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List of sovereign states

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This is a list of sovereign states giving an overview of states around the world with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty.

Contents

Statistics

The list contains 206 entries. The states are divided using two distinct methods:

  1. The membership within the United Nations system column divides the states into two categories: 193 member states and one observer state in the United Nations,[1] and 12 other states.
  2. The sovereignty disputes column divides the states into two categories: 16 states whose sovereignty is disputed and 190 other states.
Sovereignty dispute UN member UN observer Only member of UN specialized agency Other Total
A AAA A AAA A AAA A AAA A AAA
ZZZ↓ Claiming by other states ↓ A AAA ZZZ A AAA A AAA
States that are not claimed 190 1 3 0 194
States that are claimed in whole by another sovereign state 3 0 1 8 12
Total 193 1 4 8 206
A AAA A AAA A AAA A AAA A AAA
ZZZNo recognizing by other states ↓ A AAA ZZZ A AAA A AAA
Widely recognized states 187 1 2 0 190
States recognized by at least one UN member state 6 0 2 5 13
States recognized only by UN non-member state 0 0 0 2 2
States not recognized by any other state 0 0 0 1 1
Total 193 1 4 8 206
A AAA A AAA A AAA A AAA A AAA A AAA

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below.

List of states

English name, and the official, national, and other important languages of the state [Note 1] Membership within the UN System [Note 2] Sovereignty dispute [Note 3] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty [Note 5]
A AAA A AAA A AAA
ZZZUN member states or observer states A AAA ZZZ
ZZZAbkhazia → Abkhazia UN member state None
 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  • Persian: جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان – افغانستانAfgānestān – Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afgānestān
  • Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت – افغانستانAfghānistān – Afghānistān Islāmī Jumhūrīyat
A UN member state A None
 Albania – Republic of Albania
  • Albanian: Shqipëria – Republika e Shqipërisë
A UN member state A None
 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  • Arabic: الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية – الجزائرAl Jazā'ir – Al Jumhūrīyah al Jazā'irīyah ad Dīmuqrāţīyah ash Sha‘bīyah
A UN member state A None
 Andorra – Principality of Andorra
  • Catalan: Andorra – Principat d’Andorra
A UN member state A None Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[3] who himself is appointed by the Vatican.
 Angola – Republic of Angola A UN member state A None
 Antigua and Barbuda A UN member state A None Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[Note 7][4]
 Argentina – Argentine Republic [Note 8]
  • Spanish: Argentina – República Argentina
A UN member state A None Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom.[5] Argentina claims Argentine Antarctica as part of its national territory, officially a department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands, which overlaps with the claims of the UK and Chile.[Note 9][6]
 Armenia – Republic of Armenia
  • Armenian: Հայաստան – Հայաստանի ՀանրապետությունHayastan – Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun
A UN member state Not recognised by Pakistan[7][8]
 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
  • English: Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
A UN member state A None Australia is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] and a federation of 6 states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
 Austria – Republic of Austria
  • German: Österreich – Republik Österreich
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Austria is a federation of 9 states (Bundesländer).
 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan – Azərbaycan Respublikası
A UN member state A None Azerbaijan contains 2 autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[Note 7] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established.
 Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  • English: The Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
A UN member state A None The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6]
 Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain
  • Arabic: مملكة البحرين – البحرينAl Baḩrayn – Mamlakat al Baḩrayn
A UN member state A None
 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • Bengali: বাংলাদেশ – গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশBāṁlādesh – Gaṇaprajātantrī Bāṁlādesh
A UN member state A None
 Barbados A UN member state A None Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6]
 Belarus – Republic of Belarus
  • Belarusian: Беларусь – Рэспубліка БеларусьBielarus' – Respublika Bielarus'
  • Russian: Беларусь – Республика БеларусьBelarus' – Respublika Belarus'
A UN member state A None
 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
  • Dutch: België – Koninkrijk België
  • French: Belgique – Royaume de Belgique
  • German: Belgien – Königreich Belgien
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
 Belize A UN member state A None Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6]
 Benin – Republic of Benin [Note 10]
  • French: Bénin – République du Bénin
A UN member state A None
 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
  • Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ – འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་Druk Yul – Druk Gyalkhap
A UN member state A None
 Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia
  • Spanish: Bolivia – Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
  • Aymara: Wuliwya – Wuliwya Suyu
  • Guaraní: Volívia – Tetã Volívia
  • Quechua: Buliwya – Buliwya Mama Llaqta[10]
A UN member state A None
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bosnian: Bosna i Hercegovina
  • Serbian: Босна и ХерцеговинаBosna i Hercegovina
  • Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina
A UN member state A None Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of 2 constituent units: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska.[Note 11]
 Botswana – Republic of Botswana
  • Tswana: Botswana – Lefatshe la Botswana
  • English: Botswana – Republic of Botswana
A UN member state A None
 Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
  • Portuguese: Brasil – República Federativa do Brasil
A UN member state A None Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
 Brunei – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace
  • Malay: Brunei – Negara Brunei Darussalam
  • Jawi: نڬارا بروني دارالسلام – بروني
A UN member state A None Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 12]
 Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria
  • Bulgarian: България – Република БългарияBǎlgarija – Republika Bǎlgarija
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Burkina Faso [Note 13] A UN member state A None
 Burma – Republic of the Union of Myanmar [Note 14][11]
  • Burmese: မြန်မာပြည် – ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်‌Myanma – Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw
A UN member state A None
 Burundi – Republic of Burundi
  • Kirundi: Uburundi – Republika y'Uburundi
  • French: Burundi – République du Burundi
A UN member state A None
 Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia
  • Khmer: កម្ពុជា – ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រ កម្ពុជាKâmpŭchéa – Preăhréachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchéa
A UN member state A None
 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
  • French: Cameroun – République du Cameroun
  • English: Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
A UN member state A None
 Canada [Note 15] A UN member state A None Canada is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] and a federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories.
 Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde
  • Portuguese: Cabo Verde – República de Cabo Verde
A UN member state A None
 Central African Republic
  • French: République centrafricaine
  • Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka
A UN member state A None
 Chad – Republic of Chad
  • French: Tchad – République du Tchad
  • Arabic: جمهوريّة تشاد – تشادTshād – Jumhūrīyat Tshād
A UN member state A None
 Chile – Republic of Chile
  • Spanish: Chile – República de Chile
A UN member state A None Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region. Chile claims part of Antarctica as a commune in its Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region. Its claim overlaps with those of the UK and Argentina.[Note 9]
 China – People's Republic of China[Note 16]
  • Chinese: 中国 – 中华人民共和国Zhōnggúo – Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
  • Mongolian: Mongolian-PRC2.svg [Note 17]Bügüde Nayiramdaqu Dumdadu Arad Ulus
  • Tibetan: རྒྱ་ནག – ཀྲུང་ ཧྭ་ མི་ དམངས་ སྤྱི་ མཐུན་ རྒྱལ་ ཁབ།Zhunghua Mimang Jitun Gyalkab
  • Kazakh: جۇڭحۋا حالىق رەسپۋبليكاسى – جۇڭگوJuñgo – Juñxwa Xalıq Respwblïkası
  • Korean: 중국 – 중화인민공화국Jungguk – Junghwa Inmin Gonghwaguk
  • Uyghur: جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىت – جۇڭگوJunggo – Jungxua Xelq Jumhuriyiti
  • Zhuang: Cunghgoz – Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz[12][13]
A UN member state B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[Note 7] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

