From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Regions with significant populations|
| Christmas Island
|New Zealand||180, 066|
|United Arab Emirates||180,000|
|Languages of China and various languages of the countries they inhabit|
|Predominantly Buddhism, Taoism with Confucianism. Significant Christian, small Muslim and other religious minorities.|
|Related ethnic groups|
Overseas Chinese (traditional Chinese: 海外華人; simplified Chinese: 海外华人; pinyin: Hǎiwài Huárén) are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the People's Republic of China and Republic of China (Taiwan). People of partial Chinese ancestry living outside the Greater China Area may also consider themselves overseas Chinese. Overseas Chinese can be of the Han Chinese ethnic majority, or from any of the other ethnic groups in China.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 3 Overseas Chinese experience
- 4 Language
- 5 Relationship with China
- 6 Returning and re-emigration
- 7 Economic impact
- 8 Current numbers
- 9 Country statistics
- 10 See also
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
The Chinese language has various terms equivalent to the English "overseas Chinese" which refers to Chinese citizens residing in countries other than China: Huáqiáo (simplified Chinese: 华侨; traditional Chinese: 華僑; pinyin: Huáqiáo) or Hoan-kheh in Hokkien (Chinese: 番客). The term haigui (海归) refers to returned overseas Chinese and guīqiáo qiáojuàn (归侨侨眷) to their returning relatives.
Huáyì (simplified Chinese: 华裔; traditional Chinese: 華裔; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hôa-è) refers to ethnic Chinese residing outside of China. Another often-used term is 海外华人 (Hǎiwài Huárén), a more literal translation of overseas Chinese; it is often used by the PRC government to refer to people of Chinese ethnicities who live outside the PRC, regardless of citizenship.
Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hoochew, Hokkien, or Hakka refer to overseas Chinese as 唐人 (Tángrén), pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien, and tong nyin in Hakka. Literally, it means Tang people, a reference to Tang dynasty China when it was ruling China proper. It should be noted that this term is commonly used by the Cantonese, Hoochew, Hakka and Hokkien as a colloquial reference to the Chinese people, and has little relevance to the ancient dynasty.
The term shǎoshù mínzú (少数民族) is added to the various terms for overseas Chinese to indicate those in the diaspora who would be considered ethnic minorities in China. The terms shǎoshù mínzú huáqiáo huárén; shǎoshù mínzú huáqiáo huárén; and shǎoshù mínzú hǎiwài qiáobāo (少数民族海外侨胞) are all in usage. The Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the PRC does not distinguish between Han and ethnic minority populations for official policy purposes. For example, members of the Tibetan diaspora may travel to China on passes granted to certain overseas Chinese. Various estimates of the overseas Chinese minority population include 3.1 million (1993), 3.4 million (2004), 5.7 million (2001, 2010), or approximately one tenth of all overseas Chinese (2006, 2011). Cross-border ethnic groups (跨境民族, kuàjìng mínzú) are not considered overseas Chinese minorities unless they left China after the establishment of an independent state on China's border.
The Chinese people have a long history of migrating overseas. One of the migrations dates back to the Ming dynasty when Zheng He (1371–1435) became the envoy of Ming. He sent people - many of them Cantonese and Hokkien - to explore and trade in the South China Sea and in the Indian Ocean.
Chinese Civil War
When China was under the imperial rule of the Qing Dynasty, subjects who left the Qing Empire without the Administrator's consent were considered to be traitors and were executed. Their family members faced consequences as well. However, the establishment of the Lanfang Republic (Chinese: 蘭芳共和國; pinyin: Lánfāng Gònghéguó) in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, as a tributary state of Qing China, attests that it was possible to attain permission. The republic lasted until 1884, when it fell under Dutch occupation as Qing influence waned.
Under the administration of the Republic of China from 1911-1949, these rules were abolished and many migrated outside of the Republic of China, mostly through the coastal regions via the ports of Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan and Shanghai. These migrations are considered to be among the largest in China's history. Many nationals of the Republic of China fled and settled down in South East Asia mainly between the years 1911-1949, after the Nationalist government led by Kuomintang lost to the Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Most of the nationalist and neutral refugees fled Mainland China to South East Asia(Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei and Indonesia) as well as Taiwan, Republic of China. Many nationalists who stayed behind were persecuted or even executed.
Most of the Chinese who fled during 1911 – 1949 under the Republic of China settled down in Singapore, Malaysia and automatically gain citizenship in 1957 and 1963 as these countries gained independence.Kuomintang members who settled down in Malaysia and Singapore played a major role in the establishment of Malaysian Chinese Association. There is some evidence that they intend to reclaim mainland China from the Communists by funding the Kuomintang in China. 
Waves of immigration
Different waves of immigration led to subgroups among overseas Chinese such as the new and old immigrants in Southeast Asia, North America, Oceania, the Caribbean, Latin America, South Africa, and Russia.
