Ninoy Aquino International Airport
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|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014)|
|Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino
|Façade of NAIA Terminal 3|
|IATA: MNL – ICAO: RPLL|
|Owner/Operator||Manila International Airport Authority|
|Serves||Greater Manila Area|
|Location||Parañaque and Pasay, Metro Manila, Philippines|
|Elevation AMSL||23 m / 75 ft|
|Total international flights||87,629
|Total domestic flights||149,421
|Cargo (2012) (in metric tons)||460,135.15
|Source: Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines
Statistics from MIAA 
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA //, also known as Manila International Airport (IATA: MNL, ICAO: RPLL), is the airport serving Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area. Located along the border between the cities of Pasay and Parañaque, about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) south of Manila proper and southwest of Makati, NAIA is the main international gateway for travelers to the Philippines and is the hub for all Philippine airlines. It is managed by the Manila International Airport Authority (MIAA), a branch of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC).
Officially, NAIA is the only airport serving the Manila area. However, in practice, both NAIA and Clark International Airport, located in the Clark Freeport Zone in Pampanga serve the Manila area, with Clark catering mostly to low-cost carriers because of its lower landing fees compared to those charged at NAIA. In the recent past there have been calls for Clark to replace NAIA eventually as the primary airport of the Philippines. The airport is named after the late Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., who was assassinated at the airport in 1983. In 2012, all terminals at NAIA handled a record breaking annual passenger traffic of 31,558,002, making it one of the busiest airports in Asia.
- 1 History
- 2 Statistics
- 3 Terminals
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Structure
- 6 MRO Facilities
- 7 Ground transportation
- 8 Accidents and incidents
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The original airport that served Manila, Grace Park Airfield, also known as Manila North, was opened in 1935 in Grace Park, Caloocan. It was the city's first commercial airport, and was used by Philippine Aerial Taxi Company (later Philippine Air Lines) for its first domestic routes. In July 1937, the airfield was replaced by the Manila International Air Terminal at Nielson Field, the runways of which now form Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas in Makati. In 1948, following Philippine independence, the airport was moved to its current site adjacent to the Villamor Airbase, which was then called Nichols Field. The original structure was built on what is now the site of Terminal 2.
In 1954 the airport's international runway and associated taxiway were built, and in 1956, construction was started on a control tower and a terminal building for international passengers. The new terminal was inaugurated on September 22, 1961. On January 22, 1972, a fire caused substantial damage to the original terminal building, and a slightly smaller terminal was rebuilt in its place the following year. This second terminal would become the country's international terminal until 1981 when a new, higher-capacity terminal, known today as Terminal 1, was built to replace it.
The old international terminal would serve as Manila's domestic airport until another fire damaged it in May 1985. The present Terminal 1, originally named Manila International Airport, was given its present name on August 17, 1987 by virtue of Republic Act No. 6639, with the intention of honouring Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., who was assassinated at the airport after returning to the Philippines from his self-imposed exile in the United States on August 21, 1983. Plans for a new terminal were conceived in 1989, when the Department of Transportation and Communications commissioned Aéroports de Paris to do a feasibility study to expand capacity.
The recommendation was to build two new terminals, and in 1998 Terminal 2 was completed. Terminal 2 was nicknamed the Centennial Terminal as its completion coincided with the 100th anniversary of the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain. In 1997 the government approved the construction of Terminal 3, which was originally scheduled to be completed in 2002. After many delays caused by technical and legal issues, the terminal became fully operational in mid-2008. The government aims to return services from many of the airlines which cancelled services to Manila as a result of Terminal 1's problems.
The original proposal for the construction of a third terminal was proposed by Asia's Emerging Dragon Corporation (AEDP). AEDP eventually lost the bid to PairCargo and its partner Fraport AG of Germany, who went on to begin construction of the terminal under the administration of Joseph Estrada. Terminal 3 was approved for construction in 1997 and the structure was mostly completed several years ago and was originally scheduled to open in 2002. The ultra-modern US$640 million, 189,000-square-metre (2,030,000 sq ft) facility was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) to have a capacity of 13 million passengers per year. However, a legal dispute between the government of the Philippines and the project's main contractor, Philippine International Air Terminals Co. Inc. (Piatco), over the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) contract, delayed the final completion and opening of the terminal.
