that a small sample of Italian Cohens belonged to Network 1.2, an early designation for the overall clade now known as J-L26, defined by the deletion at DYS413. However, a large number of all Jewish Cohens in the world belong to haplogroup J-M267 (see Cohen modal haplotype).
Haplogroup J-M172 has been shown to have a more northern distribution in the Middle East, although it exists in significant amounts in the southern middle-east regions, a lesser amount of it was found when compared to its brother haplogroup, J-M267, which has a high frequency southerly distribution. It was believed that the source population of J-M172 originated from the Levant/Syria (Syrid-J-M172), and that its occurrence among modern populations of Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia was a sign of the neolithic agriculturalists. However, as stated it is now more likely to have originated in regions farther to the north, with the first metallurgists of the Middle East.
J-M172 subclades are also found in Central Asia, and South Asia. A genetic study published led by Firasat (2007) on Kalash individuals found a frequency of 9.1%. Haplogroup J-M410 in India was found to be largely confined to the castes, with little or no occurrence in the tribals. The frequency of J-M172 is higher in South Indian castes (19%) than in North Indian castes (11%) or Pakistan (12%). Haplogroup J-P209 was found to be even more common in India's Shia Muslim, of which 28.7% are predominantly are Sayyid belong to haplogroup J, with 13.7% in J-M410, 10.6% in J-M267 and 4.4% in J2b. The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for J-M172, showing its distribution in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.
|Algeria||Oran||102||4.9||Robino et al. (2008)|
|Bosnia-Herzegovina||Serbs||81||8.7||Battaglia et al. (2009)|
|Caucasus||Abkhaz||58||13.8||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Avar||115||6||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Chechen||330||57||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Circassians||142||21.8||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Dargins||101||1||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Ingush||143||88.8||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Kaitak||33||3||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Kubachi||65||0||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Lezghins||81||2.5||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Ossets||357||16||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||Shapsug||100||6||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Caucasus||1525||28.1||Balanovsky et al. (2011)|
|Cyprus||164||12.9||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Egypt||124||7.6||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Egypt||147||12.0||Abu-Amero et al. (2009)|
|Europe||Ashkenazim Jewish||442||19||Behar et al. (2004)|
|Greece||154||18.1||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Greece||Crete||143||35||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Iberia||655||7||Fregel et al. (2009)|
|Iberia||1140||7.7||Adams et al. (2008)|
|Iran||92||25||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Iraq||154||43.6||Al-Zahery et al. (2011)|
|Israel||Akka||101||18.6||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Italy||Sicily||212||22.6||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Italy||Mainland||699||20||Capelli et al. (2007)|
|Italy||Central Marche||59||35.6||Capelli et al. (2007)|
|Italy||West Calabria||57||35.1||Capelli et al. (2007)|
|Italy||Val Badia||34||8.8||Capelli et al. (2007)|
|Jordan||273||14.6||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Lebanon||951||29.4||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Malta||90||21.1||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Oman||121||10.0||Abu-Amero et al. (2009)|
|Morocco||221||4.1||Fregel et al. (2009)|
|North Africa||Algeria, Tunisia||202||3.5||Fregel et al. (2009)|
|Pakistan||176||11.9||Abu-Amero et al. (2009)||| Chitral District | | Firasat et al. (2007)|
|Portugal||North, Center, South||303||6.9||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Portugal||Tras-os-Montes (Jews)||57||24.5||Nogueiro et al. (2010)|
|Qatar||72||8.3||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Sardinia||81||9.9||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Saudi Arabia||157||15.9||Abu-Amero et al. (2009)|
|Spain||Mallorca||62||8.1||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Spain||Sevilla||155||7.8||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Spain||Leon||60||5||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Spain||Ibiza||54||3.7||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Spain||Cantabria||70||2.9||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Spain||Galicia||292||13||Brion et al. (2004)|
|Spain||Canary Islands||652||10.5||Fregel et al. (2009)|
|Syria||Syria||554||20.8||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Tunisia||Tunisia||62||8||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Turkey||523||24.2||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|UAE||164||10.3||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
|Yemen||62||9.6||El-Sibai et al. (2009)|
Haplogroup J-M172 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J-M410, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J-M12, defined by the M12 genetic marker.