In the 19th century, the age of colonialism was at its height and the great Chinese diaspora began. Many colonies lacked a large pool of laborers. Meanwhile, in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong in China, there was a surge in emigration as a result of the poverty and ruin caused by the Taiping rebellion. The Qing Empire was forced to allow its subjects to work overseas under colonial powers. Many Hokkien chose to work in Southeast Asia (where they had earlier links starting from the Ming era), as did the Cantonese. The city of Taishan in Guangdong province was the source for many of the economic migrants. For the countries in North America and Australasia, great numbers of laborers were needed in the dangerous tasks of gold mining and railway construction. Widespread famine in Guangdong impelled many Cantonese to work in these countries to improve the living conditions of their relatives. Some overseas Chinese were sold[by whom?] to South America during the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars (1855–1867) in the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong. After World War II many people from the New Territories in Hong Kong emigrated to the UK (mainly England) and to the Netherlands to earn a better living.
From the mid-19th century onward, emigration has been directed primarily to Western countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, and the nations of Western Europe; as well as to Peru where they are called tusán, Panama, and to a lesser extent to Mexico. Many of these emigrants who entered Western countries were themselves overseas Chinese, particularly from the 1950s to the 1980s, a period during which the PRC placed severe restrictions on the movement of its citizens. In 1984, Britain agreed to transfer the sovereignty of Hong Kong to the PRC; this triggered another wave of migration to the United Kingdom (mainly England), Australia, Canada, USA, Latin America and other parts of the world. The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 further accelerated the migration. The wave calmed after Hong Kong's transfer of sovereignty in 1997. In addition, many citizens of Hong Kong hold citizenships or have current visas in other countries so if the need arises, they can leave Hong Kong at short notice. In fact, after the Tiananmen Square incident, the lines for immigration visas increased at every consulate in Hong Kong. More recent Chinese presences have developed in Europe, where they number nearly a million, and in Russia, they number over 600,000, concentrated in Russian Far East. Chinese who emigrated to Vietnam beginning in the 18th century are referred to as Hoa.
In recent years, the People's Republic of China has built increasingly stronger ties with African nations. As of August 2007, there were an estimated 750,000 Chinese nationals working or living for extended periods in different African countries. An estimated 200,000 ethnic Chinese live in South Africa. In a 2007 New York Times article, Chad Chamber of Commerce Director estimated an "influx of at least 40,000 Chinese in coming years" to Chad. As of 2006[update] as many as 40,000 Chinese lived in Namibia, an estimated 80,000 Chinese in Zambia and 50,000 Chinese in Nigeria. As many as 100,000 Chinese live and work across Angola. As of 2009[update] 35,000 Chinese migrant workers lived in Algeria.
Russia’s main Pacific port and naval base of Vladivostok, once closed to foreigners and belonged to China until the late 19th century, as of 2010[update] bristles with Chinese markets, restaurants and trade houses. Experts predict that the Chinese diaspora in Russia will increase to at least 10 million by 2010 and Chinese may become the dominant ethnic group in the Russian Far East region 20 to 30 years from now. Other experts discount such stories estimating the numbers of Chinese in Russia at less than half a million, most of whom are temporary traders.
The Chinese in Southeast Asian countries have established themselves in commerce and finance. In North America, Europe and Oceania, occupations are diverse and impossible to generalize; ranging from catering to significant ranks in medicine, the arts, and academia.
Overseas Chinese experience
The Chinese usually identify a person by ethnic origin instead of nationality. As long as the person is of Chinese descent, that person is considered Chinese, and if that person lives outside of China, that person is overseas Chinese. The majority of PRC Chinese do not understand the overseas Chinese experience of being a minority, as ethnic Han Chinese comprise approximately 91% of the population.
Overseas Chinese have often experienced hostility and discrimination.
In countries with small Chinese minorities, the economic disparity can be remarkable. For example, in 1998, ethnic Chinese made up just 1% of the population of the Philippines and 4% of the population in Indonesia, but have wide influence in Philippines and Indonesian private economy. The book World on Fire, describing the Chinese as a "market-dominant minority", notes that "Chinese market dominance and intense resentment amongst the indigenous majority is characteristic of virtually every country in Southeast Asia except Thailand and Singapore".
This asymmetrical economic position has incited anti-Chinese sentiment among the poorer majorities. Sometimes the anti-Chinese attitudes turn violent, such as the May 13 Incident in Malaysia in 1969 and the Jakarta riots of May 1998 in Indonesia, in which more than 2,000 people died, mostly rioters burned to death in a shopping mall. During the colonial era, some genocides killed tens of thousands of Chinese.
During the Indonesian killings of 1965–66, in which more than 500,000 people died, ethnic Chinese were killed and their properties looted and burned as a result of anti-Chinese racism on the excuse that Dipa "Amat" Aidit had brought the PKI closer to China. The anti-Chinese legislation was in the Indonesian constitution until 1998.
