From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Synonyms||MPA; Methiopropamine; Methedrene; Syndrax|
|Molar mass||155.261 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Methiopropamine (MPA) is a thiophene ring-based structural analog of methamphetamine originally reported in 1942. Chemically it is not a phenethylamine or amphetamine and is not their functional analog either. It originally appeared for public sale in the UK in December 2010 as a "research chemical" or "legal high", recently branded as Blow. It has limited popularity as a recreational stimulant.[unreliable source?]
Methiopropamine functions as a selective norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor that is approximately 1.85 times more selective for norepinephrine than dopamine. It is approximately one third as potent as dextroamphetamine as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and one fifth as much as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. It displays negligible activity as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
For N-alkyl amphetamines deamination and N-dealkylation are the major elimination pathways and renal excretion is a minor one. Methiopropamine is metabolized into active thiopropamine, 4-hydroxymethiopropamine and thiophene S-oxides. These N-demethylated metabolites are further deaminated by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C19 in the liver transforming them into inactive 1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-propan-2-one which can be seen as a phenylacetone derivative.
Thiophene-2-carboxylic acid should be the final major metabolic product. It is very hydrophilic and is excreted in urine. Methiopropamine and especially thiopropamine are also excreted renally, unchanged.
Beside those pathways it shoud be mentioned that two drugs containing a thiophene ring were on the market, Tienilic acid and Suprofen, both have been withdrawn due to hepatotoxicity and cases of renal failure , this has been circumvened by introducing thiophene ring which is substituted in 4,5 positions. This may be due to sulfoxides and epoxide adducts that may interact with the GSH System and Methionine to form protein adducts.
There is a four-step synthesis of methiopropamine. It begins with (thiophen-2-yl)magnesium bromide, which is reacted with propylene oxide, yielding 1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-hydroxypropane which is reacted with phosphorus tribromide, yielding 1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-bromopropane which is finally reacted with methylamine, yielding 1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-methylaminopropane.
As of October 2015 MPA is a controlled substance in China.
Methiopropamine is illegal in Finland.
Methiopropamine is explicitly illegal in Germany.
Following the ban on ethylphenidate authorities noticed an increase in methiopropamine use by injecting users. The ACMD suggested it be banned on 18 November 2015 as it had similar effects to ethylphenidate. The government enacted a temporary drug control order a week later which came into force on 27 November 2015.
- α-Pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT)
- Thiopropamine, demethylated counterpart
- Propylhexedrine, another ring substituted stimulant used as over-the-counter decongestant
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- 21 CFR — SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES §1308.11 Schedule I.
- Florida Statutes - Chapter 893 - DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROL