Ninoy Aquino International Airport

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
"Manila Airport" redirects here. For the airport serving Manila, Arkansas, see Manila Municipal Airport.
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino
Ninoy Aquino International Airport logo.svg
NAIA Terminal 3 2009 MC.jpg
Façade of NAIA Terminal 3
IATA: MNLICAO: RPLL
WMO: 98429
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Government of the Philippines
Operator Manila International Airport Authority
Serves Greater Manila Area
Location Parañaque and Pasay, Metro Manila, Philippines
Hub for
Time zone PHT (UTC+08:00)
Elevation AMSL 23 m / 75 ft
Coordinates 14°30′31″N 121°01′10″E / 14.50861°N 121.01944°E / 14.50861; 121.01944Coordinates: 14°30′31″N 121°01′10″E / 14.50861°N 121.01944°E / 14.50861; 121.01944
Website www.miaa.gov.ph
Maps
Map of Ninoy Aquino International Airport Complex
Map of Ninoy Aquino International Airport Complex
MNL/RPLL is located in Philippines
MNL/RPLL
MNL/RPLL
Location in the Philippines
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
06/24 3,737 12,260 Asphalt
13/31 2,367 7,766 Asphalt
Statistics (2013)
Passengers 32,865,000
Increase 3.1%
Total international flights 87,629
Increase 9.9%
Total domestic flights 149,421
Decrease 4.1%
Cargo (2012) (in metric tons) 460,135.15
Increase 12.1%
Source: Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines[1]
Statistics from MIAA[2][3]

The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA /ˈn.ə/, also known as Manila International Airport (IATA: MNLICAO: RPLL), is the airport serving Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area. Located along the border between the cities of Pasay and Parañaque, about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) south of Manila proper and southwest of Makati, NAIA is the main international gateway for travelers to the Philippines and serves as a hub for AirAsia Zest, Cebu Pacific, PAL Express, Philippine Airlines, Tigerair Philippines, and Philippines AirAsia. It is managed by the Manila International Airport Authority (MIAA), a branch of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC).[4]

Officially, NAIA is the only airport serving the Manila area. However, in practice, both NAIA and Clark International Airport, located in the Clark Freeport Zone in Pampanga serve the Manila area, with Clark catering mostly to low-cost carriers because of its lower landing fees compared to those charged at NAIA. In the recent past there have been calls for Clark to replace NAIA eventually as the primary airport of the Philippines.[5] The airport is named after the late Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., who was assassinated at the airport in 1983. In 2012, all terminals at NAIA handled a record breaking annual passenger traffic of 31,558,002, making it one of the busiest airports in Asia.[2]

History

Old Nielson Field Terminal Tower.

The original airport that served Manila, Grace Park Airfield, also known as Manila North, was opened in 1935 in Grace Park, Caloocan. It was the city's first commercial airport, and was used by Philippine Aerial Taxi Company (later Philippine Air Lines) for its first domestic routes.[6] In July 1937, Manila International Air Terminal located in the 42 hectares (4,500,000 sq ft) Nielson Airport was inaugurated and had served as the gateway to Manila. Its runways of which now form Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas in Makati.[7] In 1948, following Philippine independence, the airport was moved to its current site adjacent to the Villamor Airbase, which was then called Nichols Field due to the reasons of less terrain slope, expansive land area in the new site, and the USAF base runway (Runway 13/31) which can be used for the airport.[8] The original structure was built on what is now the site of Terminal 2.

In 1954 the airport's international runway and associated taxiway were built, and in 1956, construction was started on a control tower and a terminal building for international passengers. The new terminal was inaugurated on September 22, 1961.[9] On January 22, 1972, a fire caused substantial damage to the original terminal building,[10] and a slightly smaller terminal was rebuilt in its place the following year. This second terminal would become the country's international terminal until 1981 when a new, higher-capacity terminal, known today as Terminal 1, was built to replace it.[11]

The old international terminal would serve as Manila's domestic airport until another fire damaged it in May 1985. The present Terminal 1, originally named Manila International Airport, was given its present name on August 17, 1987 by virtue of Republic Act No. 6639, with the intention of honouring Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., who was assassinated at the airport after returning to the Philippines from his self-imposed exile in the United States on August 21, 1983.[12] Plans for a new terminal were conceived in 1989, when the Department of Transportation and Communications commissioned Aéroports de Paris to do a feasibility study to expand capacity.

The recommendation was to build two new terminals, and in 1998 Terminal 2 was completed. Terminal 2 was nicknamed the Centennial Terminal as its completion coincided with the 100th anniversary of the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain. In 1997 the government approved the construction of Terminal 3, which was originally scheduled to be completed in 2002. After many delays caused by technical and legal issues, the terminal became partially operational in mid-2008 and fully operational on August 2014.[13] The government aims to return services from many of the airlines which cancelled services to Manila as a result of Terminal 1's problems.

1990s

Departure hall of NAIA Terminal 3

The original proposal for the construction of a third terminal was proposed by Asia's Emerging Dragon Corporation (AEDP).[14] AEDP eventually lost the bid to PairCargo and its partner Fraport AG of Germany, who went on to begin construction of the terminal under the administration of Joseph Estrada. On August 1997, President Fidel V. Ramos led the groundbreaking ceremony of Terminal 3.[14] The structure was mostly completed several years ago and was originally scheduled to open in 2002. The ultra-modern US$640 million, 189,000-square-metre (2,030,000 sq ft) facility was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) to have a capacity of 13 million passengers per year.[15] However, a legal dispute between the government of the Philippines and the project's main contractor, Philippine International Air Terminals Co. Inc. (Piatco), over the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) contract, delayed the final completion and opening of the terminal.[16]

While the original agreement was one in which PairCargo and Fraport AG would operate the airport for several years after its construction, followed by a handing over of the terminal to the Philippine Government, the government offered to buy out Fraport AG for $400 million, to which Fraport agreed. However, before the terminal could be fully completed, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, called the contract "onerous" and therefore formed a committee to evaluate the agreement to buy out Fraport AG. It is this action that sparked the most controversy. The Philippine Supreme Court eventually found the Piatco contract "null and void" citing a variety of anomalies.[17]

The administration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo eventually abrogated Piatco's BOT Contract for allegedly having been anomalous in certain important respects. In a subsequent decision, the Philippine Supreme Court upheld the Philippine Government's position on the matter and declared the BOT contract "null and void" for, among other things, violations of certain provisions of the BOT law. More specifically, the Court found that the original contract was revised to allow for a Philippine Government guarantee of Piatco's obligations to its creditors, contractors and suppliers. The BOT law disallows the granting of such sovereign guarantees. Piatco disagrees and continues to maintain that the provisions cited by the Supreme Court do not amount to a prohibited sovereign guarantee by the Philippine Government.