It is commonly held that a major point of friction is the apparent tendency of overseas Chinese to segregate themselves into a subculture. For example, the anti-Chinese Kuala Lumpur Racial Riots of 13 May 1969 and Jakarta Riots of May 1998 were believed to have been motivated by these racially-biased perceptions. This analysis has been questioned by some historians, most notably Dr. Kua Kia Soong, the principal of New Era College, who has put forward the controversial argument that the May 13 Incident was a pre-meditated attempt by sections of the ruling Malay elite to incite racial hostility in preparation for a coup. In 2006, rioters damaged shops owned by Chinese-Tongans in Nukuʻalofa. Chinese migrants were evacuated from the riot-torn Solomon Islands.
Ethnic politics can be found to motivate both sides of the debate. In Malaysia, overseas Chinese tend to support equal and meritocratic treatment on the expectation that they would not be discriminated against in the resulting competition for government contracts, university places, etc., whereas many "Bumiputra" ("native sons") Malays oppose this on the grounds that their group needs such protections in order to retain their patrimony. The question of to what extent ethnic Malays, Chinese, or others are "native" to Malaysia is a sensitive political one. It is currently a taboo for Chinese politicians to raise the issue of Bumiputra protections in parliament, as this would be deemed ethnic incitement.
Many of the overseas Chinese who worked on railways in North America in the 19th century suffered from racial discrimination in Canada and the United States. Although discriminatory laws have been repealed or are no longer enforced today, both countries had at one time introduced statutes that barred Chinese from entering the country, for example the United States Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 (repealed 1943) or the Canadian Chinese Immigration Act, 1923 (repealed 1947).
In Australia, Chinese were targeted by a system of discriminatory laws known as the 'White Australia Policy' which was enshrined in the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901. The policy was formally abolished in 1973, and in recent years Australians of Chinese background have publicly called for an apology from the Australian Federal Government similar to that given to the 'stolen generations' of indigenous people in 2007 by the then Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.
Thailand has the largest overseas Chinese community and is also the most successful case of full assimilation, and they claim Thai identity. For over 400 years, Thai-Chinese have largely intermarried and assimilated with their compatriots. The present Thai monarch, Chakri Dynasty, is founded by King Rama I who himself is partly Chinese. His predecessor, King Taksin of the Thonburi Kingdom, is the son of a Chinese immigrant from Guangdong Province and was born with Chinese name. His mother, Lady Nok-iang (Thai: นกเอี้ยง), was Thai (and was later awarded the feudal title of Somdet Krom Phra Phithak Thephamat).
In the Philippines, Chinese from Guangdong were already migrating to the islands from the 9th century, and have largely intermarried with either indigenous Filipinos or Spanish colonisers. Their descendants would eventually form the bulk of the elite and ruling classes in a sovereign Philippines. Since the 1860s, most Chinese immigrants have come from Fujian; unlike earlier migrants, Fujianese settlers rarely intermarried, and thus form the bulk of the "unmixed" Chinese Filipinos. Older generations have retained Chinese traditions and the use of Minnan (Hokkien), while the vast majority of younger generations largely communicate in English, Filipino, and other Philippine languages, and have largely layered facets of both Western and Filipino culture onto their Chinese cultural background.
In Myanmar, the Chinese rarely intermarry (even amongst different Chinese linguistic groups), but have largely adopted the Burmese culture whilst maintaining Chinese cultural affinities.
In Cambodia, between 1965 to 1993, people with Chinese names were prevented from finding governmental employment, leading to a large number of people changing their names to a local, Cambodian name. Indonesia, and Myanmar were among the countries that do not allow birth names to be registered in foreign languages, including Chinese. But since 2003, the Indonesian government has allowed overseas Chinese to use their Chinese name or using their Chinese family name on their birth certificate.
In Vietnam, Chinese names are pronounced with Sino-Vietnamese readings. For example, the name of the previous Chinese president, 胡锦涛 (pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo), would be transcribed as "Hồ Cẩm Đào". In Western countries, the overseas Chinese generally use romanised versions of their Chinese names, and the use of local first names is also common. Vietnamese people have adopted the Chinese traditions, ancient Chinese characters, philosophy such as Confucianism, Taoism for thousands of years during the rule of China until the establishment of Ngo dynasty (Han-Nom: 吳朝), it is easier for the Hoa people to adopt the Vietnamese culture due to their similarities, however some Hoa still prefer maintaining Chinese cultural background (See Sinic world or Adoption of Chinese literary culture). The official census from 2009 accounted the Hoa population at some 823,000 individuals and ranked 6th in terms of its population size. 70% of the Hoa live in cities and towns, mostly in Ho Chi Minh city while the remainder live in the countryside in the southern provinces.
On the other hand, in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, overseas Chinese have maintained a distinct communal identity, though the rate and state of being assimilated to the local (in this case multicultural) society, is currently on par with that of other Chinese communities (see Peranakan).
