I. H. Usmani
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|Ishrat Hussain Usmani|
|Institutions||Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)
Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)
Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Ministry of Science and Technology
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
|Alma mater||Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, UK.|
|Known for||Pakistani space program|
|Notable awards||Nishan-i-Imtiaz (1998)|
I. H. Usmani or (Ishrat Hussain Usmani) is a Pakistani physicist who was a chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) from 1960 to 1972, and a former co-chairman of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO). He was also a chairman of the board of governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from 1962 to 1963. Dr. Ishrat Hussain Usamni played an important role in Pakistan's road to nuclear technology to space technology. Usmani is one of the key founder of many nuclear research institutes and space research institutes. Usmani is also credited to established country's first nuclear power plant in Karachi with the cooperation with Canada.
Life and PAEC Career
Usmani recieved his B.Sc. in physics from Aligarh Muslim University. later, Usmani obtained masters in physics from Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh and his doctorate in physics from the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London.
He served in several senior administrative positions in Pakistan. Usmani played an important role in development of Pakistan's first sounding rockets Rehbar-I and Rehbar-II, and was a chief designer of the Rehbar sounding rocket series. Like many other Pakistani scientist, Usmani had worked closely with Abdus Salam on building nuclear power plants as well as establishing the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). Usmani become a second chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, where he, along with Dr. Abdus Salam, became an instrument in setting up nuclear research labs in Pakistan. He was responsible of sending a large number of Pakistani scientists for PhD’s to the best institutions in United Kingdom and United States of America. He also introduced a scholarship program at PAEC. Ishrat Hussain Usamani was one the few scientist who maintained friend and close relationship with well known theoretical physicist, dr. Abdus Salam. His noted theories have big impact and influenced him which later proved in his scientific papers.
Pakistan's Civilian Nuclear Program
Usmani played a solid role in Pakistan's civil-purpose nuclear program. His contribution and efforts were involved in KANNUP, Pakistan's first civil-purpose nuclear power plant, in Karachi. In 1972, he was replaced by Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, when Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto decided to develop nuclear weapons. Some nuclear analyst in Pakistan have concluded that Usmani had showned motives against Pakistan's Nuclear weapon Development Program in which Usmani believes that Pakistan had lack of facilities and talents. Prime Minister Bhutto replaced him and later, he was transferred to Ministry of Science and Technology. However, in 1985, Ishrat Usmani resigned and off to United Nations where he joined United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. In 1983, Usmani became aware of Pakistan first cold-test which was tested by PAEC. Despite of what he believes, Usmani began to help Pakistan to pursue civil purpose nuclear technology and presented Pakistan's peaceful nuclear program at the United Nations. He was one of the central Figures in Pakistan-China Civilian Nuclear Technology Agreement which was signed by China and Pakistan in 1986.
In 1980, Usmani was transferred to SUPARCO, where he was put in charge of the satellite development program of Pakistan. There he, along with dr. M. Shafi Ahmed, co-designed Pakistan's first indigenously developed satellite, Badr-1, which was launched in 1990 from China. He also revitalised and re-organized Pakistan's space center and satellite launch center, namely Somiani rocket range.
During 1990s, Usmani also worked for the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation as a physicist where he urged for peaceful use of nuclear technology. Ishrat Usmani was part of the UNSCEAR where he issued a breif investigative report on the Chernobyl disaster, a disasterous nuclear accident which occured in Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1986. Usmani was a also part of a United Nations Atomic Energy Commission where he helped Pakistan to pursue civil-purpose nuclear program. He stayed at U.N. till 1998.
Usmani came back to Pakistan in 1998 and re-joined PAEC under the leadership of noted nuclear physicist dr. Ishfaq Ahmad. Usmani is a recipient of Pakistan's highest civilian award, Nishan-i-Imtiaz, which was awarded to him in 1998 from the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif when Pakistan conducted its most successful nuclear tests.
- R.Sherman (2000). "Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Pakistan Special Weapons Delivery Systems". http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/pakistan/agency/paec.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-27.
- "SUPARCO – History". http://www.suparco.gov.pk/pages/history.asp. Retrieved on 2009-03-27.
- "The New Board of Governors". IAEA Bulletin 5 (1): 32. 1963. http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull051/05101403233.pdf.
- I.H. Qureshi (2005). "Recollection from the early days of the PAEC" (PDF). The Nucleus 42 (1–2): 7–11. http://www.thenucleuspak.org.pk/nucleus/pdf%20Special%20Issue%20Nucleus%2042(1-4)/Recollections%20from%20the%20early%20days%20of%20PAEC%20(ms602).pdf.
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