2000s

A shot of the airport taken from a departing aircraft

In December 2004, the Philippine government expropriated the terminal project from Piatco through an order of the Pasay City Regional Trial Court. However, the court only allowed the Philippine government to take over the terminal upon payment of an initial amount of 3 billion (approx. US$64 million) to Piatco. The Philippine government paid Piatco this amount during the second week of September 2006. According to the Philippine government, NAIA-3 was 98% complete (prior in 2006) and required at least an additional USD6 million to complete. The government was then in the process of negotiating a contract with the builder of the terminal, Takenaka Corporation, because another factor that delayed the terminal's opening was the ongoing investigation into the collapse of an 100-square-metre (1,100 sq ft) area of the terminal's ceiling.[18]

Piatco (and its German partner, Fraport) have instituted arbitration proceedings before different international bodies to recover a fair settlement. Piatco sued the government before the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in Singapore. Fraport separately sued the Philippine government at the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) in Washington.[19] In 2007, the ICSID case was decided in favor of the Philippine government because of a violation of Philippine law by Fraport. However, this decision was annulled in 2010 due to a violation of Fraport's right to be heard.[20] A new proceeding before the ICSID is ongoing.[21] Piatco formally withdrew its second application to set aside the earlier ICC ruling that dismissed its claims against the Philippine government on December 2011. The ICC ruling in favor of the Philippine government became final and executory in 2012.[22]

Through Executive Order No. 732, the NAIA Terminal 3 Task Force was made[23] and Michael Defensor was appointed on June 19, 2008 as head, creating the Presidential Task Force on NAIA-3 that was "mandated to ensure the immediate opening and operation of Terminal 3." The order provides for the NAIA-3 opening based on decisions of the Supreme Court and applicable laws.[24]

Terminal 3 began partial operations at 05:15am on July 22, 2008 with 16 inbound and outbound domestic flights from Cebu Pacific. Philippine Airlines' budget brand PAL Express and Air Philippines moved their operations to this terminal two days later.[25] Cebu Pacific moved all of its domestic and international operations to the terminal on August 1, 2008. On August 1, 2010, President Benigno Aquino III has announced plans to utilize Terminal 3 to its maximum capacity by Christmas Season 2010, which may mean moving international carriers to Terminal 3, but the goal was never reached.[26]

The Philippine government has made a new plan where Terminal 3 would be 100% operational by the end of 2011, but lowered their goal to 55% operational after further study.[27] The move of international carriers began in February 2011 with All Nippon Airways (ANA) starting a new service to Manila from Terminal 3, rather than Terminal 1 with other international carriers.[28] As of 2010, ANA was the only foreign carrier at Terminal 3, but as of October 1, 2014, five international airlines have transferred from Terminal 1 to Terminal 3 namely Delta Air Lines, KLM, Emirates, Singapore Airlines, and Cathay Pacific.

Statistics

Volume of passengers

This table of passenger movements at MNL is based on data from Airport Council International (ACI).[29] 2010 NAIA passenger traffic was based on Manila International Airport Authority's website for the full-year of 2010.

Calendar Year
Passenger Movement
% Change
Rank
2003 12,955,809 Increase 81
2004 15,186,521 Increase17.2% 75 (Increase6)
2005 16,216,031 Increase6.8% 77 (Decrease2)
2006 17,660,697 Increase8.9% 73 (Increase4)
2007 20,467,627 Increase15.9% 64 (Increase9)
2008 22,253,158 Increase8.7% 57 (Increase7)
2009 24,108,825 Increase8.3% 51 (Increase6)
2010 27,119,899 Increase12.5% 49 (Increase2)
2011 29,552,264 Increase9.0% 46 (Increase3)
2012[30] 31,878,935 Increase7.9% 45 (Increase1)
2013[3] 32,865,000 Increase3.1% 45 (Steady)

Cargo volume

This table of Cargo Statistics at MNL is based on data from its Official Website[31]

Calendar Year
International Cargo
Domestic Cargo
Incoming
Outgoing
Total
Incoming
Outgoing
Total
2009 114,510.68 137,454.13 251,964.81 50,694.88 46,334.56 97,029.44
2010 143,476.06 164,439.40 307,915.46 62,762.91 54,704.34 117,467.25
2011 139,901.34 150,603.97 290,505.31 57,862.02 62,009.72 119,871.74
2012 148,822.59 162,232.63 311,055.22 71,402.63 77,677.30 149,079.93
2013 93,159.95A 99,684.77A 192,844.72 39,244.25B 47,407.90B 86,652.15
Notes
  • ^A : Data recorded is from January to August 2013
  • ^B : Data recorded is from January to July 2013

Terminals

Terminal Buildings
Total
Area 205,500 square metres (2,212,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 28 million passengers
Jet bridges 64 (aerobridge)
20 (contact)
Terminal 1
Completion 1981
Opened April 2, 1982
Area 67,000 square metres (720,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 6 million passengers
Jet bridges 18 (aerobridge)
Terminal 2 (Centennial Terminal)
Completion December 28, 1998
Opened May 1, 1999
Area 75,000 square metres (810,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 9 million passengers
Jet bridges 12 (aerobridge)
Terminal 3
Opened July 22, 2008 (partial)
August 1, 2014 (full)
Area 189,000 square metres (2,030,000 sq ft)
Handling capacity 13 million passengers
Jet bridges 34 (aerobridge)
20 (contact)
Terminal 4 (Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal)
Built 1948
Handling capacity 1000 passengers
Jet bridges 0 (passengers are bussed)
Terminal 5 (Budget Terminal)
Status Planning and design stages
Area TBA
Handling capacity TBA
Jet bridges TBA