It also claims:

Aksai Chin, controlled by the PRC, is claimed by India as a part of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 20] The PRC is not recognised by 22 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise the ROC.[Note 21]

China, Republic of (Taiwan) → Taiwan UN member state None
 Colombia – Republic of Colombia
  • Spanish: Colombia – República de Colombia
A UN member state A None
 Comoros – Union of the Comoros
  • Comorian: Komori – Udzima wa Komori
  • French: Comores – Union des Comores
  • Arabic: اتحاد جزر القمر – جزر القمرal Qamar – Jumhūrīyat al Qamar al Muttaḩidah
A UN member state A None Comoros is a federation of 3 islands, and claims Mayotte, currently part of France, as a fourth.[Note 22][14] Comoros also disputes French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser.[5]
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Congo-Kinshasa) [Note 23]
  • French: République démocratique du Congo
A UN member state A None
 Congo, Republic of the (Congo-Brazzaville)
  • French: République du Congo
A UN member state A None
ZZZCook Islands → Cook Islands UN member state None
 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
  • Spanish: Costa Rica – República de Costa Rica
A UN member state A None
 Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  • French: Côte d'Ivoire – République de Côte d'Ivoire
A UN member state A None
 Croatia – Republic of Croatia
  • Croatian: Hrvatska – Republika Hrvatska
A UN member state A None
 Cuba – Republic of Cuba
  • Spanish: Cuba – República de Cuba
A UN member state A None
 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus
  • Greek: Κύπρος – Κυπριακή ΔημοκρατίαKýpros – Kypriakí Dimokratía
  • Turkish: Kıbrıs – Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
A UN member state Not recognised by Turkey and Northern Cyprus Member of the EU.[Note 4] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute.
 Czech Republic [Note 24]
  • Czech: Česko – Česká republika
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
  • Danish: Danmark – Kongeriget Danmark
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]

The Danish Realm also includes two self-governing territories:

 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti
  • French: Djibouti – République de Djibouti
  • Arabic: جمهورية جيبوتي – جيبوتيJībūtī – Jumhūrīyat Jībūtī
A UN member state A None
 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
  • English: Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
A UN member state A None
 Dominican Republic A UN member state A None
 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste [Note 25]
  • Portuguese: Timor-Leste – República Democrática de Timor-Leste
  • Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e – Repúblika Demokrátika Timor Lorosa'e
A UN member state A None
 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
  • Spanish: Ecuador – República del Ecuador
A UN member state A None
 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt
  • Arabic: جمهورية مصر العربية – مصرMişr – Jumhūrīyat Mişr al ‘Arabīyah
A UN member state A None
 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
  • Spanish: El Salvador – República de El Salvador
A UN member state A None
 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
  • Spanish: Guinea Ecuatorial – República de Guinea Ecuatorial
  • French: Guinée Équatoriale – République de Guinée équatoriale
  • Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial – República da Guiné Equatorial
A UN member state A None
 Eritrea – State of Eritrea
  • Tigrinya: ኤርትራ – ሃግሬ ኤርትራIertra – Hagere Iertra
  • Arabic: دولة إرتريا – إريترياIrītrīyā – Dawlat Irītrīyā
A UN member state A None
 Estonia – Republic of Estonia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
  • Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ – የኢትዮጵያ ፈደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክItyop'iya – Ityop'iya Fe̱de̱ralawi Dimokrasiyawi Ripe̱blik
A UN member state A None Ethiopia is a federation of 9 regions and 2 chartered cities.
 Fiji – Republic of Fiji
  • Fijian: Viti – Matanitu ko Viti
  • English: Fiji – Republic of Fiji
  • Hindustani: फ़िजी / فیجی – फ़िजी गणराज्य / فیجی رپبلکFijī – Fijī dvip samooh ganarajya [15]
A UN member state A None Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[Note 7][16][17]
 Finland – Republic of Finland
  • Finnish: Suomi – Suomen tasavalta
  • Swedish: Finland – Republiken Finland
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 France – French Republic
  • French: France – République française
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] French overseas regions/departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion) are full, integral parts of France.