The usage of Chinese languages by overseas Chinese has been determined by a large number of factors, including their ancestry, their migrant ancestors' "regime of origin", assimilation through generational changes, and official policies of their country of residence. The general trend is that more established Chinese populations in the Western world and in many regions of Asia have Cantonese as either the dominant language or common community vernacular, while Mandarin is much more prevalent among new arrivals, making it increasingly common in many Chinatowns.
Within Southeast Asia, Cantonese has traditionally served as the lingua franca among overseas Chinese across most of the region and within many of its countries. However, the language situation of overseas Chinese can vary greatly amongst neighboring nations or even within.
Singapore has an ethnic Chinese majority population, with Mandarin recognized as one of its official languages. Furthermore, simplified Chinese characters are used in contrast to other overseas Chinese communities, which almost exclusively use traditional Chinese characters. Although the majority of ethnic Chinese in Singapore are predominantly of Hokkien descent and Hokkien has historically been the most spoken Chinese variety, the government of Singapore discourages the usage of non-Mandarin Chinese languages through the Speak Mandarin Campaign (SMC). The Singaporean government also actively promotes English as the common language of the multiracial society of Singapore, with younger Chinese Singaporeans being mostly bilingual in Mandarin and English, while the older generations speak other Chinese dialects.
Under the SMC policy, all nationally produced non-Mandarin Chinese TV and radio programs were stopped after 1979. Additionally, Hong Kong (Cantonese) and Taiwanese dramas are unavailable in their original languages on non-cable TV. Nevertheless, since the government restriction on dialect media was relaxed in the mid-1990s, these media have become available once on again on cable TV and sold in stores. However, only Cantonese seems to have benefited from this uplift, thanks to a large following of Hong Kong popular culture, such as television dramas, cinema and Cantopop. Consequently, there has been a substantial of number of non-Cantonese Chinese Singaporeans being able to understand or speak the language, with a number of educational institutes offering Cantonese as an elective language course. Meanwhile, the number of speakers for other non-Mandarin Chinese varieties continues to decline.
Malaysia is the only country besides Mainland China and Taiwan that has a complete Chinese education system, from primary school to university. Malaysian Chinese speak a wide variety of dialects, which are concentrated around particular population centers. Hokkien, the largest Chinese group, is concentrated in Penang, Klang, Kelantan and Malacca, with Penang having its own Hokkien variety. Cantonese is centered on Kuala Lumpur, Seremban, Kuantan and Ipoh, with Hakka minorities also found. Meanwhile, in East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo), Hokkien, Teochew, Hakka and Mandarin are found except in Sibu, where the Fuzhou dialect is predominant, and in Sandakan, where Cantonese and Hakka are widely spoken.
Regardless of location, however, younger generations are educated in the Malaysian standard of Mandarin at Chinese-language schools. Also, most Chinese Malaysians can speak both Malay, the national language, and English, which is widely used in business and at tertiary level. Furthermore, Cantonese is understood by most Malaysian Chinese as it is the prevalent language used in Chinese-language media, although many are unable to speak it.
Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia had been subjected for decades to official, and at times discriminatory, assimilation policies. As a result, a large number are no longer proficient in a Chinese language. Originally, the majority of the population emigrated from Fujian and Guangdong provinces in South China, with the first wave of arrivals preceding the Dutch colonial period in the 1700s. The four recognized varieties of Chinese spoken by the Chinese Indonesian community are, ordered by number of speakers: Hokkien, Hakka, Mandarin and Cantonese. Additionally, Teochew and Puxian Min are also found.
The distribution of Chinese variants are scattered throughout the archipelago. On Sumatra, two varieties of Hokkien exist, Medan Hokkien and Riau Hokkien, which incorporate local and Indonesian vocabulary. Hakka Chinese is concentrated in Bangka Belitung province, South Sumatra and West Kalimantan where they form a significant part of the local population. Meanwhile, Pontianak to Kendawangan on the southern tip of West Kalimantan is populated by Teochew speakers. Mandarin and historically Cantonese have been used in Chinese-language schools and both variants are found major cities such as Jakarta and Medan, with Mandarin usage increasing with recent Chinese arrivals. Younger generations of Indonesian Chinese are generally fluent in Indonesian.
Although Thailand is home to the largest Overseas Chinese community, the level of integration is also the highest and most Thai Chinese today speak Thai as their native or main language. Most ethnic Chinese live in major cities such as Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Phuket, Hat Yai and Nakhon Sawan, and Chinatowns in these cities still feature signage in both Chinese and Thai. As of the 2000s, only a little over 200,000 Thai Chinese still speak a variant of Chinese at home. A little over half speak Teochew, the largest dialect group, followed by Hakka, Hainanese, Cantonese, and Hokkien.  In commerce, Teochew, Cantonese and Thai are used as common languages and Chinese-language schools often use Cantonese as the medium of instruction due to its lingua franca status among most Chinese in Southeast Asia.
Ethnic Chinese in Vietnam are categorized into three groups that are based on migrant history, location and level of integration. The largest group is the Hoa, numbering almost a million individuals and have historically been influential in Vietnamese society and economy. They are largely concentrated in major cities of the former South Vietnam (especially in Ho Chi Minh City) and largely speak Cantonese, with Teochew found among a significant minority.
The smaller two Chinese groups consist of the San Diu and Ngái. The San Diu number over 100,000 and are concentrated in the mountains of northern Vietnam. They actually trace their origins to Yao people rather than Han Chinese, but nevertheless have been heavily influenced by Chinese culture and speak a variant of Cantonese. Meanwhile, the Ngái are concentrated in rural areas of Central Vietnam and number around 1,000. They speak Hakka natively and use Cantonese to communicate with Hoa communities.
A 2013 census estimated there to be 15,000 ethnic Chinese in Cambodia. However, Chinese community organizations have estimated that up to around 7% of the population may have Chinese ancestry. Chinese Cambodians have historically played important economic and political roles in the country and are still often overrepresented in Cambodian commerce.
As a vast majority of the group emigrated from Cambodia following the Khmer Rouge, the community has assimilated greatly into Cambodian society and many now speak Khmer as their main language. Over three-fourths of Chinese Cambodians belong to the Teochew group, which is also the most spoken Chinese variant. The other two largest groups include Hokkien and Hainanese. Cantonese formed the largest group from the 17th to the mid-20th century, but form only a minority today and are concentrated in major urban centers. Nevertheless, Cantonese continues to serve as the common community language among most Chinese Cambodians. In Chinese-language schools, Mandarin is taught.
Among the small ethnic Chinese community of Laos, Teochew and Cantonese are the two most spoken Chinese languages. Ethnic Chinese living on the border with China speak Southwest varieties of Mandarin.
Although the Burmese Chinese (or Chinese Burmese) officially make up three percent of the population, the actual figure is believed to be much higher. Among the under-counted Chinese populations are: those of mixed background; those that have registered themselves as ethnic Bamar to escape discrimination; illegal Chinese immigrants that have flooded Upper Burma since the 1990s (up to 2 million by some estimates) but are not counted due to the lack of reliable census taking. The Burmese Chinese dominate the Burmese economy today. They also have a very large presence in Burmese higher education, and make up a high percentage of the educated class in Burma. Most Burmese Chinese speak Burmese as their mother tongue. Those with higher education also speak Mandarin and/or English. The use of Chinese dialects still prevails. Hokkien (a dialect of Min Nan) is mostly used in Yangon as well as in Lower Burma, while Taishanese (a Yue dialect akin to Cantonese) and Yunnanese Mandarin are well preserved in Upper Burma.
A variety of Chinese dialects are spoken in Brunei. Mandarin and Hokkien are the most commonly spoken dialects in the country.
Chinese Filipinos officially comprise 1.5% of the country's population, although demographic surveys from third parties find that 18-27% of the Philippine population have at least some Chinese ancestry, totalling up to 27 million people.
Most Chinese Filipinos are trilingual, speaking a Chinese, English, and a Philippine language (most often Tagalog or Cebuano). Older Chinese Filipinos generally prefer to use Chinese, whereas younger generations prefer to use either English or a Philippine language, a result of the prohibition of Chinese language education enacted during the dictatorship of President Marcos (1972–1986).
The most widely spoken Chinese language is Hokkien, specifically a Filipino variant of it called Lan-nang. Other Hokkien dialects and Chinese variants such as Cantonese, Shanghainese, and Teochew are also spoken, albeit by a very tiny population. In contrast to much of Southeast Asia, the Chinese community in the Philippines does not use Cantonese as its preferred community language, but rather Philippine Hokkien, which is also spoken informally at schools and in business among Chinese Filipinos.
In Chinese-language schools, Mandarin is taught as "Standard Chinese", although most Chinese Filipinos do not speak it at home and do not attain the same level of fluency as those of Chinese descent in China, Taiwan, and Singapore.
Due to extensive albeit informal contacts with the Ministry of Education of the Taiwan (ROC) during 1950-1990, the traditional Chinese script as well as the bopomofo are still used, although these are gradually being eased out in favor of simplified Chinese characters and pinyin starting 2005, with Chinese Language textbooks increasingly imported from both China and Singapore.
As part of a recent trend, partly due to increased contacts with other overseas Chinese in Hong Kong and Singapore, more Chinese Filipino families are now opting to use English as their first language at home. There is also a trend among some young Chinese Filipinos to relearn Hokkien, a result of increasing pride in being "ethnic Chinese" and the popularity of Taiwanese films and shows, which is associated with the rise of China in the 21st century.
Despite the perceived widespread assimilation of the Chinese Filipinos into the general Philippine population, most still form part of a "Tsinoy" community where Chinese culture is celebrated and practiced. Despite the fact that not all Chinese Filipinos can fluently speak Hokkien or any other Chinese variant, most can still understand at least some Hokkien.
On the other hand, most Chinese Mestizos (called chhut-si-ia in Hokkien), or those who are of mixed Chinese and Filipino, Spanish, and/or American ancestry, tend to downplay their Chinese roots and invariably consider themselves Filipino. Most Chinese Mestizos speak Tagalog or English.
