From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Founded||1 May 1947|
|Commenced operations||1 October 1972|
|Hubs||Kuala Lumpur International Airport|
|Secondary hubs||Kota Kinabalu International Airport
Kuching International Airport
|Airport lounge||Golden Lounge|
|Destinations||61 exl. code-share and subsidiaries|
|Company slogan||Journeys Are Made by the People You Travel With|
|Parent company||Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad (Government Holding Company)|
|Headquarters||Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport
Subang, Selangor, Malaysia
|Key people||Tan Sri Md Nor Yusof (Chairman)
Ahmad Jauhari Yahya (Managing Director)
Mohd. Rashdan Mohd. Yusof (Resign) 
|Revenue||MYR 13.654 billion (2011)|
|Net income||MYR$ -2.524 billion (2011)|
Malaysia Airlines (Malaysian Airline System Berhad) is the flag carrier of Malaysia. Malaysia Airlines (MAS) operates flights from its home base, Kuala Lumpur International Airport and with a secondary hub at Kota Kinabalu and Kuching. The airline has its headquarters on the grounds of Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport in Subang, Selangor, in Greater Kuala Lumpur.
Malaysia Airlines operates flights in Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Middle East and on the Kangaroo Route between Europe and Australasia. It operates transpacific flights from Kuala Lumpur to Los Angeles, via Tokyo.
Apart from the airline the group also includes aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO), and aircraft handling. Malaysia Airlines has two airline subsidiaries: Firefly and MASwings. Firefly operates scheduled flights from its two home bases Penang International Airport and Subang International Airport. The airline focuses on tertiary cities. MASwings focuses on inter-Borneo flights. Malaysia Airlines has a freighter fleet operated by MASKargo, which manages freighter flights and aircraft cargo-hold capacity for all Malaysia Airlines' passenger flights. MASCharter is another subsidiary of Malaysia Airlines, operating charter flights using Malaysia Airlines' aircraft. After recovering from past losses, Malaysia Airlines is keen on merger and acquisition (M&A) activities: particularly airlines in the Asia Pacific region. Malaysia Airlines was ranked second with score 88 in Aviation Week's Top Performing Companies which measures financial viability of an airline.
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In 1987, Malaysia Airlines commenced operations after the airline changed its name from Malaysian Airline System. The airline began in 1947 as Malayan Airways, being renamed Malaysian Airways after Malaysia gained independence. After that, it changed its name once more to Malaysia-Singapore Airlines and thereafter ceased its operation. It was then divided into Malaysia Airlines and Singapore Airlines.
Malayan Aviation History 
Scheduled air passenger and mail services in Malaya commenced in 1937 when Wearne's Air Service (WAS) commenced operating services between Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Penang. Wearne's Air Service was started by two Australian brothers, Theodore and Charles Wearnes. The service commenced as a thrice weekly flight between Singapore and Penang The first flight, using an 8-seater de Havilland DH.89A Dragon Rapide took place on 28 June 1937 This inaugural flight departed Singapore from the then brand-new Kallang Airport which had just opened earlier in the same month on 12 June Later a second D.H.89A enabled the expansion to daily services as well as the addition of Ipoh as a destination. The WAS services ceased with the onset of the Second World War Japanese occupation of Malaya and Singapore.
An initiative by the Alfred Holt's Liverpool-based Ocean Steamship Company, in partnership with the Straits Steamship Company and Imperial Airways, resulted in the incorporation in Singapore on 12 October 1937, Malayan Airways Limited (MAL). But the first paying passengers could be welcomed on board only some 10 years later. After the war, MAL was restructured to include just the partnership of Straits Steamship and Ocean Steamship. The airline's first flight was a charter flight from the British Straits Settlement of Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, on 2 April 1947, using an Airspeed Consul twin-engined aircraft. This inaugural flight on the "Raja Udang", with only five passengers, departed Singapore's Kallang Airport and was bound for Kuala Lumpur's Sungai Besi Airport. Weekly scheduled flights quickly followed from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Penang from 1 May 1947 with the same aircraft type. The airline continued to expand during the rest of the 1940s and 1950s, as other British Commonwealth airlines (such as BOAC and Qantas Empire Airways) provided technical assistance, as well as assistance in joining IATA. By 1955, Malayan Airways' fleet had grown to include a large number of Douglas DC-3s, and went public in 1957. Other aircraft operated in the first two decades included the Douglas DC-4 Skymaster, the Vickers Viscount, the Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation, the Bristol Britannia, the De Havilland Comet 4 and the Fokker F27. Over the next few years, the airline expanded rapidly, boosted by post-war air travel demand when flying became more than a privilege for the rich and famous. By 12 April 1960, the airline was operating Douglas DC-3s, Super Constellations and Viscounts on new routes from Singapore to Hong Kong, and from Kuala Lumpur to Bangkok via Penang. Flights were also introduced from Singapore to cities in the Borneo Territories, including Brunei, Jesselton (now Kota Kinabalu), Kuching, Sandakan and Sibu.