The French Republic also includes the overseas territories of:

Clipperton Island is a possession of the government. French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Mayotte, and Tromelin Island is disputed in part by Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros.[5]

 Gabon – Gabonese Republic
  • French: Gabon – République gabonaise
A UN member state A None
Gambia  The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
  • English: The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
A UN member state A None
 Georgia
  • Georgian: საქართველოSak’art’velo
A UN member state A None Georgia contains 2 autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[Note 7] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
 Germany – Federal Republic of Germany
  • German: Deutschland – Bundesrepublik Deutschland
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).
 Ghana – Republic of Ghana
  • English: Ghana – Republic of Ghana
A UN member state A None
 Greece – Hellenic Republic
  • Demotic Greek: Ελλάδα – Ελληνική ΔημοκρατίαElláda – Ellinikí Dimokratía
  • Katharevousa Greek: Ελλάς – Ελληνική ΔημοκρατίαEllás – Ellinikí Dimokratía
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[18]
 Grenada A UN member state A None Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6]
 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
  • Spanish: Guatemala – República de Guatemala
A UN member state A None
 Guinea – Republic of Guinea
  • French: Guinée – République de Guinée
A UN member state A None
 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau
  • Portuguese: Guiné-Bissau – República da Guiné-Bissau
A UN member state A None
 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
  • English: Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
A UN member state A None All land west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela.[5]
 Haiti – Republic of Haiti A UN member state A None
Holy See → Vatican City UN member state None
 Honduras – Republic of Honduras
  • Spanish: Honduras – República de Honduras
A UN member state A None
 Hungary A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Iceland – Republic of Iceland
  • Icelandic: Ísland – Lýðveldið Ísland
A UN member state A None
 India – Republic of India
  • Hindi: भारत – भारत गणराज्यBhārat – Bhāratīya Gaṇarājya
  • English: India – Republic of India
  • Assamese: ভাৰত – ভাৰত গণৰাজ্যBhārôt – Bhārôt Gôṇrājẏô
  • Bengali: ভারত – ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্রBhārôt – Bhārôtīyô Prôjātôntrô
  • Bhojpuri: भारत – भारत गणराज्यBhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrādzya
  • Gujarati: ભારત – ભારત ગણરાજ્યBhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrājya
  • Kannada: ಭಾರತ – ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯBhārata – Bhārata Gaṇarājya
  • Kashmiri: ہِندوستانHindustān
  • Konkani: भारत – भारोत गोणराजBhārot – Bhārot Goṇrāj
  • Maithili: भारत – भारत गणराज्यBhārat – Bhārat Ganarājya
  • Malayalam: ഭാരതം – ഭാരത ഗണരാജ്യംBhārataṃ – Bhārata Gaṇarājyaṃ
  • Marathi: भारत – भारतीय प्रजासत्ताकBhārat – Bhāratīy Pradzāsattāk
  • Meitei: ভারত – ভারত গণরাজ্যBhārata – Bhārata Gaṇarājya
  • Nepali: भारत – भारत गणराज्यBhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrādzya
  • Oriya: ଭାରତ – ଭାରତ ଗଣରାଜ୍ଯBhārôt – Bhārôt Gôṇrājẏô
  • Punjabi: ਭਾਰਤ – ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰBhārat – Bhārat Gaṇtãtar
  • Sanskrit: भारतम् – भारत गणराज्यम्Bhārat – Bhāratam Gaṇarājyam
  • Sindhi: भारत, ڀارت – भारत गणराज्य, هندستانڀارتBhāratu – Bhārat Ganarājya
  • Tamil: இந்தியா – இந்தியக் குடியரசுIntiyā – Intiyak Kuṭiyaracu
  • Telugu: భారత్ – భారత గణతంత్ర రాజ్యముBhārata – Bhārata Gaṇataṃtra Rājyamu
  • Urdu: جمہوریہ بھارت – بھارتBhārat – Jumhūrīyâ-e Bhārat [19]
A UN member state A None India is a federation of 28 states and 7 union territories. Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China.[5] India claims sovereignty over the whole of Kashmir, but administers only part of it as the federated state of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 20]
 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia A UN member state A None Indonesia has 3 provinces with official special autonomy status: Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Papua, and West Papua.[Note 7]
 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران – ایرانĪrān – Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān
A UN member state A None
 Iraq – Republic of Iraq
  • Arabic: جمهورية العراق – العراقAl ʿIrāq – Jumhūrīyat al ʿIrāq
  • Kurdish: كۆماری عێراق – عێراقʿÎraq – Komara Îraqę [20]
A UN member state A None Iraq is a federation[Note 22][21] of 18 governorates, 3 of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[Note 7]
 Ireland [Note 27] A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]

The Constitution of Ireland asserts the aspiration towards creating a United Ireland by peaceful means.[22]