While the original agreement was one in which PairCargo and Fraport AG would operate the airport for several years after its construction, followed by a handing over of the terminal to the Philippine Government, the government offered to buy out Fraport AG for $400 million, to which Fraport agreed. However, before the terminal could be fully completed, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, called the contract "onerous" and therefore formed a committee to evaluate the agreement to buy out Fraport AG. It is this action that sparked the most controversy. The Philippine Supreme Court eventually found the Piatco contract "null and void" citing a variety of anomalies.
The administration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo eventually abrogated Piatco's BOT Contract for allegedly having been anomalous in certain important respects. In a subsequent decision, the Philippine Supreme Court upheld the Philippine Government's position on the matter and declared the BOT contract "null and void" for, among other things, violations of certain provisions of the BOT law. More specifically, the Court found that the original contract was revised to allow for a Philippine Government guarantee of Piatco's obligations to its creditors, contractors and suppliers. The BOT law disallows the granting of such sovereign guarantees. Piatco disagrees and continues to maintain that the provisions cited by the Supreme Court do not amount to a prohibited sovereign guarantee by the Philippine Government.
In December 2004, the Philippine government expropriated the terminal project from Piatco through an order of the Pasay City Regional Trial Court. However, the court only allowed the Philippine government to take over the terminal upon payment of an initial amount of PHP3 billion (approx. US$64 million) to Piatco. The Philippine government formally paid Piatco the said amount during the second week of September 2006. According to the Philippine government, NAIA-3 was 98% complete (prior in 2006) and required at least an additional USD6 million to complete. The government was then in the process of negotiating a contract with the builder of the terminal, Takenaka Corporation, because another factor that delayed the terminal's opening was the ongoing investigation into the collapse of a 100-square-metre (1,100 sq ft) area of the terminal's ceiling.
Piatco (and its German partner, Fraport) have instituted arbitration proceedings before different international bodies to recover a fair settlement. Piatco sued the government before the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in Singapore. Fraport separately sued the Philippine government at the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) in Washington. In 2007, the ICSID case was decided in favor of the Philippine government because of a violation of Philippine law by Fraport. However, this decision was annulled in 2010 due to a violation of Fraport's right to be heard. A new proceeding before the ICSID is ongoing. Piatco formally withdrew its second application to set aside the earlier ICC ruling that dismissed its claims against the Philippine government on December 2011. The ICC ruling in favor of the Philippine government became final and executory in 2012.
Through Executive Order No. 732, the NAIA Terminal 3 Task Force was made and Michael Defensor was appointed on June 19, 2008 as head, creating the Presidential Task Force on NAIA-3 that was "mandated to ensure the immediate opening and operation of Terminal 3." The order provides for the NAIA-3 opening based on decisions of the Supreme Court and applicable laws.
Terminal 3 began partial operations at 05:15am on July 22, 2008 with 16 inbound and outbound domestic flights from Cebu Pacific. Philippine Airlines' budget brand PAL Express and Air Philippines moved their operations to this terminal two days later. Cebu Pacific moved all of its domestic and international operations to the terminal on August 1, 2008. On August 1, 2010, President Benigno Aquino III has announced plans to utilize Terminal 3 to its maximum capacity by Christmas Season 2010, which may mean moving international carriers to Terminal 3, but the goal was never reached.
The Philippine government has made a new plan where Terminal 3 would be 100% operational by the end of 2011, but lowered their goal to 55% operational after further study. The move of international carriers began in February 2011 with All Nippon Airways (ANA) starting a new service to Manila from Terminal 3, rather than Terminal 1 with other international carriers. ANA is the only foreign carrier at Terminal 3, while other carriers have no intention of moving yet or are still in negotiations such as Cathay Pacific. On April 17, 2012, Tourism Secretary Ramon Jimenez, Jr. announced that Cathay Pacific, Delta Air Lines and Emirates will move to Terminal 3 in 2013.[needs update]
Volume of Passengers
This table of passenger movements at MNL is based on data from Airport Council International (ACI). 2010 NAIA passenger traffic was based on Manila International Airport Authority's website for the full-year of 2010.