In 1957, the airline became a state-run stock corporation. With the delivery of an 84-seat Bristol Britannia in 1960, the airline launched its first long-haul international flight, to Hong Kong. When Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak formed the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, the airline's name was changed, from "Malayan Airways" to "Malaysian Airlines" (though still abbreviated to MAS). MAS also took over Borneo Airways. In 1966, following Singapore's separation from the federation, the airline's name was changed again, to Malaysia-Singapore Airlines (MSA). The next year saw a rapid expansion in the airline's fleet and routes, including the purchase of MSA's first Boeing aircraft: the Boeing 707s, as well as completion of a new high-rise headquarters in Singapore. Boeing 737s were added to the fleet soon afterward.
The differing needs of the two shareholders, however, led to the break-up of the airline just 6 years later. The Singapore government preferred to develop the airline's international routes, while the Malaysian government had no choice but to develop the domestic network first before going regional and eventually international. MSA ceased operations in 1972, with its assets split between two new airlines; Malaysian Airline System (MAS), and Singapore Airlines.
With the Singapore government determined to develop Singapore Airlines' international routes, it took the entire fleet of seven Boeing 707s and five Boeing 737s, which would allow it to continue servicing its regional and long-haul international routes. Since most of MSA's international routes were flown out of Singapore, the majority of international routes were in the hands of Singapore Airlines. In addition, MSA's headquarters, which was located in Singapore, became the headquarters of that airline.
The initials MSA were well regarded as an airline icon, and both carriers tried to use them. Malaysian went for MAS by just transposing the last two letters and choosing the name Malaysian Airline System, while Singapore originally proposed the name Mercury Singapore Airlines to keep the MSA initials, but changed its mind and went for SIA instead. Acronyms for airline names later became less fashionable, and both carriers then moved on to their descriptive names.
Malaysian Airline System took all domestic routes within Malaysia and international routes out of that country, as well as the remaining fleet of Fokker F27's. It began flights on 1 October 1972 and soon expanded, including introducing flights from Kuala Lumpur to London.
In that year MAS operated flights to more than 34 regional destinations and six international services. In 1976, after receiving its DC-10-30 aircraft, MAS scheduled flights reached Europe, with initial flights from Kuala Lumpur to Amsterdam, Paris and Frankfurt.
An economic boom in Malaysia during the 1980s spurred growth at Malaysia Airlines. By the end of the decade MAS was flying to 47 overseas destinations, including eight European destinations, seven Oceania destinations, and United States destinations of Los Angeles and Honolulu. In 1993 Malaysia Airlines reached South America when the airline received its Boeing 747 aircraft. MAS became the first airline in Southeast Asia to serve South America via its flights to Buenos Aires, Argentina. Malaysia Airlines also flew to Mexico City between 1994 and 1998 with fifth-freedom rights to carry passengers between Mexico City and Los Angeles, en route to Kuala Lumpur.
First period of unprofitability 
Prior to the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997, the airline suffered losses of as much as RM 260 million after earning a record-breaking RM319 million profit in the financial year 1996/1997. The airline then introduced measures to bring its P&L back into the black. For the financial year 1999/2000, the airline cut its losses from RM700 million in the year 1998/1999 to RM259 million. However, the airline plunged into further losses in the following year, amounting to RM417 million in FY2000/2001 and RM836 million in FY2001/2002. With these losses, the airline cut many unprofitable routes, such as Brussels, Darwin, Honolulu, Madrid, Munich and Vancouver.
The airline recovered from its losses in the year 2002/2003. It achieved its then-highest profit in the year 2003/2004, totaling RM461 million.
Second period of unprofitability 
In the year 2005, Malaysia Airlines reported a loss of RM1.3 billion. Revenue for the financial period was up by 10.3% or RM826.9 million, compared to the same period for 2004, driven by a 10.2% growth in passenger traffic. International passenger revenue increased by RM457.6 million or 8.4%, to RM5.9 billion, while cargo revenue decreased by RM64.1 million or 4.2%, to RM1.5 billion. Costs increased by 28.8% or RM2.3 billion, amounting to a total of RM 10.3 billion, primarily due to escalating fuel prices. Other cost increases included staff costs, handling and landing fees, aircraft maintenance and overhaul charges, Widespread Assets Unbundling (WAU) charges and leases.
The Government of Malaysia appointed Idris Jala as the new CEO on 1 December 2005, to execute changes in operations and corporate culture. Several weaknesses in airline operations were identified as the causes of the RM1.3 billion loss. These included esclating fuel prices, increased maintenance and repair costs, staff costs, low yield per available seat kilometre ("ASK") via poor yield management and an inefficient route network. Under the leadership of Idris Jala, Malaysia Airlines launched its Business Turnaround Plan in 2006, developed using the Government-linked company (GLC) Transformation Manual as a guide.