Many overseas Chinese populations in North America speak some variety of Chinese. In the United States and Canada, Chinese is the third most spoken language. Yue dialects have historically been the most prevalent variety due to immigrants being mostly from southern China from the 19th century up through the 1980s. However, Mandarin is becoming increasingly more prevalent due to the opening up of the PRC.
In New York City at least, although Mandarin is spoken as a native language among only 10% of Chinese speakers, it is used as a secondary dialect among the greatest number of them and is on its way to replace Cantonese as their lingua franca. Although Min Chinese or Hoochew, the majority of Min Chinese, is spoken natively by a third of the Chinese population there, it is not used as a lingua franca because speakers of other dialect groups do not learn Min.
In Richmond (part of the Greater Vancouver metropolitan area in Canada), 44% of the population is Chinese. Chinese words can be seen everywhere from local banks to grocery stores. In the broader Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 18% of the population is Chinese. Similarly in Toronto, which is the largest city in Canada, Chinese people make up 11.4% of the local population with the higher percentages of between 20-50% in the suburbs of Markham, Richmond Hill and within the city's east end, Scarborough. Cantonese and Mandarin are the most popular Chinese languages.
Economic growth in the People's Republic of China has given mainland Chinese more opportunities to emigrate. A 2011 survey showed that 60% of Chinese millionaires plan to emigrate, mostly to the USA or Canada. The EB-5 Investment Visa allows many powerful Chinese to seek U.S. citizenship, and recent reports show that 75% of applicants for this visa in 2011 were Chinese. Chinese multimillionaires benefited most from the EB-5 Immigrant Investor Program in the U.S. Now, as long as one has at least US$500,000 to invest in projects listed by United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), where it is possible to get an EB-5 green card that comes with permanent U.S. residency rights, but only in states specified by the pilot project.
Relationship with China
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2015)|
Both the People's Republic of China and Taiwan maintain highly complex relationships with overseas Chinese populations. Both maintain cabinet level ministries to deal with overseas Chinese affairs, and many local governments within the PRC have overseas Chinese bureaus. Both the PRC and ROC have some legislative representation for overseas Chinese. In the case of the PRC, some seats in the National People's Congress are allocated for returned overseas Chinese. In the ROC's Legislative Yuan, there used to be eight seats allocated for overseas Chinese. These seats were apportioned to the political parties based on their vote totals in the ROC, and then the parties assigned the seats to overseas Chinese party loyalists. Now, political parties in the ROC are still allowed to assign overseas Chinese into the Legislative Yuan, but they are not required to. Most of these members elected to the Legislative Yuan hold dual citizenship, but must renounce their foreign citizenship before being sworn in.
Overseas Chinese have sometimes played an important role in Chinese politics. Most of the funding for the Chinese revolution of 1911 came from overseas Chinese.
During the 1950s and 1960s, the ROC tended to seek the support of overseas Chinese communities through branches of the Kuomintang based on Sun Yat-sen's use of expatriate Chinese communities to raise money for his revolution. During this period, the People's Republic of China tended to view overseas Chinese with suspicion as possible capitalist infiltrators and tended to value relationships with southeast Asian nations as more important than gaining support of overseas Chinese, and in the Bandung declaration explicitly stated that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation. On the other hand, overseas Chinese in their home nations were often persecuted for suspected or fabricated ties to "Communist China". This was used as a pretext for the massacres of ethnic Chinese in Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries.
After the Deng Xiaoping reforms, the attitude of the PRC toward overseas Chinese changed dramatically. Rather than being seen with suspicion, they were seen as people who could aid PRC development via their skills and capital. During the 1980s, the PRC actively attempted to court the support of overseas Chinese by among other things, returning properties that had been confiscated after the 1949 revolution. More recently PRC policy has attempted to maintain the support of recently emigrated Chinese, who consist largely of Chinese seeking graduate education in the West. Many overseas Chinese are now investing in People's Republic of China providing financial resources, social and cultural networks, contacts and opportunities.
The Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, which does not recognise dual citizenship, provides for automatic loss of PRC citizenship when a former PRC citizen both settles in another country and acquires foreign citizenship. For children born overseas of a PRC citizen, whether the child receives PRC citizenship at birth depends on whether the PRC parent has settled overseas: "Any person born abroad whose parents are both Chinese nationals or one of whose parents is a Chinese national shall have Chinese nationality. But a person whose parents are both Chinese nationals and have both settled abroad, or one of whose parents is a Chinese national and has settled abroad, and who has acquired foreign nationality at birth shall not have Chinese nationality" (Art 5).
By contrast, the Nationality Law of the Republic of China, which both permits and recognises dual citizenship, considers these persons to be citizens of the ROC.
Returning and re-emigration
With People's Republic of China's growing economic strength and the influence on the world, many overseas Chinese have begun to migrate back to China even though many mainland Chinese millionaires are considering emigrating out of the nation for better opportunities.