Below are the subclades of Haplogroup J-P209 with their defining mutations, according to the ISOGG tree (as of April2009). Note that the descent-based identifiers may be subject to change, as new SNPs are discovered that augment and clarify the tree.
- J-M172 (M172) Typical of populations of the Near East, Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, with a moderate distribution through much of Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa
- J-M410 (M410) Found in Georgia (Svan)DYS 434=7; Found in North Ossetia DYS 438=7 ;
- J-M340 (M340)
- J-P279 (P279)
- J-L26 (DYS413≤18, L26/S57, L27)
- J-M47 (M47, M322) Found with low frequency in Georgia, southern Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, the UAE, and Central Asia/Siberia
- J-M67 (M67) formerly J2f Highest frequencies associated with Nakh peoples. Found at very high (majority) frequencies among Ingush in Malgobek (87.4%), Chechens in Dagestan (58%), Chechens in Chechnya (56.8%) and Chechens in Malgobek, Ingushetia (50.9%). In the Caucasus, it is found at significant frequencies among Georgians (13.3%), Iron Ossetes (11.3%), South Caucasian Balkars (6.3%), Digor Ossetes (5.5%), Abkhaz (6.9%), Cherkess (5.6%). It is also found at notable frequencies in the Meditteranean and Middle East, including Cretans (10.2%), North-central Italians (9.6%), Southern Italians (4.2%; only 0.8% mamong N. Italians), Anatolian Turks (2.7-5.4%), Greeks (4-4.3%), Albanians (3.6%), Ashkenazi Jews (4.9%), Sephardis (2.4%), Catalans (3.9%), Andalusians (3.2%), Calabrians (3.3%), Albanian Calabrians (8.9%).
- J-M92 (M92, M260)
- J-M327 (M327)
- J-M163 (M163, M166)
- J-M92 (M92, M260)
- J-M68 (M68)
- J-M319 (M319) Found with low to moderate frequency in Cretan Greeks, Iraqi Jews, and Moroccan Jews
- J-M339 (M339)
- J-M419 (M419)
- J-P81 (P81)
- J-L24 (L24, M530)
- J-M12 (M12, M102, M221, M314)
- J-M205 (M205)
- J-M241 (M241)
- J-M99 (M99)
- J-M280 (M280)
- J-M321 (M321)
- J-P84 (P84)
- J-DYS455≤9 (DYS455≤9)
- J-M410 (M410) Found in Georgia (Svan)DYS 434=7; Found in North Ossetia DYS 438=7 ;
- (Fig. 1)
- Nasidze, I.; Ling, E. Y. S.; Quinque, D.; Dupanloup, I.; Cordaux, R.; Rychkov, S.; Naumova, O.; Zhukova, O. et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus". Annals of Human Genetics 68 (3): 205–21. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00092.x. PMID 15180701.
- Balanovsky, O.; Dibirova, K.; Dybo, A.; Mudrak, O.; Frolova, S.; Pocheshkhova, E.; Haber, M.; Platt, D. et al. (2011). "Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region". Molecular Biology and Evolution 28 (10): 2905–20. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr126. PMID 21571925.
- Wells, R. S. (2001). "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (18): 10244–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMC 56946. PMID 11526236. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC56946/.
- Al-Zahery, N.; Semino, O.; Benuzzi, G.; Magri, C.; Passarino, G.; Torroni, A.; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A.S. (2003). "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28 (3): 458–72. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00039-3. PMID 12927131.
- Al-Zahery et al. (Oct. 2011). "In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq". BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 288. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-288. PMC 3215667. PMID 21970613. http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2148-11-288.pdf. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- Sanchez, Juan J; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Børsting, Claus; Hernandez, Alexis; Gorlin, RJ (2005). "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males". European Journal of Human Genetics 13 (7): 856–66. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201390. PMID 15756297.
