Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Кировский район (Russian)
Location of Kirovsky District in Leningrad Oblast
|Administrative status (as of May 2012)|
|Federal subject||Leningrad Oblast|
|Administrative center||town of Kirovsk|
|settlement municipal formation||3|
|Municipal status (as of May 2010)|
|Municipally incorporated as||Kirovsky Municipal District|
|Area||2,590.46 km2 (1,000.18 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||62,533 inhabitants|
|Density||24.14 /km2 (62.5 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Kirovsky District on WikiCommons|
Kirovsky District (Russian: Ки́ровский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the center of the oblast and borders with Volkhovsky District in the east, Kirishsky District in the southeast, Nevsky and Kolpinsky Districts of the city of Saint Petersburg in the west, Tosnensky District in the southwest, and Vsevolozhsky District in the northwest. From the north, the district is bounded by Lake Ladoga. The area of the district is 2,590.46 square kilometers (1,000.18 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kirovsk. Population (excluding the administrative center): 62,533 (2010 Census); 60,221 (2002 Census); 74,725 (1989 Census).
The Neva River which connects Lake Ladoga with the Baltic Sea, serves the northwestern border of the district. The area of the district is divided between the drainage basins of the Neva, of Lake Ladoga, and of the Volkhov River, a major tributary of Lake Ladoga. The main rivers inside the district are the Mga and the Tosna, left tributaries of the Neva, the Naziya, a tributary of Lake Ladoga, and the Olomna, a left tributary of the Volkhov. Large areas of the district are covered by swamps. The western part of the district is essentially an urban area adjacent to the city of Saint Petersburg.
Originally, the area of the district was populated by Finnic peoples. From the 9th century, the Neva River was a key ingredient of the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, and the area was changing hands between Novgorod Republic (from the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow), and Sweden. The fortress of Oreshek, controlling at the source of the Neva, was founded in the 14th century and rebuilt several times. In 1617, according to the Treaty of Stolbovo, the area was transferred to Sweden, and in the 1700s, during the Great Northern War, it was conquered back by Russia. The city of Saint Petersburg was founded in 1703.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, it became a part of Saint Petersburgsky Uyezd, and in 1755, Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was established. In 1914, Saint Peterburgsky Uyezd was renamed Petrogradsky Uyezd. On Febryary 14, 1923 Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was merged into Petrogradsky Uyezd. In January, 1924 the uyezd was renamed Leningradsky. The eastern part of the district in 1708 was included into Ladozhsky Uyezd with the center in Staraya Ladoga. In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, the uyezd was transformed into Novoladozhsky Uyezd, and the administrative center was moved to Novaya Ladoga. In 1776, the area was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty, and in 1781, it was moved back into Saint Petersburg Governorate. On December 9, 1922 the administrative center of the uyezd was moved to the selo of Gostinopolye, which was renamed Volkhov and was granted town status. The uyezd was renamed Volkhovsky. In 1924 the changes were rolled back, the administrative center moved to Novaya Ladoga, and Volkhov was demoted to a selo (eventually renamed Gostinopolye). The name of the uyezd remained Volkhovsky. Saint Petersburg Governorate was twice renamed, to Petrograd Governorate and subsequently to Leningrad Governorate.
On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Mginsky District, with the administrative center in the settlement of Mga, was established. The governorates were also abolished, and the district was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Volkhovsky and Leningradsky Uyezds. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On September 20, 1930, the administrative center of the district was transferred to the selo of Putilovo, and the district renamed Putilovsky. On September 20, 1931 the district center was moved back to Mga, and the district was renamed back Mginsky. Between September 1941 and January 1944, during World War II, parts of the district were occupied by German troops. On December 9, 1960 Mginsky District was abolished and split between Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts.