The most substantial factor in the losses was fuel costs. For the period, the total fuel cost was RM3.5 billion, representing a 40.4% increase compared to the same period in 2004. Total fuel cost increases comprised RM977.8 million due to higher fuel prices and another RM157.6 million due to additional consumption. In the third quarter, fuel costs were RM1.26 billion, compared to the RM1.01 billion in the corresponding period in 2004, resulting in a 24.6% increase or RM249.3 million.
Another factor for the losses was poor revenue management. MAS substantially lagged its peers on yield. Some of this gap was due to differences in traffic mix, with less business traffic to and from Malaysia than to and from Singapore, but much of it was due to weaknesses in pricing and revenue management, sales and distribution, brand presence in foreign markets, and alliance base. Malaysia Airlines has one of the lowest labour costs per ASK at USD0.41, compared to other airlines such as Cathay Pacific and Singapore Airlines at USD0.59 and USD0.60 respectively. However, despite low labour costs, the ratio of ASK revenue to this cost was, at 2.8, much lower than Singapore Airlines, where the ratio is 5.0, and slightly higher than Thai International Airways
There are other factors listed in the Business Turnaround Plan of Malaysia Airlines, all leading to the net loss of RM1.3 billion in the year 2005.
Recovery from unprofitability 
Under the various initiatives, launched together with the Business Turnaround Plan, Malaysia Airlines switched from losses to profitability between FY2006 and FY2007. When the Business Turnaround Plan came to an end, the airline posted a record profit of 851 million Ringgit (265 million dollars) in 2007, ending a series of losses since 2005. The result exceeded the target of RM300 Million by 184%.
Route rationalising was one of the major contributors to the airline's return to profitability. Malaysia Airlines pared its domestic routes from 114 to 22, and also cancelled virtually all unprofitable international routes (such as Kuala Lumpur-Manchester, that required a 140% load factor to break even). Apart from that, Malaysia Airlines also rescheduled all of its flight timings and changed its operations model from point to point services to hub and spoke services.
Additionally, the airline started Project Omega and Project Alpha to improve the company's network and revenue management. Emphasis has been placed on six areas: pricing, revenue management, network scheduling, opening storefronts, low season strategy and distribution management.
Malaysia Airlines has been involved in discussions for new aircraft purchases, using its cash surplus of 5.3 billion Ringgit to eventually purchase 55 narrow-body aircraft and 55 wide-body aircraft.
Despite these achievements, critics continue to deride the carrier for lagging behind its competitors in the region. This notion is not helped by the fact Malaysia Airlines has not made substantial investments in customer service, especially compared to Thai Airways or Singapore Airlines.
On 22 December 2009, Malaysia Airlines announced the purchase of 15 new Airbus A330 aircraft, with options for another 10. Expected to be delivered between 2011 and 2016, they are intended to operate on medium-haul routes to eastern Asia, Australia, and the Middle East. The airline's plans are to run Airbus A380 planes, which will be introduced into service in 2012, on long-haul routes, A330s on medium-haul routes, and Boeing 737 aircraft on short-haul routes. Under this plan, it is unclear where Boeing wide-bodies currently in the fleet would fall.
Third unprofitability 
In 2011, Malaysia Airlines recorded a stunning net loss of RM2.52 billion due to rising fuel costs and mismanagement which was the largest in its company history. The company ceased operations to Surabaya, Karachi, Dubai, Dammam and Johannesburg in January, and ceased flights to Cape Town, Buenos Aires as well as Rome in February.
Business Turnaround Plan 
On 28 February 2013, Ahmad Jauhari Yahya, the group Chief Executive Officer, reported a net profit of RM51.4mil for the fourth quarter, reversing the net loss of RM1.3bil a year earlier. MAS' improved financial performance last year was mainly attributable to its route rationalization programme, which saw an overall 6% reduction in available seat kilometre (ASK). This was matched by a marginal 2% reduction in revenue to RM13.76bil in 2012 and seat factor holding at 74.7%. The reduced ASK also helped MAS register a corresponding 13% decrease in expenditure.
Corporate information 
Malaysia Airlines is listed on the stock exchange of Bursa Malaysia under the name Malaysian Airline System Berhad. The airline suffered high losses over the years due to poor management and fuel price increases. As a result of financial restructuring (Widespread Asset Unbundling) in 2002, led by BinaFikir, Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad became its parent company, incorporated in 2002, in exchange for assuming the airline's long-term liabilities. On the operational side, the Government of Malaysia appointed Idris Jala as the new CEO on 1 December 2005, to execute changes in operations and corporate culture. Under his leadership, Malaysia Airlines unveiled its Business Turnaround Plan (BTP) in February, 2006, which identified low yield, an inefficient network and low productivity (overstaffing). The airline headquarters building in downtown Kuala Lumpur was sold. The new corporate headquarters is now at the MAS Complex on the grounds of Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport in Subang, Selangor.