- Giacomo, F.; Luca, F.; Popa, L. O.; Akar, N.; Anagnou, N.; Banyko, J.; Brdicka, R.; Barbujani, G. et al. (2004). "Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe". Human Genetics 115 (5): 357–71. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1168-9. PMID 15322918.
- Semino, Ornella; Magri, Chiara; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Lin, Alice A.; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; MacCioni, Liliana; Triantaphyllidis, Costas et al. (2004). "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". The American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295. PMC 1181965. PMID 15069642. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/.}
- Capelli, C.; Redhead, N.; Romano, V.; Cali, F.; Lefranc, G.; Delague, V.; Megarbane, A.; Felice, A. E. et al. (2006). "Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective". Annals of Human Genetics 70 (2): 207–25. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00224.x. PMID 16626331.
- A. Nebel et al. (2001), The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East, Americal Journal of Human Genetics 69(5):1095-112.
- Cinnioglu, Cengiz; King, Roy; Kivisild, Toomas; Kalfoglu, Ersi; Atasoy, Sevil; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Lillie, Anita S.; Roseman, Charles C. et al. (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics 114 (2): 127–48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639.
- Semino, O.; Passarino, G; Oefner, PJ; Lin, AA; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, LE; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P et al. (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective". Science 290 (5494): 1155–9. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453.
- El-Sibai, Mirvat; Platt, Daniel E.; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Wells, R. Spencer; Izaabel, Hassan; Sanyoura, May F. et al. (2009). "Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast". Annals of Human Genetics 73 (6): 568–81. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x. PMID 19686289. This paper reported results from several studies : Di Giacomo et al.2003, Al-Zahery et al.2003, Flores et al.2004, Cinnioglu et al.2004, Capelli et al.2005, Goncalves et al.2005, Zalloua et al.2008, Cadenas et al.2008
- Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri et al. (2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 820–30. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947100/.
- Martinez, Laisel; Underhill, Peter A; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Gayden, Tenzin; Moschonas, Nicholas K; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Conti, Simon; Mamolini, Elisabetta et al. (2007). "Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau". European Journal of Human Genetics 15 (4): 485–93. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201769. PMID 17264870.
- Grugni, Viola et al 2012, Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians PLoS ONE 7(7): e41252. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252
- Capelli, Cristian; Brisighelli, Francesca; Scarnicci, Francesca; Arredi, Barbara; Caglia’, Alessandra; Vetrugno, Giuseppe; Tofanelli, Sergio; Onofri, Valerio et al. (2007). "Y chromosome genetic variation in the Italian peninsula is clinal and supports an admixture model for the Mesolithic–Neolithic encounter". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44 (1): 228–39. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.11.030. PMID 17275346.
- Shen, Peidong; Lavi, Tal; Kivisild, Toomas; Chou, Vivian; Sengun, Deniz; Gefel, Dov; Shpirer, Issac; Woolf, Eilon et al. (2004). "Reconstruction of patrilineages and matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli populations from Y-Chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequence Variation". Human Mutation 24 (3): 248–60. doi:10.1002/humu.20077. PMID 15300852.
- A genetic study published led by Firasat (2007) on Kalash individuals found high and diverse frequencies of
- Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; King, Roy; Mehdi, S.Q.; Edmonds, Christopher A.; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Lin, Alice A.; Mitra, Mitashree et al. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". The American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/.
- "ISOGG Y-DNA Tree: Haplogroup J". http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpJ.html.
- Robb, Terry (May 2012). "UPDATE10: TMRCA of Y-Haplogroups - based of 1000 Genomes Project data". Y-Haplogroup I1. Terry D. Robb. http://www.goggo.com/terry/HaplogroupI1/. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- R. King and P.A. Underhill (2002), Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages, Antiquity 76:704-714
- Tofanelli, Sergio; Ferri, Gianmarco; Bulayeva, Kazima; Caciagli, Laura; Onofri, Valerio; Taglioli, Luca; Bulayev, Oleg; Boschi, Ilaria et al. (2009). "J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human displacements". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (11): 1520–4. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.58. PMC 2986692. PMID 19367321. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2986692/.