 Israel – State of Israel
  • Hebrew: מדינת ישראל – ישראלYisra'el – Medinat Yisra'el
  • Arabic: دولة إسرائيل – إسرائيلIsrā'īl – Dawlat Isrā'īl
A UN member state Not recognized by 33 states Israel annexed East Jerusalem, and occupies the Golan Heights[23] and parts of the West Bank. These areas are not internationally-recognised as being part of Israel.[5] Israel no longer has a permanent military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, but is still considered the occupying power under international law.[24][25][26][27][28] Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) and by the SADR.
 Italy – Italian Republic
  • Italian: Italia – Repubblica Italiana
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[Note 7]
Ivory Coast → Côte d'Ivoire UN member state None
 Jamaica A UN member state A None Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6]
 Japan
  • Japanese: 日本 – 日本国Nihon/Nippon – Nihon-koku/Nippon-koku[Note 28]
A UN member state A None Japan disputes Russian administration of the South Kuril Islands.
 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  • Arabic: المملكة الأردنّيّة الهاشميّة – الأردنAl Urdun – Al Mamlakah al Urdunīyah al Hāshimīyah
A UN member state A None
 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Kazakh: Қазақстан – Қазақстан РеспубликасыQazaqstan – Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy
  • Russian: Казахстан – Республика КазахстанKazahstan – Respublika Kazahstan
A UN member state A None
 Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • English: Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • Swahili: Kenya – Jamhuri ya Kenya
A UN member state A None
 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
  • Gilbertese: Kiribati – Ribaberiki Kiribati
  • English: Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
A UN member state A None
 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Korean: 조선 – 조선민주주의인민공화국Chosŏn – Chosŏn-minjujuŭi-inmin-konghwaguk
A UN member state B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[Note 29][29]
 Korea, South – Republic of Korea
  • Korean: 한국 – 대한민국Han’guk – Taehan Min’guk
A UN member state B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand South Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[Note 7][30] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[Note 29]
ZZZKosovo → Kosovo UN member state None
 Kuwait – State of Kuwait
  • Arabic: دولة الكويت – الكويتAl Kuwayt – Dawlat al Kuwayt
A UN member state A None
 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic
  • Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан – Кыргыз РеспубликасыKyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Respublikasy
  • Russian: Кыргызстан – Кыргызская РеспубликаKyrgyzstan – Kyrgyzskaya Respublika
A UN member state A None
 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Lao: ລາວ – ສາທາລະນະລັດປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວLao – Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxôn Lao
A UN member state A None
 Latvia – Republic of Latvia
  • Latvian: Latvija – Latvijas Republika
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic
  • Arabic: الجمهوريّة اللبنانيّة – لبنانLubnān – Al Jumhūrīyah al Lubnānīyah
  • French: Liban – République libanaise
A UN member state A None
 Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • English: Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • Sotho: Lesotho – Mmuso wa Lesotho
A UN member state A None
 Liberia – Republic of Liberia
  • English: Liberia – Republic of Liberia
A UN member state A None
 Libya
  • Arabic: ليبيا → Lībyā
A UN member state A None The former government of Muammar Gaddafi, which claims to be the sole legitimate representative of the Libyan people, still has some international recognition (see Foreign relations of the National Transitional Council and Foreign relations of Libya under Gaddafi).
 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
  • German: Liechtenstein – Fürstentum Liechtenstein
A UN member state A None
 Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  • Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg – Groussherzogdem Lëtzebuerg
  • French: Luxembourg – Grand-Duché du Luxembourg
  • German: Luxemburg – Großherzogtum Luxemburg
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia
  • Macedonian: Македонија – Република МакедонијаMakedonija – Republika Makedonija
  • Albanian: Maqedonia - Republika e Maqedonisë
A UN member state A None Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
 Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar
  • Malagasy: Madagasikara – Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
  • French: Madagascar – Republique de Madagascar
A UN member state A None Madagascar claims the French territories of Banc du Geyser, Juan de Nova Island, and the Glorioso Islands.[5]
 Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • English: Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • Chewa: Malaŵi – Dziko la Malaŵi
A UN member state A None
 Malaysia A UN member state A None Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and 3 federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 12]
 Maldives – Republic of Maldives
  • Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ – ދިވެހިރާއްޖެDhivehi Raajje – Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
A UN member state A None
 Mali – Republic of Mali
  • French: Mali – République du Mali
A UN member state A None
 Malta – Republic of Malta
  • Maltese: Malta – Repubblika ta' Malta
  • English: Malta – Republic of Malta
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
  • Marshallese: Aelōn̄ in M̧ajeļ – Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ[32]
  • English: Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
  • Arabic: الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية – موريتانياMūrītāniyā – Al Jumhūrīyah al Islāmīyah al Mūrītānīyah
  • French: Mauritanie – République Islamique de la Mauritanie
A UN member state A None
 Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius A UN member state A None Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[Note 7] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin.[5]
 Mexico – United Mexican States
  • Spanish: México – Estados Unidos Mexicanos
A UN member state A None Mexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district.
 Micronesia, Federated States of
  • English: Federated States of Micronesia
A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of 4 states.
 Moldova – Republic of Moldova A UN member state A None Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
 Monaco – Principality of Monaco
  • French: Monaco – Principauté de Monaco
  • Monegasque: Múnegu – Principatu de Múnegu
  • Italian: Monaco – Principato di Monaco
A UN member state A None
 Mongolia
  • Mongolian: Монгол улсMongol uls
A UN member state A None
 Montenegro A UN member state A None
 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco
  • Arabic: المملكة المغربية – المغربAl Maghrib – Al Mamlakah al Maghribīyah
  • Berber: ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ – ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱLmaɣrib – Tagldit n Lmaɣrib[33]
A UN member state A None Morocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Melilla and the "Plazas de soberanía".[5]
 Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique
  • Portuguese: Moçambique – República de Moçambique
A UN member state A None
Myanmar → Burma UN member state None
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → Nagorno-Karabakh UN member state None
 Namibia – Republic of Namibia
  • English: Namibia – Republic of Namibia
A UN member state A None
 Nauru – Republic of Nauru
  • Nauruan: Naoero – Ripublik Naoero
  • English: Nauru – Republic of Nauru
A UN member state A None
 Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
  • Nepali: नेपाल – संघिय लोकतन्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपालNepāl – Saṁghīya Loktāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
A UN member state A None Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Dutch: Nederland – Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
  • Papiamentu: Hulanda (or Ulanda) – Reino di Hulanda
  • English: Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Frisian: Nederlân – Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:

The monarch and her ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of the country the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries, which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer to either one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g., in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

 New Zealand A UN member state A None New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] and has responsibilities for (but has no sovereignty over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 31 and 6 UN members respectively.[34][35][36] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[37] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

New Zealand has the dependent territories of:

The Tokelauan government claims sovereignty over Swains Island, part of American Samoa, a territory of the United States.[38] New Zealand does not recognize the Tokelauan claim.[39]

 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
  • Spanish: Nicaragua – República de Nicaragua
A UN member state A None Nicaragua contains 2 autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[Note 7]
 Niger – Republic of Niger
  • French: Niger – République du Niger
  • Hausa: Nijar – Jamhuriyar Nijar
A UN member state A None
 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • English: Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Hausa: Nijeriya – Jamhuriyar Taraiyar Nijeriya
  • Igbo: Naigeria – Njíkötá Óchíchìiwù Naíjíríà
  • Yoruba: Naìjírìà – Àpapọ̀ Olómìnira ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà
A UN member state A None Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → Northern Cyprus UN member state None
North Korea → Korea, Democratic People's Republic of UN member state None
 Norway – Kingdom of Norway
  • Bokmål: Norge – Kongeriket Norge
  • Nynorsk: Noreg – Kongeriket Noreg
A UN member state A None Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty.