Following the Widespread Asset Unbundling (WAU) restructuring of Malaysia Airlines, Malaysian Government investment arm and holding company, Khazanah Nasional's subsidiary, Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad is the majority shareholder with a 52.0% stake. After Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad, the second-largest shareholder is Khazanah Nasional, which holds 17.33% of the shares. Minority shareholders include Employees Provident Fund Board (10.72%), Amanah Raya Nominees (Tempatan) Sdn Bhd (5.69%), State Financial Secretary Sarawak (2.71%), foreign shareholders (5.13%) and Warisan Harta Sabah (2.4%). It has 19,546 employees (as of March, 2007). The Malaysian government reported that the government's holding company, Khazanah Nasional is keen on selling shares of Malaysia Airlines to remain globally competitive in an industry which is fast-consolidating.
Head office 
The airline has its headquarters and registered office on the third floor of Administration Building A at Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport in Subang, Selangor, in Greater Kuala Lumpur. The head office is located near Terminal 3 of the airport.
Previously the airline headquarters were on the third floor of the MAS Administrative Complex at Subang Airport, in Subang. Prior to the construction of the Kuala Lumpur MAS headquarters, the airline rented space in the UMBC headquarters. The airline had a permanent corporate headquarters in the Bangunan MAS, a 34-36 story building it owned along Jalan Sultan Ismail, in the Golden Triangle. The airline occupied 20 stories in the building. The building was built for RM88mil. In 2005 The Star said that the building was "reported to be worth between RM300mil and RM350mil". At one time before 2005 the airline chaiperson, Raja Tun Mohar, made an oral promise to Tun Abdul Razak of the Government of Malaysia that the airline would not sell its headquarters. The airline had 600 employees in the building.
In 2006, the airline moved its head office from the Kuala Lumpur building to the former headquarters in Subang, in order to reduce inefficiencies and generate cash. Channel News Asia stated that the airline had been "forced" to sell the former headquarters. Idris Jala, the managing director, said that the sale could net RM3bil. In the event it did not, the airline would try to rent out the floors it occupied. The first phase was scheduled to occur from January to March of that year, with the chairperson, executive director, managing director, company secretary, corporate communication officer, and finance communication officer moving to the Subang facility. In June 2006, Phase II was planned as a move for the distribution, marketing, and sales divisions of the company, to Administration Block Three.
Around 2007 Permodalan Nasional Bhd purchased Bangunan MAS from the airline. The new owners planned to remodel the building, by installing a five star hotel apartment block and upgrade the offices to Grade A++.
Malaysia Airlines has diversified into related industries and sectors, including aircraft ground handling, aircraft leasing, aviation engineering, air catering, and tour operator operations. It has also restructured itself by spinning-off operational units as fully owned subsidiaries, to maintain its core business as a passenger airline. Malaysia Airlines has over 20 subsidiaries, with 13 of them fully owned by Malaysia Airlines.
Some of the subsidiaries include:
|Company||Type||Principal activities||Incorporated in||Group's Equity Shareholding|
|Malaysia Airlines Cargo Sdn. Bhd||Subsidiary||Cargo||Malaysia||100%|
|GE Engine Services Malaysia||Joint Venture||Engine Overhaul||Malaysia||30%|
|MASwings Sdn. Bhd.||Subsidiary||Airline||Malaysia||100%|
|Firefly Sdn. Bhd.||Subsidiary||Airline||Malaysia||100%|
|MAS Aerotechnologies Sdn Bhd||Subsidiary||MRO||Malaysia||100%|
|MAS Golden Holidays Sdn Bhd||Subsidiary||Tour operator||Malaysia||100%|
|Malaysian Aerospace Engineering Sdn Bhd||Subsidiary||Engineering||Malaysia||100%|
|MAS Academy Sdn Bhd||Subsidiary||Flight school||Malaysia||100%|
|Abacus Distribution Systems (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd||Subsidiary||Computer reservation system||Malaysia||80%|
|Taj Madras Air Catering Limited||Associate||Catering||India||20%|
|MAS Catering (Sarawak) Sdn Bhd||Subsidiary||Catering||Malaysia||60%|
|LSG Sky Chefs||Associate||Holding company||Malaysia||30%|
Financial highlights 
Malaysia Airlines experienced its worst loss in FY2005, with RM1.25 billion losses. Since then, the Business Turnaround Plan was introduced to revive the airline, in the year 2006. At the end of the airline's turnaround program, in financial year 2007, Malaysia Airlines gained RM851 million net profit: a swing of RM987 million compared to RM134 million in losses in FY2006, marking the national carrier’s highest-ever profit in its 60-year history. The achievement was recognised as the world’s best airline-turnaround story in 2007, with Malaysia Airlines being awarded the Phoenix award by Penton Media's Air Transport World: the leading monthly magazine covering the global airline industry.