The development of the Manila International Airport was finally approved through the promulgation of Executive Order No. 381, which authorized the airport's development. In 1973, a feasibility study/airport master plan was done by Airways Engineering Corporation through a US$29.6 million loan from the Asian Development Bank. The Detailed Engineering Design of the New Manila International Airport Development Project was done by Renardet-Sauti/Transplan/F.F. Cruz Consultant while the terminal's Detailed Architectural Design was prepared by Leandro Locsin's L.V. Locsin and Associates.
In 1974, the detailed designs were adopted by the Philippine Government and was subsequently approved by the Asian Development Bank on September 18, 1975. Actual work on the terminal began during the second quarter of 1978. The terminal was completed in 1981 and had a size of 67,000 square metres (720,000 sq ft) with a design capacity of 4.5 million passengers per year. It currently serves all non-Philippine Airlines and non-Cebu Pacific international flights. In 1989, a Master Plan Review recommended the construction of two new terminals (NAIA 2 and NAIA 3), as well as many other facility improvements.
The terminal reached capacity in 1991, when it registered a total passenger volume of 4.53 million. Since 1991, the terminal has been over capacity and has been recording an annual average growth rate of 11%, but improvements to the airport increased its capacity to 6 million passengers yearly. It has 18 air bridges and services 33 airlines (as of May 2011). Compared with international terminals in other Asian countries, Terminal 1 has consistently ranked at the bottom due to limited and outdated facilities, poor passenger comfort, and crowding (the Terminal has been operating above designed capacity for decades now). In this regard, transport authorities plan to give Terminal 1 a makeover; the plans were approved by President Benigno Aquino III. The makeover and upgrade includes the expansion of the arrival area, addition of parking spaces, and improvement of other terminal facilities.
The Transportation and Communications Department previously announced that as soon as Terminal 3 becomes fully operational, Terminal 1 would be rehabilitated into an "Airport City", with the intention of Cebu Pacific Air to convert Terminal 1 into an exclusive terminal for their aircraft. This terminal handles all international flights except those operated by Cebu Pacific, Philippine Airlines, PAL Express, Zest Airways, and All Nippon Airways.[needs update]
The rehabilitation of Terminal 1 will be completed by November 2014.
Terminal 2 (Centennial Terminal)
The second terminal, NAIA-2, located at the Old MIA Road, was completed in 1998 and began operations in 1999. It has been named the Centennial Terminal in commemoration of the centennial year of the declaration of Philippine independence. The 75,000-square-metre (810,000 sq ft) terminal was originally designed by Aéroports de Paris to be a domestic terminal, but the design was later modified to accommodate international flights. It has a capacity of 2.5 million passengers per year in its international wing and 5 million in its domestic wing. It is able to be modified to accommodate nine million passengers per year if needed.
Terminal 2 is exclusively used by Philippine Airlines for both its domestic and international flights. It is divided into two wings: the North Wing, for international flights, and the South Wing, which handles domestic operations. It currently has 12 air bridges. There are several cafes and restaurants in the Terminal post-security. There is also a small duty-free section in the north wing. The need for two more terminals was proposed by a Master Plan Review of the Airport that was undertaken in 1989 by Aéroports de Paris (ADP). The study was facilitated by means of a grant from the French Government. The review cost 2.9 million French francs and was submitted to the Philippine Government for evaluation in 1990.
In 1991, the French government granted a 30 million franc soft loan to the Philippine government, which was to be used to cover the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design of the NAIA Terminal 2. ADP completed the design in 1992 and in 1994, the Japanese Government granted an 18.12 billion yen soft loan to the Philippine Government to finance 75% of the terminal's construction costs and 100% of the supervision costs. Construction of the terminal began on December 11, 1995, and was formally turned over to the government of the Philippines on December 28, 1998.