Bouvet Island is a dependent territory of Norway. Norway also claims Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land as dependent territories of Norway, as part of the Norwegian Antarctic Territory.[Note 9]

 Oman – Sultanate of Oman
  • Arabic: سلطنة عُمان – عُمانʿUmān – Salţanat ʿUmān
A UN member state A None
 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستانPākistān – Islāmī Jamhūriya Pākistān
  • English: Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Punjabi: اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان – پاکستان
  • Sindhi: پاکستان گنراجیۃ - پاکستانPākistān – Pākistān Ganarājya
  • Persian: جمهوری اسلامی پاکستان - پاکستان
A UN member state A None Pakistan is a federation of 4 provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it,[40][41] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[42][43] The portions that it controls are divided into two polities, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[Note 20]
 Palau – Republic of Palau
  • Palauan: Belau – Beluu er a Belau
  • English: Palau – Republic of Palau
A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
ZZZPalestine → Palestine UN member state None
 Panama – Republic of Panama
  • Spanish: Panamá – República de Panamá
A UN member state A None
 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  • English: Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
  • Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini – Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini[44]
  • Hiri Motu: Papuaniugini
A UN member state A None Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[Note 7]
 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
  • Guarani: Paraguay – Tetã Paraguái
  • Spanish: Paraguay – República del Paraguay
A UN member state A None
 Peru – Republic of Peru A UN member state A None
 Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Filipino and Tagalog: Pilipinas – Republika ng Pilipinas
  • English: Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Spanish: Filipinas – República de Filipinas
A UN member state A None The Philippines contains two autonomous regions, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao[Note 7] and the Cordillera Administrative Region.[46] The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and some of the Spratly Islands,[Note 12] and claims sovereignty over the Macclesfield Bank and Sabah, which is part of Malaysia.[5]
 Poland – Republic of Poland
  • Polish: Polska – Rzeczpospolita Polska
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Portugal – Portuguese Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Portugal contains 2 autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[Note 7] Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga.[5]
Pridnestrovie → Transnistria UN member state None
 Qatar – State of Qatar
  • Arabic: دولة قطر – قطرQaţar – Dawlat Qaţar
A UN member state A None
 Romania A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Russia – Russian Federation
  • Russian: Россия – Российская ФедерацияRossiya – Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
A UN member state A None Russia is officially a federation of 83 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[Note 7] Sovereignty over the South Kuril Islands is disputed by Japan.
 Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
  • Kinyarwanda: Rwanda – Republika y'u Rwanda
  • French: Rwanda – République du Rwanda
  • English: Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
A UN member state A None
ZZZSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic UN member state None
 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
  • English: Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
A UN member state A None Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] and is a federation [Note 22] of 14 parishes.
 Saint Lucia A UN member state A None Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • English: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
A UN member state A None Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6]
 Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
  • Samoan: Sāmoa – Malo Sa‘oloto Tuto'atasi o Sāmoa
  • English: Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
A UN member state A None
 San Marino – Republic of San Marino
  • Italian: San Marino – Repubblica di San Marino
A UN member state A None
 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Portuguese: São Tomé e Príncipe – República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe
A UN member state A None São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[Note 7]
 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Arabic: المملكة العربيّة السّعوديّة – السعوديةAs Su‘ūdīyah – Al Mamlakah al ‘Arabīyah as Su‘ūdīyah
A UN member state A None
 Senegal – Republic of Senegal
  • French: Sénégal – République du Sénégal
A UN member state A None
 Serbia – Republic of Serbia
  • Serbian: Србија – Република СрбијаSrbija – Republika Srbija
A UN member state A None Serbia contains 2 autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[Note 7] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
 Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • English: Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • French: Seychelles – République des Seychelles
  • Seselwa: Sesel – Repiblik Sesel
A UN member state A None Seychelles claims the British Indian Ocean Territory.[5]
 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
  • English: Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
A UN member state A None
 Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • English: Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • Malay: Singapura – Republik Singapura
  • Chinese: 新加坡 – 新加坡共和国Xinjiapo – Xinjiapo Gongheguo
  • Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் – சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசுChiṅkappūr – Chiṅkappūr Kuṭiyarachu
A UN member state A None
 Slovakia – Slovak Republic
  • Slovak: Slovensko – Slovenská republika
  • Hungarian: Szlovákia – Szlovák Köztársaság
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia
  • Slovenian: Slovenija – Republika Slovenija
  • Italian: Slovenia – Repubblica slovena
  • Hungarian: Szlovénia – a Szlovén Köztársaság
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Solomon Islands A UN member state A None The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6]
 Somalia – Somali Republic
  • Somali: Soomaaliya – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya
  • Arabic: جمهورية الصومال – الصومالAş Şūmāl – Jumhūrīyat aş Şūmāl
  • English: Somali Republic
  • Italian: Somalo Repubblica
A UN member state A None Somalia is presently divided with its official government (TFG) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim that the TFG does not recognise),[48][Need quotation to verify] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
ZZZSomaliland → Somaliland UN member state None
 South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika – Republiek van Suid-Afrika
  • English: South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • Northern Sotho: Afrika-Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika-Borwa
  • Sotho: Afrika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika Borwa
  • Southern Ndebele: Sewula Afrika – iRiphabliki yeSewula Afrika
  • Swazi: Ningizimu Afrika – iRiphabhulikhi yeNingizimu Afrika
  • Tsonga: Afrika Dzonga – Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga
  • Tswana: Aforika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa
  • Venda: Afurika Tshipembe – Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe
  • Xhosa: uMzantsi Afrika – iRiphabliki yaseMzantsi Afrika
  • Zulu: Ningizimu Afrika – iRiphabliki yaseNingizimu Afrika
A UN member state A None
South Korea → Korea, Republic of UN member state None
ZZZSouth Ossetia → South Ossetia UN member state None
 South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan
  • English: South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan
A UN member state A None Disputes Abyei with the Republic of the Sudan.[5]
 Spain – Kingdom of Spain A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities.[Note 7] Sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. Sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain calls for sovereignty over Gibraltar.[5]
 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
  • Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා – ශ්රී ලංකා ප්රජාතාන්ත්රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජයShrī Laṁkā – Shrī Laṁkā Prajātāntrika Samājavādī Janarajaya
  • Tamil: இலங்கை – இலங்கை சனநாயக சோசலிசக் குடியரசுIlaṅkai – Ilaṅkai Jaṉanāyaka Choṣhalichak Kuṭiyarachu
A UN member state A None Formerly known as Ceylon.
 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
  • Arabic: جمهورية السودان – السودانAs Sūdān – Jumhūrīyat as Sūdān
  • English: Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
A UN member state A None Sudan is a federation of 15 states. Disputes Abyei with South Sudan.
ZZZSudan, South → South Sudan UN member state None
 Suriname – Republic of Suriname
  • Dutch: Suriname – Republiek Suriname
A UN member state A None
 Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • English: Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • Swazi: eSwatini – Umbuso weSwatini
A UN member state A None
 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
  • Swedish: Sverige – Konungariket Sverige
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4]
 Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
  • German: Schweiz – Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft
  • French: Suisse – Confédération suisse
  • Italian: Svizzera – Confederazione Svizzera
  • Romansh: Svizra – Confederaziun Svizra
  • Latin: Helvetia – Confoederatio Helvetica
A UN member state A None Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
  • Arabic: الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة – سوريةSūrīyah – Al Jumhūrīyah al ‘Arabīyah as Sūrīyah
A UN member state A None Israel occupies the Golan Heights.[23]
ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → Taiwan UN member state None
 Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan
  • Tajik: Тоҷикистон – Ҷумҳурии ТоҷикистонTojikiston – Jumhurii Tojikiston
A UN member state A None Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[Note 7]
 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
  • Swahili: Tanzania – Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
  • English: Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
A UN member state A None Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[Note 7]
 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
  • Thai: ประเทศไทย – ราชอาณาจักรไทยPrathet Thai – Ratcha Anachak Thai
A UN member state A None
Timor-Leste → East Timor UN member state None
 Togo – Togolese Republic
  • French: Togo – République togolaise
A UN member state A None
 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
  • Tongan: Tonga – Pule'anga Tonga
  • English: Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
A UN member state A None
ZZZTransnistria → Transnistria UN member state None
 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  • English: Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
A UN member state A None Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[Note 7]
 Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia
  • Arabic: الجمهورية التونسية – تونسTūnis – Al Jumhūrīyah at Tūnisīyah
  • French: Tunisie – République tunisienne
A UN member state A None
 Turkey – Republic of Turkey
  • Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
A UN member state A None
 Turkmenistan A UN member state A None
 Tuvalu A UN member state A None Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 6]
 Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • English: Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • Swahili: Uganda – Jamhuri ya Uganda
  • Luganda: Uganda – Ensi ya Yuganda
A UN member state A None
 Ukraine A UN member state A None Ukraine contains 1 autonomous region, Crimea.[Note 7]
 United Arab Emirates
  • Arabic: اَلإمَارَات اَلْعَرَبِيَّة اَلْمُتَّحِدَةAl Imārāt al ‘Arabīyah al Muttaḩidah
A UN member state A None The United Arab Emirates is a federation of 7 emirates.
 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Scots: Unitit Kinrick – Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland
  • Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte – Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mòire agus Èireann a Tuath
  • Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig – Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon[50]
A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 4] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[Note 6] consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