|Year ended/(Quarter Ended)||Revenue
after Tax (RM '000)
Fund (RM '000)
|EPS after tax
|31 December 2002||8,864,385||8,872,391||336,531||2,562,841||38.7|
|31 December 2003||8,780,820||8,591,157||461,143||3,023,984||36.8|
|31 December 2004||11,364,309||11,046,764||326,07||3,318,732||26.0|
|31 December 2005||9,181,338||10,434,634||(1,251,603)||2,009,857||(100.20)|
|31 December 2006||13,489,549||13,841,607||(133,737)||1,873,452||(10.90)|
|31 December 2007||15,288,640||14,460,299||852,743||3,934,893||58.05|
|31 December 2008||15,503,714||15,259,027||245,697||4,186,000||14.62|
|31 December 2009||12,782,086||12,288,980||493,106||747,596||28.64|
|31 December 2010||12,978,396||13,409,127||237,346||3,395,266||7.2|
|31 December 2011||13,653,894||16,197,154||(2,521,325)||1,093,198||(75.5)|
From the late 1990s up to 2007, Malaysia Airlines used the Going Beyond Expectations slogan to brand itself internationally. With the rollout of the Business Transformation Plan in 2008, the CEO of Malaysia Airlines rejected the idea of using MH's network or certain other features as its new branding strategy. Instead, the new branding strategy slogan is MH is Malaysian Hospitality, to emphasise the hospitality of its cabin crew instead of the airline's network and cabin classes.
Corporate image 
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Malaysia Airlines introduced the Sarong Kebaya design on 1 March 1986 for female flight attendants. It was designed by the School of Fashion at Mara Institute of Technology (Malay: Institut Teknologi Mara) and later known as Mara University of Technology (Malay: Universiti Teknologi Mara). The batik material depicts the kelarai motif, which is a bamboo weave pattern. It appears in the background in subdued hues of the basic uniform colour. Superimposed on the kelarai motif is a mixture of Malaysian flora, such as the cempaka, jasmine and the leaves of the hibiscus. The geometric Sarawakian motif is used for the lapels of the baju, edges of sleeves and the sarong. On 1 January 1993, the colours of the batik were enhanced to complement the colour of the new uniform. The male flight attendants wear grey colour jackets. The stewardess' Batik uniforms are similar to those of the Singapore Airlines' Singapore Girls, however the shape of the collar is slightly different.
Malaysia Airlines cabin staff 
- Colour Code of female flight attendants
- Red Sarong Kebaya with yellow flowers with red background are for the Inflight Supervisors
- Sarong Kebaya with pink flowers are for Chief Stewardesses, Leading Stewardesses and Flight Stewardesses (see difference from the name tag)
- Sarong Kebaya with magenta flowers are for the ground frontliners
- Colour Code of male flight attendants
- Grey Coloured Jackets with light grey vest and light blue shirts
Corporate logo 
The history of the airline started in 1937, when Malayan Airways Limited was registered as a company. Flying operations started in 1947, with the aircraft bearing the symbol of a winged tiger. In 1963, the airline was renamed Malaysian Airways Limited, when the Federation of Malaysia was formed. Subsequently, Borneo Airways Limited was absorbed by Malaysian Airways Limited. In 1965, with the political separation of Singapore from Malaysia, there was continued participation by the governments of Malaysia and Singapore in the airline. In 1967, the company changed its name to Malaysia-Singapore Airline Limited (MSA), which was the joint national air carrier for both countries, and a new logo was introduced.
In 1971, Malaysia-Singapore Airline Limited was separated into two airlines, each with its own policies and objectives, leading to the birth of Malaysia's flag carrier, Malaysian Airline System (MAS), on 3 April 1971. The name was chosen because, in abbreviated form, MAS (as in EMAS) in Malay means gold, to symbolise quality service.
A new corporate logo designed by Dato' Johan Ariff was introduced on 15 October 1987, retaining the essence of the moon kite, with a sheared swept-back look. Along with the new corporate logo, a new type style - MALAYSIA, was created. It is italicised to slant parallel with the logo to accentuate speed as well as direction. Within this corporate typestyle, the letters MAS bear red clippings to denote the initials of the statutory name of the airline, Malaysian Airline System (MAS), and were added after the original design was rejected by former Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir. The introduction of blue to the original red logo has national significance. The red and blue divides equally in the middle to denote equilibrium.
On 8 March 2012, Malaysian Airlines unveiled another rebrand, with a new logo and livery. The red from the previous logo has been replaced entirely by blue colour tones. The kite now faces from left to right, as it did in the original 1971 logo, its tails have been extended and is now entirely in gradient tones from grey to blue. The wordmark has also been modernised, with a new typeface and the word "airlines" is now presented in lowercase.