Terminal 1

The check-in hall of NAIA Terminal 1

Terminal 1 or NAIA-1, has an area of 67,000 square metres (720,000 sq ft) and having been completed in 1981 is the second oldest terminal at NAIA (after the Old Domestic Terminal, now called Terminal 4) with a design capacity of 4.5 million passengers per year[11] but was further expanded to accommodate 6 million passengers. It currently serves most of the international airlines except Philippine Airlines, Cebu Pacific, All Nippon Airways, Cathay Pacific, Delta Air Lines, KLM, Emirates, and Singapore Airlines. The detailed designs were adopted by the Philippine Government on 1974 and was subsequently approved by the Asian Development Bank on September 18, 1975. Actual work on the terminal began during the second quarter of 1978. In 1989, a Master Plan Review recommended the construction of two new terminals (NAIA 2 and NAIA 3), as well as many other facility improvements.[32]

The development of the Manila International Airport was finally approved through the promulgation of Executive Order No. 381, which authorized the airport's development. In 1973, a feasibility study/airport master plan was done by Airways Engineering Corporation through a US$29.6 million loan from the Asian Development Bank.[33] The Detailed Engineering Design of the New Manila International Airport Development Project was done by Renardet-Sauti/Transplan/F.F. Cruz Consultant while the terminal's Detailed Architectural Design was prepared by Leandro Locsin's L.V. Locsin and Associates.[32]

The terminal reached capacity in 1991, when it registered a total passenger volume of 4.53 million. Since 1991, the terminal has been over capacity and has been recording an annual average growth rate of 11%,[32] but improvements to the airport increased its capacity to 6 million passengers yearly.[34] It has 18 air bridges and services 33 airlines (as of May 2011). Compared with international terminals in other Asian countries, Terminal 1 has consistently ranked at the bottom due to limited and outdated facilities, poor passenger comfort, and crowding (the Terminal has been operating above designed capacity for decades now).[35] In this regard, transport authorities plan to give Terminal 1 a makeover; the plans were approved by President Benigno Aquino III. The makeover and upgrade includes the expansion of the arrival area, addition of parking spaces, and improvement of other terminal facilities.[36]

The Transportation and Communications Department previously announced that as soon as Terminal 3 becomes fully operational, Terminal 1 was eyed by Cebu Pacific with the intention rehabilitating the terminal into an "Airport City" and serve as an exclusive terminal for their aircraft.[37]

On January 23, 2014, The rehabilitation of Terminal 1 started involving the improvement of the architectural and structural aspects of the terminal facilities.[38] The rehabilitation, which is expected to be finished by March 2015 and operational by April 2015,[39] is divided into 6 phases of which the first is already completed.[40] The 2nd phase is composed of the installment of 138 buckling restrained braces to make the terminal earthquake-proof.[41] The rehabilitation includes the improvement of the passenger-terminal building of Terminal 1.[42] The management also announced that 5 international airlines are transferring to Terminal 3 starting on August 1, 2014[43]

Terminal 2 (Centennial Terminal)

The NAIA Centennial Terminal 2 departure hall

The second terminal of NAIA, Terminal 2 or NAIA-2, also known as Centennial Terminal, has an area of 75,000 square metres (810,000 sq ft), and is located at the Old MIA Road. It began construction on December 1995 and was inaugurated on May 1, 1999[44] and began operations in 1999. It has been named the Centennial Terminal in commemoration of the centennial year of the declaration of Philippine independence. The terminal was originally designed by Aéroports de Paris to be a domestic terminal, but the design was later modified to accommodate international flights.[45] It has a capacity of 2.5 million passengers per year in its international wing and 5 million in its domestic wing. It is able to be modified to accommodate nine million passengers per year if needed.[45]

Terminal 2 is exclusively used by Philippine Airlines for both its domestic and international flights. It is divided into two wings: the North Wing, for international flights, and the South Wing, which handles domestic operations. It currently has 12 air bridges. There are several cafes and restaurants in the Terminal post-security. There is also a small duty-free section in the north wing. The need for two more terminals was proposed by a Master Plan Review of the Airport that was undertaken in 1989 by Aéroports de Paris (ADP). The study was facilitated by means of a grant from the French Government. The review cost 2.9 million French francs and was submitted to the Philippine Government for evaluation in 1990.[32]

In 1991, the French government granted a 30 million franc soft loan to the Philippine government, which was to be used to cover the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design of the NAIA Terminal 2. ADP completed the design in 1992 and in 1994, the Japanese Government granted an 18.12 billion yen soft loan to the Philippine Government to finance 75% of the terminal's construction costs and 100% of the supervision costs. Construction of the terminal began on December 11, 1995, and was formally turned over to the government of the Philippines on December 28, 1998. The Centennial Terminal became fully operational by 1999.[46]

On August 2014, DOTC formally announced the plan of expanding of Terminal 2. The plan also considers to build a structure interconnecting Terminals 1 and 2.[47] It also includes the demolition of the unused Philippine Village Hotel complex beside the terminal awaiting the fixing of certain issues.[48] A fuel depot located between the terminals will be transferred to the demolished area to give way for the expansion.[49] The 26 comfort rooms are being renovated, in which 16 are located in a passenger movement area.[50] 4 of the 7 Air handling units are being repaired and 21 additional units are expected to be installed to improve the temperature in the Terminal.[51]

Terminal 3

Cebu Pacific check-in at Terminal 3.
The check-in area of NAIA Terminal 3

The third terminal of the airport, Terminal 3 or NAIA-3, is the newest and biggest terminal in the NAIA complex, wherein construction started in 1997. The terminal is one of the most controversial projects in the Philippines in that the government has become involved with legal battles, red tape, and arbitration cases in both the United States and Singapore, as well as technical and safety concerns which delayed its opening several times.[16] Terminal 3 is built on a 63.5-hectare (157-acre) lot that sits on Villamor Air Base. The terminal building has a total floor area of 182,500 square metres (1,964,000 sq ft) and has a total length of 1.2 kilometres (0.75 mi). A four-level shopping mall connects the terminal and parking buildings. The parking building has a capacity of 2,000 cars and the outdoor parking area has a capacity of 1,200 cars. The terminal is capable of servicing 33,000 passengers daily at peak or 6,000 passengers per hour.[52]