 United States – United States of America
  • English: United States – United States of America
  • French: États-Unis – États-Unis d'Amérique
  • Hawaiian: ʻAmelika Hui – ‘Amelika Huipū‘ia[51]
  • Spanish: Estados Unidos – Estados Unidos de América
A UN member state A None The United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

In addition, there are uninhabited possessions of the United States in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Navassa Island, and Wake Island. The United States also asserts claims to Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank.[5]

 Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
  • Spanish: Uruguay – República Oriental del Uruguay
A UN member state A None
 Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan
  • Uzbek: Ўзбекистон – Ўзбекистон РеспубликасиO'zbekiston – O‘zbekiston Respublikasi [52]
A UN member state A None Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[Note 7]
 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • Bislama: Vanuatu – Ripablik blong Vanuatu
  • English: Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • French: Vanuatu – République du Vanuatu
A UN member state A None
 Vatican City – State of the Vatican City
  • Latin: Civitas Vaticana – Status Civitatis Vaticanæ
  • Italian: Città del Vaticano – Stato della Città del Vaticano
  • French: Cité du Vatican – État de la Cité du Vatican[12]
A UN observer state A None Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 178 states. The Holy See is a permanent observer of the UN in the category of "Non-member State"[53] and a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy.
 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
  • Spanish: Venezuela – República Bolivariana de Venezuela
A UN member state A None Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • Vietnamese: Việt Nam – Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam
A UN member state A None Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel[Note 19] and Spratly Islands.[Note 12][5]
 Yemen – Republic of Yemen
  • Arabic: الجمهوريّة اليمنية – اليمنAl Yaman – Al Jumhūrīyah al Yamanīyah
A UN member state A None
 Zambia – Republic of Zambia
  • English: Zambia – Republic of Zambia
  • Bemba: Zambia – Ichalo Ca Zambia
  • Kaonde: Zambia – Kyalo Kya Zambia
  • Lozi: Zambia – Naha Zambia Ye Ipusa
  • Chewa: Zambia – Dziko La Zambia
  • Tonga: Zambia – Cisi Ca Zambia[12]
A UN member state A None
 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
  • English: Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
  • Ndebele: Zimbabwe – iRiphabliki ye Zimbabwe
A UN member state A None
ZZZUN member states and observer states A ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZ AB B
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓ D AAA ZZZ
 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia
  • Abkhaz: Аҧсны – Аҧсны АҳәынҭқарраApsny – Apsny Akheyntkarra
  • Russian: Aбхазия – Республика АбхазияAbhaziya – Respublika Abhaziya
D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Tuvalu,[54] Vanuatu, Venezuela,[55] South Ossetia and Transnistria.[56] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 Cook Islands D Not a UN member state, but a member of one or more UN specialized agencies A None A state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by Japan[57], Netherlands[58] and China[59]. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[37] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo
  • Albanian: Kosova – Republika e Kosovës
  • Serbian: Косово / Kosovo – Република Косово / Republika Kosovo
D Not a UN member state, but a member of one or more UN specialized agencies B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand Kosovo unilaterally declared independence in 2008 and it has received diplomatic recognition from 88 UN member states and the Republic of China. Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo is formally under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
 Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  • Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ – Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի ՀանրապետությունLeṙnalin Ġarabaġ – Leṙnayin Ġarabaġi Hanrapetut‘yun
D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand A de facto independent state,[60][61] recognised only by Abkhazia,[62] South Ossetia[62] and Transnistria.[62][63] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[64]
 Niue D Not a UN member state, but a member of one or more UN specialized agencies A None A state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by China.[65] Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[66] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
  • Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti
D No membership Claimed by Cyprus Recognised only by Turkey. It has participated as an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation under the name "Turkish Cypriot State" since 1979. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan has not followed suit.[citation needed] Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[67]
 Palestine – State of Palestine
  • Arabic: دولة فلسطين – فلسطينFilasṭin – Dawlat Filasṭin
D Not a UN member state, but a member of one or more UN specialized agencies B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand The declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 129 states.[68] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on the territory that it proclaimed.[69] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which has permanent observer status at the United Nations General Assembly as a non-member entity.[53] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO.[70]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
  • Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطيةAl-Jumhūrīya al-`Arabīya as-Sahrāwīya ad-Dīmuqrātīya
  • Spanish: República Árabe Saharaui Democrática
D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand Recognised by 84 other states. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland
  • Somali: Soomaaliland – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland
  • Arabic: جمهورية أرض الصومال – أرض الصومالArd as-Sūmāl – Jumhūrīyat Ard as-Sūmāl
D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand A de facto independent state,[71][72][73] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Somali Republic.[74]
 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia
  • Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикæ Хуссар ИрыстонKhussar Iryston – Respublikæ Khussar Iryston
  • Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная ОсетияYuzhnaya Osetiya – Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya
D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand A de facto independent state,[75] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela,[55] Abkhazia and Transnistria.[56] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[76]
 Taiwan – Republic of China[Note 16] D Former UN member state;