The third terminal of the airport, Terminal 3 or NAIA-3, is the newest and biggest terminal in the NAIA complex, wherein construction started in 1997. The terminal is one of the most controversial projects in the Philippines in that the government has become involved with legal battles, red tape, and arbitration cases in both the United States and Singapore, as well as technical and safety concerns which delayed its opening several times. Terminal 3 is built on a 63.5-hectare (157-acre) lot that sits on Villamor Air Base. The terminal building has a total floor area of 182,500 square metres (1,964,000 sq ft) and has a total length of 1.2 kilometres (0.75 mi). A four-level shopping mall connects the terminal and parking buildings. The parking building has a capacity of 2,000 cars and the outdoor parking area has a capacity of 1,200 cars. The terminal is capable of servicing 33,000 passengers daily at peak or 6,000 passengers per hour.
Its apron area has a size of 147,400 square metres (1,587,000 sq ft). The terminal has 34 air bridges and 20 contact gates with the ability of servicing 28 planes at a time. The terminal has 70 flight information terminals, 314 display monitors, and 300 kilometres (190 mi) of fiber optic I.T. cabling. It also has 29 restroom blocks. The departure area has five entrances all equipped with X-ray machines with the final security check having 18 X-ray machines. Its baggage claim has 7 large baggage carousels, each with its own flight display monitor.
The terminal officially opened to selected domestic flights from July 22, 2008 (initially Cebu Pacific only, then Philippine Airlines' subsidiaries Air Philippines and PAL Express), with Cebu Pacific international flights using it from August 1, 2008. All international operations, except for those from PAL, are intended to operate from Terminal 3 in the future, originally proposed to move in fourth quarter of 2010, however domestic carriers Cebu Pacific and Airphil Express (then Air Philippines) remained the only tenants for the first two years of its operation. The vast majority of international flights still operate from Terminal 1, with the exception of All Nippon Airways being the first foreign-based carrier to operate out of Terminal 3 started in February 27, 2011.[needs update]
Terminal 4 (Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal)
The Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal, also known as Terminal 4, is host to all domestic flights within the Philippines that are operated by AirAsia Zest and Tigerair Philippines, among others. Although it's intended to be a domestic terminal, AirAsia Zest hosts most of its international flights there as well. There are no jet bridges and passengers walk to and from the aircraft or are occasionally bussed. Twenty-six check-in counters are located in the terminal. The departure hall has the seating capacity for 969 people at a time. Several food stores and a book and magazine stall are also available. Five baggage carousels are located in the terminal whilst domestic airline offices, banks, restaurants and a grocery store are also located right beside the domestic passenger terminal. The Domestic Terminal on the old Airport Road was built in 1948 and is located near the north end of Runway 13/31. An old hangar has since been annexed to the terminal.
NAIA is one two airports in the Philippines that meet the infrastructure requirements for the Airbus A380 (the other is Clark International Airport). As of July 2013, no commercial flights are operating using this aircraft however it is an airport that provides MRO services conducted by Lufthansa Technik Philippines. On October 11, 2007, NAIA hosted the debut of the Airbus A380 in the Philippines, after test aircraft MSN009 (registered as F-WWEA) landed on Runway 24. The test flight demonstrated that the A380 could land on existing runways in Asia and that the primary international airport of the Philippines can support aircraft as large as the A380.
Airlines and destinations
- ^1 : This flight makes a stop between Manila and the listed destination. However, the airline does not have rights to transport passengers solely between Manila and intermediate stop.
The following cargo airlines serve Ninoy Aquino International Airport.
NAIA has a primary runway (3,410 metres (11,190 ft) long), running at 061°/241° (designated as Runway 06/24), and a secondary runway (1,998 metres (6,555 ft) long), running at 136°/316° (designated as Runway 13/31).
The airport also serves as a gateway facility of the logistics company DHL.
Lufthansa Technik Philippines
Lufthansa Technik Philippines (LTP) (formerly PAL Technical Center) was founded in 2000 as a joint venture of German firm Lufthansa Technik AG (51%) and Philippine aviation service provider MacroAsia Corporation (49%). Lufthansa Technik Philippines offers aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services to customers.