Its apron area has a size of 147,400 square metres (1,587,000 sq ft). The terminal has 34 air bridges and 20 contact gates with the ability of servicing 28 planes at a time. The terminal has 70 flight information terminals, 314 display monitors, and 300 kilometres (190 mi) of fiber optic I.T. cabling. It also has 29 restroom blocks. The departure area has five entrances all equipped with X-ray machines with the final security check having 18 X-ray machines. Its baggage claim has 7 large baggage carousels, each with its own flight display monitor.[45]

The terminal officially opened to selected domestic flights from July 22, 2008 (initially Cebu Pacific only, then Philippine Airlines' subsidiaries Air Philippines and PAL Express), with Cebu Pacific international flights using it from August 1, 2008.[53] All international operations, except for those from PAL, are intended to operate from Terminal 3 in the future, originally proposed to move in fourth quarter of 2010,[54] however domestic carriers Cebu Pacific and Airphil Express (then Air Philippines) remained the only tenants for the first two years of its operation. The vast majority of international flights still operate from Terminal 1 except for All Nippon Airways being the first foreign-based carrier to operate out of Terminal 3 started on February 27, 2011.[55]

The terminal underwent a rehabilitation under the contractor Takenaka Corp. of Japan to improve its facilities and utilize the whole terminal. Previously, It only operates at half of its capacity awaiting the completion of the remaining system works.[56] The terminal became fully operational on August 1, 2014 leading to the transfer of five international airlines to Terminal 3 to ease congestion at Terminal 1.[57] Delta Air Lines transferred their operations to Terminal 3 on August 1, 2014,[43] while KLM transferred on August 4, 2014,[58] later followed by Emirates on August 15, 2014,[43] Singapore Airlines on September 1, 2014,[58] and Cathay Pacific on October 1, 2014.[58]

Terminal 4 (Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal)

Exterior of NAIA Terminal 4

The Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal, also known as the Old Domestic Terminal and as Terminal 4,[59] is the oldest of the four existing terminals, having been built in 1948.[citation needed] It is host to all domestic flights within the Philippines that are operated by AirAsia Zest and Tigerair Philippines, among others. Although it's intended to be a domestic terminal, AirAsia Zest hosts most of its international flights there as well. There are no jet bridges and passengers walk to and from the aircraft or are occasionally bussed. Twenty-six check-in counters are located in the terminal. The departure hall has the seating capacity for 969 people at a time. Several food stores and a book and magazine stall are also available. Five baggage carousels are located in the terminal whilst domestic airline offices, banks, restaurants and a grocery store are also located right beside the domestic passenger terminal.[60] The Domestic Terminal is on the old Airport Road near the north end of Runway 13/31. An old hangar has since been annexed to the terminal.

Terminal 5 (Budget Terminal)

A proposed fifth terminal of NAIA, Terminal 5 or NAIA-5, is currently in design stage and is targeted to be erected beside Terminal 3 according to the Transportation Secretary Joseph Emilio Abaya. It is planned be a budget terminal by moving all Low Cost Carrier Airlines in the terminal turning Terminal 3 exclusively for international non-LCC airlines.[61]

Airlines and destinations

Passenger

Airlines Destinations Terminal
Air China Beijing-Capital 1
Air Niugini Port Moresby 1
AirAsia Zest Kota Kinabalu, Macau, Quanzhou, Seoul-Incheon 3
AirAsia Zest Cebu, Kalibo, Kuala Lumpur, Puerto Princesa, Shanghai-Pudong, Tacloban, Tagbilaran 4
All Nippon Airways Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita 3
Asiana Airlines Busan, Seoul-Incheon 1
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong 3
Cebu Pacific Bacolod, Bandar Seri Begawan, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Busan, Busuanga, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caticlan, Cauayan, Cebu, Cotabato, Dammam, Davao, Denpasar/Bali, Dipolog, Dubai-International, Dumaguete, General Santos, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Iloilo, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Kalibo, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Kuwait, Laoag, Legazpi, Macau, Naga, Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Ozamiz, Pagadian, Phuket, Puerto Princesa, Riyadh, Roxas City, San Jose (Mindoro), Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Siem Reap, Singapore, Sydney, Tacloban, Tagbilaran, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita, Tuguegarao, Virac, Xiamen, Zamboanga 3
China Airlines Kaohsiung, Taipei-Taoyuan 1
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai-Pudong 1
China Southern Airlines Beijing-Capital, Guangzhou, Xiamen 1
Delta Air Lines Detroit (ends October 26, 2014), Nagoya-Centrair (ends October 26, 2014),[62] Tokyo-Narita 3
Dragonair Hong Kong 1
Emirates Dubai-International 3
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 1
EVA Air Taipei-Taoyuan 1
Gulf Air Bahrain 1
ITI Air El Nido Note 1
Japan Airlines Tokyo-Narita 1
Jeju Air Seoul-Incheon 1
Jetstar Asia Airways Osaka-Kansai, Singapore 1
KLM Amsterdam Note 2 3
Korean Air Busan, Seoul-Incheon 1
Kuwait Airways Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Kuwait 1
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur 1
Oman Air Muscat (begins December 2, 2014)[63] 1
Philippine Airlines Abu Dhabi, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Brisbane, Busan, Dammam, Darwin, Denpasar/Bali, Fukuoka, General Santos, Guam, Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Kalibo, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Macau, Melbourne, Nagoya-Centrair, New York-JFK (begins March 15, 2015),[64] Osaka-Kansai, Riyadh, San Francisco, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver, Xiamen
Charter: Vladivostok[65][66]
2
Philippine Airlines
operated by PAL Express
Bacolod, Cebu, Davao, Dubai-International, Iloilo, Laoag, Tagbilaran 2
Philippine Airlines
operated by PAL Express
Basco, Busuanga, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Calbayog, Catarman, Caticlan, Cotabato, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Kalibo, Legazpi, Masbate, Naga, Ozamiz, Puerto Princesa, Roxas City, Surigao, Tacloban, Tuguegarao, Zamboanga 3
Philippines AirAsia Cebu, Kalibo 4
Qantas Sydney 1
Qatar Airways Doha 1
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan 1
Saudia Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh 1
Singapore Airlines Singapore 3
Sky Pasada Basco 4
SkyJet Baler, Basco, Borongan (begins October 29, 2014), Busuanga, Caticlan (resumes October 26, 2014) 4
Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 1
Tigerair Singapore 1
Tigerair Philippines Bacolod, Cagayan de Oro, Clark (begins October 23, 2014),[67] Davao (resumes October 26, 2014), Cebu, General Santos (begins November 29, 2014), Iloilo, Kalibo, Puerto Princesa, Roxas (begins October 23, 2014), Tacloban, Tagbilaran (begins October 23, 2014) 4
United Airlines Guam, Koror
Seasonal: Chuuk
1
Notes
  • ^Note 1 : Although this is a regular scheduled flight, it operates from a private hangar.
  • ^Note 2 : This flight makes a stop between Manila and the listed destination. However, the airline does not have rights to transport passengers solely between Manila and intermediate stop.