Participant in some UN related organizations as "Chinese Taipei"

B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[Note 12] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[77] The Republic of China is recognised by 23 states as of 2011, including the Holy See. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 18] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei". The Republic of China enjoyed UN membership from 1945 to 1971.
 Transnistria – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Pridnestrovie, Trans-Dniester)
  • Russian: Приднестровье – Приднестровская Молдавская РеспубликаPridnestrovye – Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika
  • Ukrainian: Придністров'я – Придністровська Молдавська РеспублікаPridnistrov'ya – Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika
  • Romanian: Транснистрия – Република Молдовеняскэ НистрянэTransnistria – Republica Moldovenească Nistreană
D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Disputed by Northern Cyprus Claimed by New Zealand A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[56] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.[78]
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑ D ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZZ ZZZZ ZZZZ

Criteria for inclusion

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states." Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognized as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

  • (a) have declared independence and are often regarded as having control over a permanently populated territory

or

  • (b) are recognized as a sovereign state by at least one other sovereign state

Note that in some cases there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:[79][Note 32]

  • 203 States recognized by at least one UN member state
  • Two states that control a permanently populated territory and are recognized only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Transnistria
  • One state that controls a permanently populated territory and is not recognized by any other state: Somaliland

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The names of the items in the list are given in English, as well as in the official, national, major minority, and historically important languages of the state. Where applicable, names in other languages are included in their original script, along with a transliteration in Roman characters. Except where mentioned, the source for the names in their official languages is the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN, retrieved 24 February 2011), which uses romanisation systems approved by the United Nations. The sources for flags are the main articles on these states. When other sources are used, these sources are mentioned. For a gallery of flags, see Gallery of sovereign-state flags.
  2. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[2] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  3. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed. Minor territorial disputes are detailed in the Further information.. column.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranationalism. The EU has 27 member states.[9]
  5. ^ Information is included on:
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  8. ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty System. Under this treaty, territorial claims in this region are neither recognised nor disputed. Claimant countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom, with all those save Argentina and Chile mutually recognising each others claims.
  10. ^ Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  11. ^ For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995). Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  12. ^ a b c d e f The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  13. ^ Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  14. ^ Burma's official short form name as used by the United Nations is "Myanmar". The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
  15. ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  16. ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  17. ^ Rendered in unicode as ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
  18. ^ a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  19. ^ a b The Chinese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands is disputed by Vietnam and the Republic of China (see List of territorial disputes);
  20. ^ a b c Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  21. ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China.
  22. ^ a b c More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  23. ^ Abbreviated as DRC, and also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  24. ^ A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  25. ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  26. ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  27. ^ The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  28. ^ See Names of Japan for more detail.
  29. ^ a b Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
  30. ^ Moldovan is often considered to be the same language as Romanian, see Moldovan language.
  31. ^ Romanization in Pinyin.
  32. ^ The non-state sovereign entity Order of Malta is not included. It claims neither statehood nor any territory. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.