In 2011 Malaysia Airlines introduced a social seating plan that allows passengers to pick seatmates before their flight. The plan lets passengers share their social network profiles and photos with other passengers on the same flight. 
Before the introduction of the Business Turnaround Plan, Malaysia Airlines operated 118 domestic routes within Malaysia and 114 international routes across six continents. Malaysia Airlines now flies to 87 destinations across six continents from its primary hub in Kuala Lumpur. It has a particularly strong presence in the Southeast Asia region, which, together with its subsidiary MASWings and Firefly, connects Kuala Lumpur to the most destinations in Borneo Island. Apart from that, the airline has a key role in the Kangaroo Route, on which the airline provides onward connecting flights from main European gateways to major Australian and New Zealand gateways via Kuala Lumpur International Airport, within 5 hours. Malaysia Airlines also operates transpacific flights from Kuala Lumpur to Los Angeles International Airport via Tokyo (previously operated via Taipei. Transatlantic flight from Kuala Lumpur to Newark Liberty International Airport via Stockholm-Arlanda Airport (Newark flights had previously also been routed via Dubai International Airport) were ended in October 2009 due to poor passenger loads.
Under the Business Turnaround Plan, numerous routes were axed and frequencies reduced. As of September 2007, Malaysia Airlines flies to 88 destinations. In cooperation with code-share partner airlines, the airline serves more than one hundred destinations worldwide. It was the first airline in Southeast Asia to fly to South Africa, following the demise of apartheid, and the only airline in Southeast Asia that served South America via South Africa until 2012. In 2006, it suspended its routes to Manchester, Vienna, Fukuoka, Chengdu, Nagoya, Xi'an, Cairo, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and Zürich under its Business Turnaround Plan.
Malaysia Airlines also owns its own charter flight division. Malaysia Airlines' charter flights have flown to destinations around the world, such as Guilin, which was previously one of Malaysia Airlines' scheduled destinations, and Christmas Island. Malaysia Airlines has also been the official airline for the Manchester United Asian Tour It also has a substantial Hajj operation.
Malaysia Airlines applied for approval to launch 3 weekly Kota Kinabalu – Tokyo Haneda service with Boeing 737-800, effective 15 November 2010. After receiving regulatory approval, Malaysia Airlines adjusted its Tokyo operations. All Kuala Lumpur – Tokyo traffic departed and arrived in Narita, and Kota Kinabalu – Tokyo traffic operated from/to Haneda. The airline ended operations at Tokyo Haneda Airport on 1 February 2012.
In 2012, it suspended services to Cape Town, Dubai, Johannesburg, Buenos Aires, Rome, Dammam, Karachi and Surabaya due to unprofitability. In addition, the airline also suspended 4 routes from Kota Kinabalu: Tokyo, Osaka, Perth and Seoul (thus ending Kota Kinabalu's status as a hub). The airline, however, maintained its services from Kuala Lumpur to Osaka, Perth, and Seoul.
A380 Milestones 
In 2003, Malaysia Airlines’ parent company, Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad, signed a Contract with Airbus to purchase six A380-800 aircraft.
In 7 June 2011, the first A380 for Malaysia Airlines entered into final assembly phase at the Airbus Final Assembly Line in Toulouse, France. Same year 20 October, the A380 makes its maiden test flight from Toulouse to Hamburg upon completion of the final assembly & system tests.
Malaysia Airlines first A380 to arrive in Kuala Lumpur on 19 June 2012. Malaysia Airlines A380 inaugural flight from Kuala Lumpur to London on 1 July 2012.
Malaysia Airlines introduced double daily Airbus A380 flights on the Kuala Lumpur-London return route on 24 November 2012, and Kuala Lumpur- Paris return route is effective daily from 1 March 2013.
Malaysia Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:
|Airbus A330-300||12||25/10||0||36||247||283||replacement of older 1995 build models and 777-200ER|
|Boeing 737-400||16||—||0||16||128||144||Exit from service: 2014.|
|20||32/10||0||16||144||160||Replacement of 737-400|
|Boeing 747-400||1||—||0||n/a||n/a||400+||Charter flights only
Exit from service: 2014.
|Boeing 777-200ER||16||—||0||35||247||282||Aircraft will be replaced by A330-300|
|Airbus A330-200F||4||0||70,000 kg|
|Boeing 747-400F||2||0||120,000 kg|
Malaysia Airlines operates a fleet of aircraft with two-cabin and three-cabin configurations. The 777-200 fleet has a two-cabin configuration, with Golden Club Class and Economy Class. The Airbus A380 fleet has a three-cabin configuration, also including First Class. The Airbus A330-300 and Boeing 737-400 aircraft have a two-cabin configuration.