Cargo

The following cargo airlines serve Ninoy Aquino International Airport.

Airlines Destinations
Air Hong Kong Hong Kong
Asiana Cargo Seoul-Incheon
China Airlines Cargo Hong Kong, Penang, Taipei-Taoyuan
EVA Air Cargo Taipei-Taoyuan
FedEx Express Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai-Pudong, Shenzhen
Korean Air Cargo Penang, Seoul-Incheon
MASKargo Kuala Lumpur
Shenzhen Donghai Airlines Shenzhen
Transmile Air Services Kuala Lumpur
ULS Airlines Cargo Istanbul-Atatürk
Yangtze River Express Shanghai-Pudong

Structure

Runways

NAIA has a primary runway that is 3,737 metres (12,260 ft) long running at 061°/241° (designated as Runway 06/24), and a secondary runway that is 2,367 metres (7,766 ft) long, running at 136°/316° (designated as Runway 13/31). The primary runway was oriented at 06/24 in order to harness the Southeast and Southwest winds. Runway 13/31 is the runway of a former USAF base known today as Villamor Air Base. On May 26, 2012, The Runway 06/24 was partially closed for the replacement of the threshold lightning system on the end of Runway 06.[68] The Runway 13/31 was closed to give way for its renovation/expansion and reopened on May 29, 2013. The runway upgraded its length from 1,900 metres (6,200 ft) to 2,367 metres (7,766 ft).[69] Out of the 550 planes that fly on NAIA daily, 100 of them take the secondary runway. It mostly caters small private planes and acts as the main runway of the NAIA Terminal 4.[70]

Third runway plan

It has been confirmed by Transportation Secretary Joseph Abaya that there will be a new runway adjacent to the existing Runway 06/24.[71] The runway was planned to be 2,100 metres (6,900 ft) long that could allow the landing of an Airbus A320 and increase the numbers of aircraft that the airport can handle from 40 planes per hour to about 60-70.[72] Previously, The Japan International Cooperation Agency proposed Sangley Point in Cavite as the site of the new international airport serving Greater Manila Area meaning Sangley could serve as NAIA's 3rd runway until the long-term expansion is planned.[73]

Airbus A380

Airbus A380's visit at the airport in 2007.

NAIA is one two airports in the Philippines that meet the infrastructure requirements for the Airbus A380 (the other is Clark International Airport). The airport provides MRO services conducted by Lufthansa Technik Philippines. On October 11, 2007, NAIA hosted the debut of the Airbus A380 in the Philippines, after test aircraft MSN009 (registered as F-WWEA) landed on Runway 24. The test flight demonstrated that the A380 could land on existing runways in Asia and that the primary international airport of the Philippines can support aircraft as large as the A380.[74] No airlines have regular commercial flights that operate using this aircraft. On October 7, 2014, Emirates' Airbus A380 flew to NAIA in a one-off commercial flight to commemorate the transfer of its operation to Terminal 3.[75]

Other structures

The airport also serves as a gateway facility of the logistics company DHL. On March 12, 2006, The company opened its first quality control center at NAIA Terminal 3 to show support in its local market.[76]

MRO Facilities

Lufthansa Technik Philippines

Lufthansa Technik Philippines (LTP) (formerly PAL Technical Center) was founded in 2000 as a joint venture of German firm Lufthansa Technik AG (51%) and Philippine aviation service provider MacroAsia Corporation (49%). Lufthansa Technik Philippines offers aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services to customers.

The company focuses on maintenance checks for the Airbus A320 family and A330/A340 aircraft. Seven hangar bays and workshops have been upgraded to the latest industry standards to support aircraft maintenance, major modifications, cabin reconfigurations, engine maintenance and painting for the Airbus A320 family, A330/A340, as well as the Boeing 747-400 and 777 aircraft. A new widebody hangar was recently added to meet the increasing demand for A330/A340 base maintenance checks.

The company also opened an Airbus A380 maintenance hangar to allow the aircraft to be repaired at the airport facilty.[77] Lufthansa Technik Philippines opens A380 maintenance hangar. On July 2012, A Qantas Airbus A380 completed its passenger cabin reconfiguration. It is one of the 12 Airbus A380 that was cabin reconfigured in the LTP Manila's facility.[78] It also provides total technical and engineering support for the entire Philippine Airlines fleet and other international airline fleets as well.[79]

Aviation Partnership (Philippines) Corporation

Aviation Partnership (Philippines) Corporation is SIA Engineering's third line maintenance joint venture outside Singapore. The joint venture of SIA Engineering Company (51%) and Cebu Pacific Air (49%) provides line maintenance, light aircraft checks and technical ramp handling as well as other services to Cebu Pacific Air and third-party airline customers.