References

  1. ^ "United Nations Member States". United Nations. 3 July 2006. http://www.un.org/en/members/index.shtml. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  2. ^ Press Release ORG/1469 (3 July 2006), retrieved 28 February 2011)
  3. ^ "Andorra country profile". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/992562.stm#leaders. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  4. ^ Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act". Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. http://www.laws.gov.ag/acts/chapters/cap-44.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Disputes - International". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2070.html. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  6. ^ Government of the United States, Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1989). Polar prospects: a minerals treaty for Antarctica. United States Government Printing Office. p. 43. ISBN 9781428922327.  "Mutual recognition of claims has been limited to Australia, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom ... Chile and Argentina do not recognize each other's claims ..."
  7. ^ Pakistan Worldview - Report 21 - Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008
  8. ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] - Today.Az
  9. ^ Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
  10. ^ There are 33 other official languages in Bolivia. Source for the Aymara, Guaraní, and Quechua is the Consulate General of Brazil in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. "Datos de Bolivia". Government of Brazil. http://www.consbras.org.bo/bolivia/bolivia.html. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  11. ^ "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCATRE69K2HM20101021. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c d Source for names in regional and minority languages is the Federal Foreign Office of Germany (see Bibliography)
  13. ^ Names in additional regional and minority languages are taken from Geonames. "China". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coucn.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  14. ^ Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
  15. ^ Source for the Hindustani, which uses both the Hindi and Urdu script, is Geonames. "Fiji". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coufj.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  16. ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. http://www.itc.gov.fj/lawnet/fiji_act/cap122.html. Retrieved 2010-07-10. [dead link]
  17. ^ Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji. University of the South Pacific. http://www.paclii.org/fj/legis/consol_act/ra103/. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  18. ^ Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
  19. ^ Source for the names in recognised regional and national languages is Geonames. "India". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/couin.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  20. ^ Source for the official name in Kurdish is the Kurdistan Regional Government. "Official website". http://www.krg.org/. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  21. ^ Source: Iraqi constitution
  22. ^ "Constitution of Ireland – Burnreacht na hÉireann". Government of Ireland. http://www.constitution.ie/reports/ConstitutionofIreland.pdf. Retrieved 8 November 2011. "Article 3: It is the firm will of the Irish Nation...to unite all the people who share the territory of the island of Ireland...recognising that a united Ireland shall be brought about only by peaceful means" 
  23. ^ a b Occupied territory:
  24. ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  25. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  26. ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Israeli+leaders/2008/Address+by+FM+Livni+to+the+8th+Herzliya+Conference+22-Jan-2008.htm?DisplayMode=print. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  27. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/news/2005_fall/gaza.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  28. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/10/29/isrlpa9577.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  29. ^ "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". http://www.ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~worldjpn/documents/texts/docs/19650622.T1E.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  30. ^ Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. http://english.jeju.go.kr/contents/index.php?mid=02. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  31. ^ Source for the Jawi script and Tamil and Chinese romanisations is Geonames. "Malaysia". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coumy.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  32. ^ Source for the formal native version is Geonames. "Marshall Islands". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coumh.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  33. ^ Source for the Berber is the "Royal institute of the Amazigh culture" (in Berber). Government of Morocco. http://www.ircam.ma/amz/index.php. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  34. ^ Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Laenderinformationen/Cookinseln/Bilateral.html. Retrieved 2010-07-16.  For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  35. ^ China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. http://www.china.org.cn/english/international/235447.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  36. ^ Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. http://www.un.int/nauru/foreignaffairs.html. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  37. ^ a b http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf
  38. ^ Radio New Zealand International (26 March 2007). "American Samoa governor ready to resist Tokelau’s claim to Swains Island". Radio New Zealand Ltd. http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=31024. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  39. ^ Government of New Zealand; Government of Tokelau (8 October 2007). "Draft Constitution of Tokelau – English". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Pacific/Tokelau/Tokelau-Constitution-(English).php. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  40. ^ Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
  41. ^ Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India (The Outlook Group). http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?233374. 
  42. ^ Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 9780275969349. http://books.google.com/?id=OYmurpH3ahsC. 
  43. ^ Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9788126110919. http://books.google.com/?id=C3yDkKDbZ3YC. 
  44. ^ [1]
  45. ^ Source for the Ayamara and Quechua is Geonames. "Peru". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coupe.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  46. ^ "EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 220 July 15, 1987". http://www.lawphil.net/executive/execord/eo1987/eo_220_1987.html. Retrieved 2011-07-29. 
  47. ^ "Hungarian foreign ministry information sheet" (PDF). http://www.mfa.gov.hu/NR/rdonlyres/108C135D-AEFD-41BD-A398-FE0EF9C8C868/0/Romania.pdf. Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  48. ^ Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812242300. http://books.google.com/?id=ru-DIWuuObEC. 
  49. ^ Names in additional regional and minority languages are taken from Geonames. "Spain". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coues.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  50. ^ Source for the Irish, Scottish, and Welsh is Geonames. "United Kingdom". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/cougb.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  51. ^ Source for the Hawaiian is Geonames. "United States". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/couus.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  52. ^ Source for the Cyrillic is the Federal Foreign Office of Germany (see Bibliography)
  53. ^ a b "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. http://www.un.org/en/members/nonmembers.shtml. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  54. ^ "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Abkhazia and Tuvalu. | The Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Abkhazia". Mfaabkhazia.net. http://www.mfaabkhazia.net/en/node/1082. Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  55. ^ a b "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 27 July 2010. http://www.times.spb.ru/index.php?action_id=2&story_id=32067. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  56. ^ a b c "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же" (in Russian). newsru.com. 2006-11-17. http://www.newsru.com/russia/17nov2006/aup.html. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  57. ^ "Lecture by Prime Minister Puna of the Cook Islands -State recognition of the Cook Islands to lead to furthering cooperation". Meiji University. 2011-06-22. http://www.meiji.ac.jp/cip/english/about/news/2011/glqts000000005qk.html. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  58. ^ "Cook Islands and the Netherlands establish Diplomatic Relations". The Cook Islands Herald. 2011-08-17. http://www.ciherald.co.ck/articles/h577a.htm. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  59. ^ "Joint Communique Between the People's Republic of China and the Cook Islands on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". The Embassy of the People's Republic of China in New Zealand. 2003-10-27. http://www.chinaembassy.org.nz/eng/kkqd/t39446.htm. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  60. ^ Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 9783642117879. http://books.google.com/books?id=7JDCQu-Us8sC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA55#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  61. ^ Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). "Kosovo ruling implications for Armenia and Azerbaijan". HULIQ.com (Hareyan Publishing, LLC). http://www.huliq.com/1/803-kosovo-ruling-implications-armenia-and-azerbaijan. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  62. ^ a b c Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он."
  63. ^ "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. http://pridnestrovie.net/foreignpolicy_full.html. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  64. ^ See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  65. ^ "Joint Comminuque on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between Niue and the People's Republic of China". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Lithuania. 2007-12-19. http://lt.china-embassy.org/eng/xwdt/t391353.htm. Retrieved 2012-02-07. 
  66. ^ http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf
  67. ^ See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  68. ^ Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. http://www.nad-plo.org/etemplate.php?id=5. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  69. ^ See the following on statehood criteria:
  70. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/worldwide/arab-states/palestine/. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  71. ^ International Crisis Group (23 May 2006), "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership", Africa Report (110): 10–13, http://www.operationspaix.net/IMG/pdf/ICG_Somaliland_AU_Leadership_2006-05-23_.pdf, retrieved 2011-04-19 
  72. ^ Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009), "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland", ISS Paper (Institute for Security Studies) (200): 8, http://www.somalilandtimes.net/sl/2009/403/P200.pdf, retrieved 2011-04-19 
  73. ^ Arieff, Alexis, "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland", Yale Journal of International Affairs (Spring/Summer 2008), http://yalejournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/083206arieff.pdf, retrieved 2011-04-17 
  74. ^ See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  75. ^ Jansen, Dinah (2009), "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm", Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security (Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie): 222–242, ISBN 9781896440613, http://centreforforeignpolicystudies.dal.ca/pdf/gradsymp09/Jansen.pdf 
  76. ^ "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com (Cable News Network). 2008-08-26. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/08/26/russia.vote.georgia/index.html. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  77. ^ "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2008/10/08/2003425320. 
  78. ^ 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  79. ^ The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

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