With China being the second largest economy in the world, this trend is expected to rise even more in the future as China's vigorous economy is poised to surpass the United States in the upcoming decade.[when?] For instance, in the case of Indonesia and Burma, political and ethnic strife has cause a significant number of people of Chinese origins to re-emigrate. Other Southeast Asian countries with large Chinese communities such as Malaysia, the economic rise of People's Republic of China has made it an attractive destination for many Malaysian Chinese to re-emigrate. As the Chinese economy opens up, Malaysian Chinese act as a bridge because many Malaysian Chinese are educated in the United States or Britain but can also understand the Chinese language and culture making it easier for potential entrepreneurial and business to be done between the people among the two countries.
Overseas Chinese are estimated to control 1.5 to 2 trillion USD in liquid assets and have considerable amounts of wealth to stimulate economic power in China. Overseas Chinese often send remittances back home to family members to help better them financially and socioeconomically. China ranks second after India of top remittance receiving countries in 2010 with over 51 billion USD sent. The overseas Chinese business community of Southeast Asia, known as the bamboo network, has a prominent role in the region's private sectors.
There are over 50 million overseas Chinese. Most overseas Chinese are living in Southeast Asia where they make up a majority of the population of Singapore and significant minority populations in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines, and Vietnam. The overseas populations in those areas arrived between the 16th and 19th centuries mostly from the maritime provinces of Guangdong and Fujian, followed by Hainan. There were incidences of earlier emigration from the 15th centuries in particular to Malacca.
Urban areas with large Chinese populations within Asia include Bangkok with 2,900,000 (2009 census, registered resident only), Singapore with 2,800,000 (2010 census), Kuala Lumpur with 612,277 (2000 census, city only), Penang with 650,000 (2005), and Jakarta with 528,300 (2010 census). In the United States, according to the 2012 Census estimates, the three metropolitan areas with the largest Chinese American populations were the Greater New York Combined Statistical Area at 735,019 people, the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area at 629,243 people, and the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area at about 566,968 people. In Canada, the Greater Toronto Area had 486,300 Chinese (2006 Census, metropolitan area), while the Greater Vancouver Area had 402,000 (2006 Census, metropolitan area).
- Anti-Chinese legislation in Indonesia
- Chinese migration
- Chinatown, the article, and Category:Chinatowns the international category list
- Chinese Clan Association
- Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association
- Hong Kongers
- List of overseas Chinese
- Overseas Chinese banks
- Overseas Chinese Affairs Office
- Third culture kid
- Overseas Taiwanese
- Kapitan Cina
- Barabantseva, Elena. Overseas Chinese, Ethnic Minorities and Nationalism: De-centering China, Oxon/New York: Routledge, 2011.
- Chin, Ung Ho. The Chinese of South East Asia, London: Minority Rights Group, 2000. ISBN 1-897693-28-1
- Fitzgerald, John. Big White Lie: Chinese Australians in White Australia, UNSW Press, Sydney, 2007. ISBN 978-0-86840-870-5
- Gambe, Annabelle R. (2000). Overseas Chinese Entrepreneurship and Capitalist Development in Southeast Asia. Volume 9 of Sudostasien Series (illustrated ed.). LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 3825843866. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Kuhn, Philip A. Chinese Among Others: Emigration in Modern Times, Lanham, MD/Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.
- López-Calvo, Ignacio. Imaging the Chinese in Cuban Literature and Culture, Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2008. ISBN 0-8130-3240-7
- Pan, Lynn. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas, Landmark Books, Singapore, 1998. ISBN 981-4155-90-X
- Reid, Anthony; Alilunas-Rodgers, Kristine, eds. (1996). Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast China and the Chinese. Contributor Kristine Alilunas-Rodgers (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824824466. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Tan, Chee-Beng. Chinese Overseas: Comparative Cultural Issues, Hong Kong University Press, 2004.
- Andrewkidz Collections Library - The Overseas Chinese Biographies
- Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China (Chinese)
- Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission, R.O.C.
- Ohio University Study on Distribution of the Overseas Chinese Population
- The Distribution of the Overseas Chinese in the Contemporary World
- Museum of Chinese in the Americas
- The Overseas Chinese returnees movement (Chinese)
- Chinese in Africa
- ^ The Japanese nationals with Chinese ethnicity are excluded.
- ^ This number includes 443,566 people called Joseonjok (조선족). Joseonjok people are the Koreans who have Chinese citizenship. The 181,428 Chinese people who are ethnic Chinese (calculated from 624,994-443,566) in Korea are called Hwagyo (화교). (See reference)
- 张明爱 (2012-03-11). "Reforms urged to attract overseas Chinese". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
- "Hu meets overseas Chinese organizations leaders|Politics". chinadaily.com.cn. 2012-04-09. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
- "President meets leaders of overseas Chinese organizations". English.gov.cn. 2012-04-09. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
- Huiyao Wang (May 24, 2012). "CHINA’S COMPETITION FOR GLOBAL TALENTS: STRATEGY, POLICY AND RECOMMENDATIONS" (PDF). Asia Pacific. p. 2. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- "POPULATION TRENDS 2013" (PDF), Singapore Department of Statistics, Social Statistics Section, retrieved 2012-05-07
- "The World Factbook". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "The World Factbook". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Malaysia". Background Notes. United States: Department of State. December 2010. Retrieved 2009-05-08
- "Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2011. ISBN 9789790644175.