Ground transportation

Inter-terminal transportation

The Manila International Airport Authority runs a shuttle bus system which connects all four terminals for passengers who have onward connections on flights departing from another terminal. Shuttle buses run every fifteen minutes during daytime hours, but passengers are required to clear immigration and customs to use the system.

Philippine Airlines operates an airside shuttle service between Terminals 2 and 3 for passengers connecting to onward PAL Express flights and vice-versa.

External connections

Bus

Nine bus routes serve the airport from various points in Metro Manila, eight which go via Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), and one via Circumferential Road 5 (C-5):

Bus routes serving NAIA
Route Terminus Service area Operator(s) Terminals served
Norzagaray-Sapang Palay-NAIA via Commonwealth, Fairview Norzagaray, Bulacan Parañaque, Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, San Jose del Monte, Norzagaray Luzon Bus 2, 1
Grotto-NAIA via EDSA, Fairview San Jose del Monte City, Bulacan Parañaque, Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, San Jose del Monte CEM Trans, Ismael Bus Lines, Jayross Lucky Seven, Philippine Corinthian, RGM Grand Rally, Valisno Express 2, 1
Grotto-NAIA via EDSA, Ayala, Buendia San Jose del Monte City, Bulacan Parañaque, Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, San Jose del Monte NAIA Metro Link 2, 1
NAIA-San Jose del Monte via EDSA San Jose del Monte City, Bulacan Parañaque, Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, San Jose del Monte Santrans 2, 1
Malanday Terminal-NAIA via EDSA, Buendia, Ayala Valenzuela City Parañaque, Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, Valenzuela Malanday Metro Link, NAIA Metro Link 2, 1
Bagong Silang-NAIA via Maligaya Park, EDSA Novaliches, Quezon City Parañaque, Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City Joyselle Express 2, 1
NAIA-Malanday via EDSA, MacArthur Valenzuela City Parañaque, Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, Caloocan (South), Malabon Valenzuela California Bus Lines, Laguna Starbus, Malanday Gold Express 2, 1
Lagro-NAIA via Fairview Novaliches, Quezon City Parañaque, Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City Fermina Express 2, 1
Eastwood City-Marriott Terminal via Acropolis Bagumbayan, Quezon City Pasay, Taguig, Makati, Pasig, Quezon City Citylink 3

Jeepney

All four terminals are also served by local jeepney routes serving Parañaque and Pasay.

Rail

The Nichols railway station with the elevated roads above leading to the airport

The airport is connected, albeit indirectly, by rail: Baclaran station of the Manila LRT Line 1 and Nichols station of the Philippine National Railways both serve the airport complex. An MIAA-operated shuttle bus also connects Terminal 3 to the Taft Avenue MRT Station.

In the future, with the extension of the existing LRT Line 1, a new station, Manila International Airport station, is set to connect the airport, albeit still indirectly, to the LRT-1. A four-station spur extension of the LRT Line 1, directly connecting Terminal 3 to Baclaran, is also proposed.

Road

The NAIA Expressway or NAIA Skyway connects the NAIA/Nichols Exit of the Metro Manila Skyway and Andrews Avenue in front of Terminal 3. It would soon be extended to Domestic Road, linking with Terminal 4 (Domestic Terminal), and NAIA Road, linking with Terminal 2, before reaching Roxas Boulevard and Coastal Road. Terminal 3 is served by the Nichols Exit of the South Luzon Expressway, while Terminal 1 is served by Ninoy Aquino Avenue from Roxas Boulevard-NAIA Road.