- "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome". Hum. Genet. 112 (3): 255–61. March 2003. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0874-4. PMID 12596050.
- Luis, J; Rowold, D; Regueiro, M; Caeiro, B; Cinnioglu, C; Roseman, C; Underhill, P; Cavallisforza, L et al. (2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations". The American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (3): 532–44. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266. PMID 14973781. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1182266/.
- Zalloua, Pierre A.; Xue, Yali; Khalife, Jade; Makhoul, Nadine; Debiane, Labib; Platt, Daniel E.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Herrera, Rene J. et al. (2008). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events". The American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (4): 873–82. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.020. PMC 2427286. PMID 18374297. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2427286/.
- Di Giacomo, F.; Luca, F.; Anagnou, N.; Ciavarella, G.; Corbo, R.M.; Cresta, M.; Cucci, F.; Di Stasi, L. et al. (2003). "Clinal patterns of human Y chromosomal diversity in continental Italy and Greece are dominated by drift and founder effects". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28 (3): 387–95. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00016-2. PMID 12927125.
- Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics 10: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955. PMID 19772609. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2759955/.
- Haber Marc, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, et al 2012 Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events PLoS ONE 7(3): e34288. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288
- Wikipedia article: Archaeogenetics of the Near East#Crete
- King, R. J.; Ozcan, S. S., Carter, T., Kalfoglu, E., Atasoy, S., Triantaphyllidis, C., Kouvatsi, A., Lin, A. A., Chow, C-E. T., Zhivotovsky, L. A., Michalodimitrakis, M., Underhill, P. A., (March2008). "Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic". Annals of Human Genetics 72 (2): 205–214. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x. PMID 18269686. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x.
- Malaspina, P.; Tsopanomichalou, M.; Duman, T.; Stefan, M.; Silvestri, A.; Rinaldi, B.; Garcia, O.; Giparaki, M. et al. (2001). "A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area". Annals of Human Genetics 65 (4): 339–49. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6540339.x. PMID 11592923.
- Muthukrishnan Eaaswarkhanth et al., Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Shia Muslim populations, European Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 18, No. 3. (07 October 2009), pp. 354-363.
- Regueiro, M.; Cadenas, A.M.; Gayden, T.; Underhill, P.A.; Herrera, R.J. (2006). "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration". Human Heredity 61 (3): 132–43. doi:10.1159/000093774. PMID 16770078.
- Cadenas, Alicia M; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L; Underhill, Peter A; Herrera, Rene J (2007). "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman". European Journal of Human Genetics 16 (3): 374–86. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934. PMID 17928816.
- Arredi, B; Poloni, E; Paracchini, S; Zerjal, T; Fathallah, D; Makrelouf, M; Pascali, V; Novelletto, A et al. (2004). "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics 75 (2): 338–45. doi:10.1086/423147. PMC 1216069. PMID 15202071. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1216069/.
- Underhill, Peter A.; Shen, Peidong; Lin, Alice A.; Jin, Li; Passarino, Giuseppe; Yang, Wei H.; Kauffman, Erin; Bonné-Tamir, Batsheva et al. (2000). "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations". Nature Genetics 26 (3): 358–61. doi:10.1038/81685. PMID 11062480.
- ^ Renfrew, A.C. (1987). Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6612-5
- ^ A. Nebel et al. (2001), The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East, Americal Journal of Human Genetics 69(5):1095-112.
- ^ P. Malaspina et al. (2001), A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area, Ann Hum Genet.2001 Jul;65(Pt 4):339-49.
- Y-Haplogroup J DNA Project
- J2 Middle East Project, Admin Kamel Al Gazzah
- J-l24 Y DNA Project, Admins Al Aburto, Tim Janzen,Kamel AL GAZZAH
- In Lebanon DNA may yet heal rifts
|Evolutionary tree of Human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|