The company focuses on maintenance checks for the Airbus A320 family and A330/A340 aircraft. Seven hangar bays and workshops have been upgraded to the latest industry standards to support aircraft maintenance, major modifications, cabin reconfigurations, engine maintenance and painting for the Airbus A320 family, A330/A340, and A380, as well as the Boeing 747-400 and 777 aircraft. A new widebody hangar was recently added to meet the increasing demand for A330/A340 base maintenance checks.
LTP provides total technical and engineering support for the entire Philippine Airlines fleet.
Aviation Partnership (Philippines) Corporation
Aviation Partnership (Philippines) Corporation is SIA Engineering's third line maintenance joint venture outside Singapore. The joint venture of SIA Engineering Company (51%) and Cebu Pacific Air (49%) provides line maintenance, light aircraft checks and technical ramp handling as well as other services to Cebu Pacific Air and third-party airline customers.
The Manila International Airport Authority runs a shuttle bus system which connects all four terminals for passengers who have onward connections on flights departing from another terminal. Shuttle buses run every fifteen minutes during daytime hours, but passengers are required to clear immigration and customs to use the system.
Bus and jeepney
|Bus routes serving NAIA|
All four terminals are also served by local jeepney routes serving Parañaque and Pasay.
The airport is connected, albeit indirectly, by rail: Baclaran station of the Manila Light Rail Transit System and Nichols station of the Philippine National Railways both serve the airport complex. An MIAA-operated shuttle bus also connects Terminal 3 to the Taft Avenue MRT Station.
In the future, with the extension of the existing Yellow Line, a new station, Manila International Airport station, is set to connect the airport, albeit still indirectly, to the LRT. A four-station spur extension of the Yellow Line, directly connecting Terminal 3 to Baclaran, is also proposed.
The NAIA Expressway or NAIA Skyway connects the NAIA/Nichols Exit of the Metro Manila Skyway and Andrews Avenue in front of Terminal 3. It would soon be extended to Domestic Road, linking with Terminal 4 (Domestic Terminal), and NAIA Road, linking with Terminal 2, before reaching Roxas Boulevard and Coastal Road. Terminal 3 is served by the Nichols Exit of the South Luzon Expressway, while Terminal 1 is served by Ninoy Aquino Avenue from Roxas Boulevard-NAIA Road.
Accidents and incidents
- On February 24, 1949, a Cathay Pacific Douglas C-47A-90-DL struck a hillside near the Braemar Reservoir. The crew aborted an approach in poor visibility and tried to go around. All 23 occupants were killed.
- On July 25, 1971, a Pan American World Airways Boeing 707-321C named "Clipper Rising Sun" was on a cargo flight from San Francisco via Honolulu, Guam and Manila to Saigon. While on a VOR/DME approach to Manila runway 24, the aircraft struck Mount Kamunay at an altitude of 770 metres (2,525 ft). All 4 occupants were killed.
- On November 15, 1974, an OASIS Douglas C-47A registered RP-C570 was damaged beyond economic repair when a forced landing was made in a paddy field shortly after take-off from Manila International Airport following failure of the starboard engine. One of the eight people on board was killed.
- On February 7, 1980, a China Airlines Boeing 707 originating from Taipei Chiang Kai-Shek International Airport undershot the runway on landing and caught fire. Of all the 135 on board, there were only 2 fatalities.
- On August 21, 1983, Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at the airport after returning to the Philippines from his self-imposed exile in the United States. Five years after the incident he was memorialized by having the airport named in his honor, by virtue of Republic Act No. 6639.
- On December 13, 1983, a Philair Douglas C-47B registered RP-C287 crashed shortly after takeoff following an engine failure. The aircraft was on a non-scheduled passenger flight. All ten people on board survived.
- On May 6, 1989, a Manila Aero Transport System (MATS) Douglas C-47A registered RP-C82 crashed on takeoff following an engine failure. The aircraft was being used on a domestic non-scheduled passenger flight although it was not licenced to carry passengers. All 18 people on board survived.
- On April 28, 1989, a MATS Douglas C-47A registered RP-C81 crashed shortly after takeoff on a non-scheduled domestic passenger flight to Roxas Airport following an engine failure. MATS did not have a licence to fly passengers. Seven of the 22 passengers were killed. The aircraft had earlier made a forced landing on a taxiway at the airport.
