Hendrik Anthony Kramers
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|Hendrik Anthony Kramers|
|Born||2 February 1894
|Died||24 April 1952
|Known for||Kramers-Heisenberg formula
Kramers model for polymer chains
Kramers' degeneracy theorem
Kramers' opacity law
|Notable awards||Lorentz Medal in 1947
Hughes Medal in 1951
Hendrik Anthony "Hans" Kramers (Rotterdam, February 2, 1894 – Oegstgeest, April 24, 1952) was a Dutch physicist. He was the son of Hendrik Kramers, a physician, and Jeanne Susanne Breukelman. On October 25, 1920 he was married to Anna Petersen. They had three daughters and one son.
In 1912 Hans finished secondary education (in Dutch: HBS) in Rotterdam, and studied mathematics and physics at the University of Leiden, where he obtained a master's degree in 1916. Kramers wanted to obtain foreign experience during his doctoral research, but his first choice of supervisor, Max Born in Göttingen, was not reachable because of the first world war. Because Denmark was neutral in this war, as was The Netherlands, he travelled (by ship, overland was impossible) to Copenhagen, where he visited unannounced the then still relatively unknown Niels Bohr. Bohr took him on as a PhD student and Kramers prepared his dissertation under Bohr's direction. Although Kramers did most of his doctoral research (on intensities of atomic transitions) in Copenhagen, he obtained his formal Ph.D. in Leiden, on May 8, 1919.
After working for almost ten years in Bohr's group and becoming an associate professor at the University of Copenhagen, Kramers left Denmark in 1926 and returned to his native land. He became a full professor in theoretical physics at the Utrecht University, where he supervised Tjalling Koopmans. In 1934 he left Utrecht and succeeded Paul Ehrenfest in Leiden. From 1931 until his death he held also a cross appointment at the Delft University of Technology.
- Max Dresden, H.A. Kramers - Between Tradition and Revolution, Springer (1987) ISBN 0387962824
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