Airport lounge 
The Golden Lounge is the airport lounge for Malaysia Airlines First Class, Golden Club Class passengers and Enrich Platinum and Enrich Gold members. The clubs all have open bars and food catering. There are 14 lounges throughout the world, and qualified passengers have full reciprocal privileges at lounges operated by selected partners. The lounge offers various services such as business centres, food catering, slumber rooms and child-care centres.
Lounges are maintained at the following airports:
In April 2008, the airline launched its new Regional Golden Lounge at the KL International Airport (KLIA) for regional-bound first and business class passengers.
With this new lounge, Malaysia Airlines at Kuala Lumpur International Airport now has three lounges: the Satellite Lounge, Domestic Lounge and the Regional Lounge.
The seat maps can be found on the website under fleet.Select the aircraft and the seat map link will be on the page. All of Malaysia Airlines' aircraft have an Economy and a Business Class section. First Class is only present on the Boeing 747-400 and the Airbus A380-800 aircraft. Babies are banned from first class.
First Class 
First Class is offered only on the Airbus A380-800 on routes to Hong Kong International Airport(begins 1 May 2013), London Heathrow and Paris Charles de Gaulle. Malaysia Airlines offers the widest First Class seats in the sky on it's A380 aircrafts, the A380 features 8 semi-enclosed suites with a 23-inch flat screen television. First Class passengers are offered La Prairie and Aigner amenity kits that come with 100% cotton pajamas. First Class passengers can enlighten their taste buds multiple course gourmet meals and have the option to pre-book meals with its "Cheff-on-Call" service.
Business Class 
Business Class (previously known as Golden Club Class) is available on all of Malaysia Airlines' fleet. The newer business class, introduced in 2005, can only be found on Boeing 747-400s, which has 41 seats, and the Boeing 777-200, which has 35 seats.
Regional Business Class seats are offered on the Airbus A330 aircraft, featuring reclining seats and footrests. Movies, news and documentaries are available through the Portable Media Player (PMP) for flights of 3 hours and over. In 2011, Malaysia Airlines introduced the new regional business class seats on their brand new Airbus A330-300 to be used on short-medium haul routes such as Kota Kinabalu, Melbourne and Shanghai. Seats made by Recaro within the Business Class cabin of new A330-300 are configured in pairs (2-2-2) layout, fitted with in-seat power and USB port, as well as new Select 3000i on a 15.4 inches touch screen panel. The first Airbus A330-300 carrying the new Regional Business Class was assigned to Kuala Lumpur - Brisbane sector on 20 April 2011.
Economy Class 
Economy Class is available on all of Malaysia Airlines' fleet. Seats feature a pitch of 33-34 inches and width of 17-17.25 inches, with footrests (except on 737-400s). On the Airbus A330-200, Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 777-200, it has a 6.5" personal TV located behind each seat, and a footrest located below the seat in front, the A330-300 has no personal TV but overhead TV's located in the aisles of the plane. The Boeing 737-400 has a standard Economy seat. In 2010, Economy Class was voted the World's Best Economy Class at the 2010 World Airline Awards by Skytrax.
'Baby ban' and 'Child-free zone' 
Malaysia Airlines has attracted both criticism and praise for its controversial decision to prohibit children from travelling in certain classes or cabins of its aircraft.
Infants are not permitted in first class on MAS Boeing 747 and Airbus A380 due to MAS' decision not to install bassinets in the cabin. Malaysia Airlines Managing Director and CEO Tengku Azmil explained the policy in a Twitter post, saying the airline received complaints from first class passengers that they "spend money on 1st class and can't sleep due to crying infants".
MAS subsequently claimed that an upgrade of the first class cabin to fit new seats and an ottoman (which doubles as a visitor seat) meant "there was no facility for positioning bassinets in the First Class of the 747s." However, Azmil later said it was possible for MAS to fit bassinets to the first class sections of its 747-400s "but many people complain about it."
Malaysia Airlines has also stated that children under the age of 12 may not travel in the 70-seat upper deck economy section of the A380. "The economy seats on upper level will be allocated for business travellers. Passengers accompanying children under 12 years old age will be excluded from booking these seats."
MAS says the decision "is to showcase the economy class zone in the main deck, enhanced and designated as a family and children friendly inflight zone. From the perspective of customers travelling with their families, the economy class family-friendly convenience would be a warm welcome. The main deck has more facilities such as toilets (8 for economy configuration of 350 seats) and the dual aerobridge airport facility supporting this deck will also mean a speedier/faster embarkation and disembarkation for this group of passengers." 
In-flight entertainment 
Select is the in-flight entertainment system of Malaysia Airlines. There are three types of Select: Select 3000i, Select 3000i Portable Media Player and Select Mainscreen. However, the Boeing 737-400 does not have Select Mainscreen or either version of Select 3000i, and does not offer audio video on demand.