Accidents and incidents

  • On July 25, 1971, a Pan American World Airways Boeing 707-321C named "Clipper Rising Sun" was on a cargo flight from San Francisco via Honolulu, Guam and Manila to Saigon. While on a VOR/DME approach to Manila runway 24, the aircraft struck Mount Kamunay at an altitude of 770 metres (2,525 ft). All 4 occupants were killed.[80]
  • On November 15, 1974, an Orient Air System and Integrated Services Douglas C-47A registered RP-C570 was damaged beyond economical repair when a forced landing was made in a paddy field shortly after take-off from Manila International Airport following failure of the starboard engine. One of the eight people on board was killed.[81]
  • On February 7, 1980, a China Airlines Boeing 707 originating from Taipei Chiang Kai-Shek International Airport undershot the runway on landing and caught fire. Of all the 135 on board, there were only 2 fatalities.[82]
  • On August 21, 1983, Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at the airport after returning to the Philippines from his self-imposed exile in the United States. Five years after the incident he was memorialized by having the airport named in his honor, by virtue of Republic Act No. 6639.[83]
  • On December 13, 1983, a Philair Douglas C-47B registered RP-C287 crashed shortly after takeoff following an engine failure. The aircraft was on a non-scheduled passenger flight. All ten people on board survived.[84]
  • On May 6, 1989, a Manila Aero Transport System (MATS) Douglas C-47A registered RP-C82 crashed on takeoff following an engine failure. The aircraft was being used on a domestic non-scheduled passenger flight although it was not licenced to carry passengers. All 18 people on board survived.[85]
  • On April 28, 1989, a MATS Douglas C-47A registered RP-C81 crashed shortly after takeoff on a non-scheduled domestic passenger flight to Roxas Airport following an engine failure. MATS did not have a licence to fly passengers. Seven of the 22 passengers were killed. The aircraft had earlier made a forced landing on a taxiway at the airport.[86]
  • On July 21, 1989, a Philippine Airlines BAC One-Eleven operating Flight 124 overran a runway in poor visibility and heavy rain. No passengers or crew on board were killed but eight people on the ground were killed when the jet crossed a road.[87]
  • On May 11, 1990, a Philippine Airlines Boeing 737-300 operating Flight 143 suffered an explosion in the center fuel tank near the terminal of the airport while preparing for takeoff. The fire and smoke engulfed the aircraft before it could be completely evacuated. The explosion was similar to what happened to TWA Flight 800 six years later. 8 people died.[88]
  • On May 18, 1990, an Aerolift Philippines Beechcraft 1900C-1 operating a domestic scheduled passenger flight bound for Surigao Airport crashed into a residential area following takeoff. The aircraft reportedly suffered an engine failure. All 21 occupants and 4 people on the ground were killed.[89]
  • On September 4, 2002, an Asian Spirit de Havilland Canada Dash 7-102 operating Flight 897, carrying 49 occupants, was the last flight of the day to Caticlan and departed the Manila domestic airport at 15:36 for a one hour flight. On approach to Caticlan Airport, the right main gear failed to deploy. The approach was abandoned and the crew decided to return to Manila for an emergency landing. The plane circled for about 35 minutes over Las Piñas to burn off fuel. The crew then carried out an emergency landing with the right gear retracted on Manila's international airport runway 24. After touchdown, the aircraft swerved off the runway onto a grassy area. There were no reported injuries or fatalities, but the aircraft was written off.[90]
  • On November 11, 2002, a Laoag International Airlines Fokker F27 operating Flight 585 took off from Manila runway 31 at just after 6 o'clock for a flight to Laoag International Airport. Shortly after takeoff, engine trouble developed in the aircraft's left engine. The pilot declared an emergency and he tried to land the plane but decided at the last minute to ditch it into the sea. The aircraft broke up and sank in the water to a depth of about 18 metres (60 ft). 19 of the 34 occupants were killed.[91]
  • On July 25, 2008, a Qantas Boeing 747 operating Flight 30, headed from London to Melbourne with a stop at Hong Kong, made an emergency landing at the Manila airport. A gaping hole on the belly near the right wing was torn from the fuselage in mid-air when a large piece of what appeared to be canvas and a red piece of insulation material stuck out of the fuselage, pushed by an oxygen tank explosion. The 747 was carrying 356 passengers and 19 crews of the 32 passengers and 3 crews was injured. The airport had to be tem, but there were no reported injuries or fatalities.[92]
  • On August 23, 2009, a South East Asian Airlines Dornier 328 registered RP-C6328 operating flight DG-0624 was hit by strong crosswinds when decelerating after landing on runway 13. The aircraft veered off the runway and came to a stop in the grass. None of the 32 passengers and 3 crews was injured. The airport had to be temporarily closed to tow the aircraft away.[93]
  • On October 17, 2009, a Victoria Air Douglas DC-3 registered RP-C550 crashed shortly after takeoff on a flight to Puerto Princesa International Airport after an engine malfunctioned. The plane crashed near a factory in Las Piñas. All on board died.[94]
  • On December 10, 2011, a Beechcraft 65-80 Queen Air cargo plane en route to San Jose crashed into the Felixberto Serrano Elementary School in Parañaque, Metro Manila. The plane crashed after takeoff straight into the school. The cause of the crash was pilot error. At least 14 people including 3 crew members on board the aircraft died, and over 20 people were injured. Approximately 50 houses in the residential area were set ablaze by the subsequent fire.[95]

See also

Portal icon Transport portal
Portal icon Aviation portal
Portal icon Philippines portal