- On July 21, 1989, a Philippine Airlines BAC One-Eleven operating Flight 124 overran a runway in poor visibility and heavy rain. No passengers or crew on board were killed but eight people on the ground were killed when the jet crossed a road.
- On May 11, 1990, a Philippine Airlines Boeing 737-300 operating Flight 143 suffered an explosion in the center fuel tank near the terminal of the airport while preparing for takeoff. The fire and smoke engulfed the aircraft before it could be completely evacuated. The explosion was similar to what happened to TWA Flight 800 six years later. 8 people died.
- On May 18, 1990, an Aerolift Philippines Beechcraft 1900C-1 operating a domestic scheduled passenger flight bound for Surigao Airport crashed into a residential area following takeoff. The aircraft reportedly suffered an engine failure. All 21 occupants and 4 people on the ground were killed.
- On September 4, 2002, an Asian Spirit de Havilland Canada Dash 7-102 operating Flight 897, carrying 49 occupants, was the last flight of the day to Caticlan and departed the Manila domestic airport at 15:36 for a one hour flight. On approach to Caticlan Airport, the right main gear failed to deploy. The approach was abandoned and the crew decided to return to Manila for an emergency landing. The plane circled for about 35 minutes over Las Piñas to burn off fuel. The crew then carried out an emergency landing with the right gear retracted on Manila's international airport runway 24. After touchdown, the aircraft swerved off the runway onto a grassy area. There were no reported injuries or fatalities, but the aircraft was written off.
- On November 11, 2002, a Laoag International Airlines Fokker F27 operating Flight 585 took off from Manila runway 31 at just after 6 o'clock for a flight to Laoag International Airport. Shortly after takeoff, engine trouble developed in the aircraft's left engine. The pilot declared an emergency and he tried to land the plane but decided at the last minute to ditch it into the sea. The aircraft broke up and sank in the water to a depth of about 18 metres (60 ft). 19 of the 34 occupants were killed.
- On July 25, 2008, a Qantas Boeing 747 operating Flight 30, headed from London to Melbourne with a stop at Hong Kong, made an emergency landing at the Manila airport. A gaping hole on the belly near the right wing was torn from the fuselage in mid-air when a large piece of what appeared to be canvas and a red piece of insulation material stuck out of the fuselage, pushed by an oxygen tank explosion. The 747 was carrying 356 passengers and 19 crew, but there were no reported injuries or fatalities.
- On August 23, 2009, a South East Asian Airlines Dornier 328 registered RP-C6328 operating flight DG-0624 was hit by strong crosswinds when decelerating after landing on runway 13. The aircraft veered off the runway and came to a stop in the grass. None of the 32 passengers and 3 crew was injured. The airport had to be temporarily closed to tow the aircraft away.
- On October 17, 2009, a Victoria Air Douglas DC-3 registered RP-C550 crashed shortly after takeoff on a flight to Puerto Princesa International Airport after an engine malfunctioned.The plane crashed near a factory in Las Piñas. All on board died.
- On December 10, 2011, a Beechcraft 65-80 Queen Air cargo plane going to San Jose crashed into the Felixberto Serrano Elementary School in Parañaque, Metro Manila. The plane crashed after takeoff straight into the school. The cause of the crash was pilot error. At least 14 people including 3 crew members on board the aircraft died, and over 20 people were injured. Approximately 50 houses in the residential area were set ablaze by the subsequent fire.
- On December 20, 2013, Ukol Talumpa, the mayor of Labangan, Zamboanga del Sur, and three others, were shot dead at the arrival area of Terminal 3. Prior to the incident there were two unsuccessful attempts to kill him. Four other people were injured.
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- BRIEF HISTORY OF MIAA
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- Fraport files new claim at ICSID over expropriation of airport terminal project; Annulment committee ruling paved way for new hearing by finding breach of investor's right to ...
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ninoy Aquino International Airport.|
- Manila International Airport Authority
- Current weather for RPLL at NOAA/NWS
- Accident history for MNL at Aviation Safety Network
- Interactive satellite view of NAIA