- Select 3000i
- All Malaysia Airlines Airbus A330-300(NEW), Boeing 737-800 (MX), Boeing 747-400 and 777-200ER aircraft are equipped with an Inflight entertainment system, Select 3000i with audio and video in 14 laungages. A touch-screen personal TV is available for First Class and Golden Club Class (Business Class) passengers on board Airbus A330-300(NEW), Boeing 737-800, Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Malaysia Airlines A330-200(OLD) aircraft are fitted with personal television screens at every seat in both Business and Economy Class but does not feature Audio Video on Demand in economy class.
- New deliveries of Airbus A330-300(NEW) and Boeing 737-800 (MX) aircraft would carry touch-screen based Select 3000i.
- Select 3000i Portable Media Player
- The Select 3000i Portable Media Player is provided to Malaysia Airlines' Business Class passengers on selected regional and semi-long-haul A330-300(OLD) and Boeing 737-800 (ML) aircraft on North and South Asia routes. It allows passengers a choice of movies, TV shows and sports.
- Select Mainscreen
- Used in Economy Class on A330-300(OLD) and Boeing 737-800 (ML) regional and semi-long-haul aircraft which features 15-inch dropdown retractable LCD screens are installed at every 4th seat row in the economy class zone of the aircraft.
Frequent-flyer programs 
Malaysia Airlines has two frequent-flyer programs: Grads for Students by Malaysia Airlines (Grads) and Enrich by Malaysia Airlines (Enrich). Grads is a frequent-flyer program with benefits designed for students. Enrich by Malaysia Airlines is a frequent flyer program for frequent travellers that comprises a variety of airlines, banks, credit-card issuers, hotels and retailers around the world.
Enrich by Malaysia Airlines 
On 30 September 1987, Malaysian Airline System introduced the Esteemed Traveller frequent-flyer program. In the early 1990s, Malaysia Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Thai Airways International and Singapore Airlines launched their joint Asian frequent-flyer program: Passages. The joint program was officially dissolved in 1999, and the Enrich frequent-flyer program made its debut after the split from Passages.
- Enhanced Enrich
- On 12 July 2006, Malaysia Airlines introduced its enhanced Enrich frequent-flyer program. The program is now known as Enrich by Malaysia Airlines (Enrich).
- Benefits and Tiers
- There are four levels of Enrich memberships - Blue, Silver (oneworld Ruby), Gold (oneworld Sapphire) and Platinum (oneworld Emerald). Each offers various privileges including priority check-in, priority standby and extra baggage allowance, amongst others. Miles can be accrued on qualifying Malaysia Airlines services, as well through partners, including airlines, hotels, car rental agencies and credit-card companies. Miles accrued by members allow for redemption for free travel, free upgrades and other complimentary services.
- Members of Enrich are able to accrue miles on qualifying flights through Malaysia Airlines and Enrich airline partners:
- Oneworld Alliance airline partners (effective 1 February 2013)
- Air France, Alitalia, Delta Air Lines, Etihad Airways, Jet Airways, KLM, SriLankan Airlines, Virgin Atlantic
- Hilton Hotels Corporation, InterContinental Hotels Group, Avis Rent a Car System, The Hertz Corporation
- Grads for Students
- GRADS is Malaysia Airlines' frequent-flyer program for students above 12 years old.
Accidents and incidents 
There have been two accidents involving passenger fatalities on Malaysia Airlines, with a total of 134 fatalities:
- 4 December 1977 - Malaysia Airlines Flight 653, a Boeing 737-200 (9M-MBD) was hijacked and crashed in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, killing all 100 people aboard. It remains the deadliest crash of all time in Malaysia up to this day.
- 15 September 1995 - Malaysia Airlines Flight 2133, a Fokker 50 (9M-MGH) crashed during approach in Tawau, Sabah due to pilot error. 34 people were killed.
Other, non-fatal incidents
- 18 December 1983 - Malaysia Airlines Flight 684, an Airbus A300-B4 (OY-KAA) leased from Scandinavian Airlines crashed 2 km short of the runway in Subang on a flight from Singapore. There were no fatalities, but the aircraft was written-off.
- 15 March 2000 - Malaysia Airlines Flight 85, an Airbus A330-300 (9M-MKB) was damaged by a chemical called oxalyl chloride, which leaked from canisters when unloading, causing damage to the fuselage when arrived at KLIA from Beijing. The 5-year-old Airbus was sufficiently damaged to be written-off.
- 1 August 2005 - A Boeing 777-200ER as Malaysia Airlines flight 124 departed Perth for Kuala Lumpur. Climbing through 38,000 feet a faulty accelerometer caused the aircraft's Air Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU) to command changes of altitude. The flight crew overrode the ADIRU and manually returned to land the aircraft at Perth. Subsequent NTSB investigation led the US FAA to issue emergency airworthiness directive 2005-18-51 on the fly-by-wire software.
See also 
- List of companies of Malaysia
- List of airlines of Malaysia
- List of airports in Malaysia
- Transport in Malaysia
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