References

  1. ^ "Runway Physical Characteristics". Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Operational Statistics". Manila International Airport Authority. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b NAIA passengers inch up 3.1% to 32.86M in 2013
  4. ^ "Creating the Manila International Airport Authority, Transferring Existing Assets of the Manila International Airport to the Authority, and Vesting the Authority with Power to Administer and Operate the Manila International Airport". President of the Republic of the Philippines. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  5. ^ Arroyo wants DMIA become top airport amid plan to close NAIA, GMA News and Public Affairs, January 29, 2008.
  6. ^ "Grace Park Airfield (Manila North)". Pacific Wrecks. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  7. ^ "Nielson Airport". Filipinas Heritage Library. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  8. ^ "The airport as a cultural and functional showcase: Case of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport". Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  9. ^ "Manila's International Airport: Gateway to the world". Philippine Star. 10 November 2001. Retrieved 2014-09-10. 
  10. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1755&dat=19720124&id=HT0gAAAAIBAJ&sjid=gGYEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6240,3139115
  11. ^ a b TERMINAL 1[dead link]
  12. ^ Republic Act No. 6639
  13. ^ "Naia 3 fully operational by Aug. 1–Miaa officials". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  14. ^ a b "‘Impossible Dream’". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  15. ^ "Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Summary with attachments : Resettlement Action Plan,Other". International Finance Corporation. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  16. ^ a b "NAIA 3 inspected again for Monday opening - report". GMA News and Public Affairs. 26 June 2008. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  17. ^ "PIATCO NAIA3 Deal Null and Void -- Supreme Court". newsflash.org. 6 May 2003. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  18. ^ "NAIA terminal 3 ceiling falls off one more time". GMA News and Public Affairs. 11 September 2008. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  19. ^ "PH Government wins NAIA 3 case against PIATCO". Port Calls Asia. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  20. ^ PLC - Arbitral award annulled for violation of claimant's right to be heard
  21. ^ Fraport files new claim at ICSID over expropriation of airport terminal project; Annulment committee ruling paved way for new hearing by finding breach of investor's right to ...
  22. ^ "It's final: Phl gov't wins NAIA-3 case in Singapore". The Philippine Star. January 27, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  23. ^ "Palace forms task force for NAIA 3 opening". GMA News and Public Affairs. June 18, 2008. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  24. ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive, Arroyo appoints Mike Defensor as NAIA-3 task force head
  25. ^ "Planes start flying out of NAIA 3 for 1st time". Inquirer.net. July 22, 2008. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  26. ^ "Aquino targets NAIA 3 full operations in December". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. August 2, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  27. ^ "New NAIA-3 target in 2011: Over 55% operational". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. January 20, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  28. ^ "ANA Unveils its Timetable for New Narita-Manila Route - ANA widens choice for Southeast Asian travelers -". All Nippon Airways. January 11, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  29. ^ Airport Council International.
  30. ^ "2012 Airport Traffic Report". The Port Authority of NY&NJ. p. 26. Retrieved 22 July 2013. 
  31. ^ http://125.60.203.88/miaa/images/stories/Bidding/Cargo.pdf
  32. ^ a b c d Airport : Terminal 1 Manila International Airport Authority Accessed September 7, 2006
  33. ^ "LN0164-PHI: Manila International Airport Development". Asian Development Bank. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  34. ^ http://125.60.203.88/miaa/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=21&Itemid=16
  35. ^ Reviews of Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport with Passenger reviews about Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport standards airlinequality.com.
  36. ^ [1]
  37. ^ "Cebu Pacific eyeing 'Airport City'--DoTC". Inquirer Global Nation. November 11, 2007. Retrieved 08/03/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  38. ^ "NAIA-1 rehab underway". The Philippine Star. January 24, 2014. Retrieved July 2014. 
  39. ^ "DOTC vows NAIA 1 to be fully operational in April". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-27. 
  40. ^ "Phase 2 rehabilitation of NAIA Terminal 1 starts". InterAksyon.com. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-27. 
  41. ^ "Steel braces to make Naia quake-resistant". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-27. 
  42. ^ "P1.3-billion Naia rehab limited to passenger-terminal building". Business Mirror. June 2, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-29. 
  43. ^ a b c "Major foreign airlines move to NAIA-3 next week". GMA News and Public Affairs. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  44. ^ "Farolan mistaken; Ramos pushed airport dev’t". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  45. ^ a b c "Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Philippines". Airport Technology. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  46. ^ "Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 2, Philippines". Retrieved October 5, 2014. 
  47. ^ "DOTC eyes interconnecting NAIA terminals 1 and 2". Rappler. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  48. ^ "Gov’t mulls over Naia Terminal 2 expansion". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  49. ^ "DOTC eyes interconnection of NAIA 1 and 2". Philippine Star. 2 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  50. ^ "New toilets, cooler aircon system at NAIA by December". Rappler. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-27. 
  51. ^ "NAIA 2 also being renovated". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. 11 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-27. 
  52. ^ "P1.3-B NAIA 1 rehabilitation awarded to D.M. Consunji". Manila Bulletin. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  53. ^ "CEB moves partial domestic operation to NAIA Terminal 3 today". Cebu Pacific. 22 July 2008. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  54. ^ Bright future for rural banks – Business Mirror Accessed May 14, 2009.
  55. ^ "1st foreign carrier flies out of NAIA 3". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. March 2011. Retrieved 2014-07-29. 
  56. ^ "NAIA Terminal 3 starts full operations in July". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. June 12, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-29. 
  57. ^ "5 international airlines relocating to NAIA Terminal 3". GMA News and Public Affairs. June 12, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-29. 
  58. ^ a b c "Delta Airlines moves to NAIA Terminal 3". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  59. ^ "About NAIA Terminal 4". Manila International Airport Authority. Retrieved June 28, 2012. 
  60. ^ Domestic Terminal
  61. ^ "NAIA Terminal 5 eyed to ease congestion". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  62. ^ Delta Announces Cutbacks in the Pacific
  63. ^ "Oman Air to Start Manila / Jakarta Service from Dec 2014". Airlineroute.net. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014. 
  64. ^ "Philippine Airlines Returns to New York Market; Toronto Increase from mid-March 2015". Airline Route. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  65. ^ "Между Россией и Филиппинами в конце октября откроется прямое авиасообщение". Infox.ru. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  66. ^ http://www.philippineflightnetwork.com/2013/09/philippine-airlines-headed-to-russia-in.html
  67. ^ https://www.facebook.com/TigerAirPhilippines/photos/a.161304514057372.1073741828.158371634350660/307308262790329/?type=1&theater
  68. ^ "Naia runway closed for repairs". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 27 May 2012. Retrieved 08/03/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  69. ^ "CAAP orders opening of secondary runway at NAIA". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 08/03/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  70. ^ "2nd runway opened in NAIA for early morning flights". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 08/03/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  71. ^ "Another Runway planned for Ninoy Aquino International Airport". Philippine Flight Network. 16 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  72. ^ "New NAIA Runway Construction Begins". Philippine Flight Network. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 08/03/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  73. ^ "Sangley Airport eyed as NAIA's 'third runway'". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 08/03/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  74. ^ "Jumbo airbus lands at NAIA". manilamaildc.net. Retrieved 08/03/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  75. ^
  76. ^ Mary Anne Ll. Reyes (12 March 2006). "DHL opens first quality control center in RP at NAIA". Philippine Star. Retrieved 08/03/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  77. ^ "Lufthansa Technik Philippines opens A380 maintenance hangar". Aircraft Interiors International. Retrieved 25 August 2014. 
  78. ^ "First A380 repair completed in Manila". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 08/04/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  79. ^ http://www.lufthansa-technik.com/lufthansa-technik-philippines
  80. ^ http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19710725-0
  81. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved August 24, 2010. 
  82. ^ http://www.airdisaster.com/photos/b-1826/photo.shtml
  83. ^ http://www.interaksyon.com/article/11438/today-in-history-ninoy-aquino-assassinated-at-airport
  84. ^ "PR-C287 Accident report". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved July 27, 2010. 
  85. ^ "RP-C82 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved July 27, 2010. 
  86. ^ "RP-C81 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  87. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
  88. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=7rYzAAAAIBAJ&sjid=124DAAAAIBAJ&pg=4731,4639544&dq=bomb+philippines&hl=en
  89. ^ http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1990/Philippine-Commuter-Plane-Crashes-Into-House-25-Dead/id-49b5fde9ff16073573f4e8d95025fe8a
  90. ^ http://www.philstar.com/headlines/175056/ato-grounds-2-asian-spirit-aircraft
  91. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Fokker F-27 Friendship 600 RP-C6888 Manila-Ninoy Aquino International Airport (MNL) [Manila Bay]
  92. ^ "Qantas flight makes emergency stop at NAIA". GMA News and Public Affairs. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  93. ^ Incident: SEAir D328 at Manila on Aug 23rd 2009, veered off runway on landing, The Aviation Herald, 23 August 2009, retrieved 2014-08-25 
  94. ^ "Accident description". Aviation safety network. Retrieved October 18, 2009. 
  95. ^ "Parañaque plane crash underscores need for open space around Naia". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 

Further reading

External links