On November 5, 1953 the settlement of Imeni Kirova was renamed Kirovsk and granted town status. In 1965, it became a town of oblast significance. On April 1, 1977 Kirovsky District with the administrative center in Kirovsk, essentially in the limits of former Mginsky District, was established by splitting off Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts. In 2010, the administrative division of Leningrad Oblast was harmonized with the municipal division, and Kirovsk was made the town of district significance.
There are enterprises of construction, chemical, timber, and food industries, as well as producers of electrotechnical and electronic equipment, and a shipyard. These enterprises are located in the towns of Kirovsk, Otradnoye, and Shlisselburg, as well as in urban-type settlements of Mga, Naziya, Pavlovo, Priladozhsky, and Sinyavino.
As of 2012, there were 11 large-scale farms in the district, 30 mid-scale farms, and 11 fish breeding farms. The main agricultural specializations were meat and milk production, poultry production, as well as growing of crops and vegetables.
Mga is an important railway hub where three railway lines intersect: One proceeds west to Saint Petersburg via Otradnoe (Pella railway station), with connections north to Shlisselburg and south to Sablino, which is located on the railroad connecting Saint Petersburg and Moscow; one more proceeds east to Volkhov where it splits into railways to Murmansk and to Vologda; and yet another railway runs to Kirishi and further to Sonkovo.
The most important roads in the district is a portion of A120 road, which encircles Saint Petersburg and passes Kirovsk, as well as M18 highway, which connects Saint Petersburg and Murmansk.
The Neva is navigable, as well as Lake Ladoga. In the beginning of the 19th century, a system of canals bypassing Lake Ladoga were built, which at the time were a part of Mariinsky Water System, connecting the Neva and the Volga River. In particular, the New Ladoga Canal connects the Volkhov and the Neva. It replaced the Old Ladoga Canal, built by Peter the Great, which thus became disused and decayed. The canals collectively are known as the Ladoga Canal.
Culture and recreation
The district contains forty-eight cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally seventy-seven objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. Most of the federal monuments belong to the Shlisselburg Fortress.
There are three state museums in the district. The Museum Reserve "Lifting of the Siege of Leningrad", located in the village of Maryino, is located in the area where the Siege of Leningrad was lifted in 1944 after fierce battles, and commemorates this event. The Shlisselburg fortress was converted into a museum and is currently a major tourist attraction of the district. There is also the Shlisselburg Historical Museum, located in Shlisselburg.
- Oblast Law #32-oz
- Law #100-oz
- "О районе" (in Russian). Официальный сайт Кировского муниципального района Ленинградской области. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "Петроградский уезд (1917 - янв. 1924), Ленинградский уезд( янв.1924 г.- авг. 1927 г.)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Новоладожский уезд (1917 - фев. 1923 г.), Волховский уезд ( фев. 1923 - авг.1927 г.)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Мгинский район (август 1927 - дек.1960)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "История нашего края" (in Russian). Официальный сайт Кировского муниципального района Ленинградской области. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- "Отчет о работе комитета по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Ленинградской области в 2010 году" (in Russian). Комитет по печати и связям с общественностью Ленинградской области. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Каталог предприятий" (in Russian). Официальный сайт Кировского муниципального района Ленинградской области. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
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- "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
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- "Шлиссельбургская крепость "Орешек"" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
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- Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №34-оз от 15 мая 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Областные законы в сфере административно-территориального устройства Ленинградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #34-oz of May 15, 2012 On Amending Various Oblast Laws Dealing with the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №100-оз от 29 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Кировский муниципальный район и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Областного закона №17-оз от 6 мая 2010 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы в связи с принятием федерального закона "О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации в связи с совершенствованием организации местного самоуправления"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Правительства Ленинградской области", №40, 20 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #100-oz of November 29, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formation of Kirovsky Municipal District and to the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Oblast Law #17-oz of May 6, 2010 On Amending Certain Oblast Laws Due to the Adoption of the Federal Law "On Amending Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation Due to the Improvement of the Organization of the Local Self-Government". Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).