- "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- "Burma". State.gov. 2011-08-03. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
-  (Ethnic origins, 2011 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data)
- General Statistics Office of Vietnam. "Kết quả toàn bộ Tổng điều tra Dân số và Nhà ở Việt Nam năm 2009–Phần I: Biểu Tổng hợp". p. 134/882. Retrieved 2012-12-13.
- "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Cambodia is under Chinese cultural influence: Hun Xen’s confession". THE SON OF THE KHMER EMPIRE Be informed that FB Account Sokheoun Pang is Fake Created by CPP Supporter to Defame and Complicate Me. Mine is Khmer Sovannaphumi. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ""Chinois de France" ne veut rien dire". Slate.fr. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "平成２３年末現在における外国人登録者統計について 法務省(Number of foreign residents by as of 2011)" (in Japanese). Ministry of Justice. 2012-02-22.
- "Check Browser Settings". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- http://convergencia.uaemex.mx/rev38/38pdf/LIZCANO.pdf "Chinese people are an important population mostly in Venezuela (400,000)..." P. 201 (in Spanish)
- "Angola: Cerca de 259.000 chineses vivem atualmente no país", Visão, 2012-04-25, retrieved 2013-01-13
- Larin, Victor (2006), "Chinese in the Russian Far East: Regional views", in Akaha, Tsuneo; Vassilieva, Anna, Crossing National Borders: human migration issues in Northeast Asia, New York: United Nations University Press, pp. 47–67, ISBN 92-808-1117-7
- Zayonchkovskaya, Zhanna (2004), "МИГРАЦИЯ ВЫШЛА ИЗ ТЕНИ. На вопросы Виталия КУРЕННОГО отвечает заведующая лабораторией миграции населения Института народно-хозяйственного прогнозирования РАН Жанна ЗАЙОНЧКОВСКАЯ (Migration has left the shadows. Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya, Director of the Population Migration Laboratory of the National Economy Forecasting Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, answers Vitaly Kurrenoy's questions)", Otechestvennye Zapiski 4 (19), retrieved 2009-01-20
- "Ethnic group profiles". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Chinese expats in Dubai - Community Features - TimeOutDubai.com". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Población extranjera por sexo, país de nacionalidad y edad (hasta 85 y más).", Avance del Padrón a 1 de enero de 2009. Datos provisionales, Spain: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, 2009, retrieved 2009-06-13
- Clarín: As of 2010, Chinese community becomes the fourth largest group of immigrants in Argentina. (Spanish)
- "Argentina-China Relations - Americas Quarterly". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Chinese Argentines and the Pace of Cultural Integration". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Barabantseva, Elena (2012). "Who Are "Overseas Chinese Ethnic Minorities"? China's Search for Transnational Ethnic Unity". Modern China 31 (1): 78–109. doi:10.1177/0097700411424565.
- [dead link]
- Blondeau, Anne-Marie; Buffetrille, Katia and Wei Jing (2008). Authenticating Tibet: Answers to China's 100 Questions. University of California Press. p. 127.
- Xiang, Biao (2003). "Emigration from China: a sending country perspective". International Migration 41 (3): 21–48. doi:10.1111/1468-2435.00240.
- Zhao, Heman (2004). 少数民族华侨华人研究 [A Study of Overseas Chinese Ethnic Minorities]. Beijing: 华侨出版社.
- Li, Anshan (2001). "'华人移民社群的移民身份与少数民族'研讨会综述" [Symposium on the Migrant Statuses of Chinese Migrant Communities and Ethnic Minorities]. 华侨华人历史研究 4: 77–78.
- Shi, Canjin; Yu, Linlin (2010). "少数民族华侨华人对我国构建‘和谐边疆’的影响及对策分析" [Analysis of the Influence of and Strategy Towards Overseas Chinese Ethnic Minorities in the Implementation of "Harmonious Borders"]. 甘肃社会科学 1: 136–39.
- Ding, Hong (1999). 东干文化研究 [The study of Dungan culture]. Beijing: 中央民族学院出版社. p. 63.
- "在资金和财力上支持对海外少数民族侨胞宣传" [On finances and resources to support information dissemination towards overseas Chinese ethnic minorities]. 人民网. 2011-03-10. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- Pike, John. "Chinese Civil War". Global Security. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
- "Chiang Kai Shiek". Sarawakiana. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- Yong, Ching Fatt. "The Kuomintang Movement in British Malaya, 1912-1949". University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- Tan, Kah Kee. "The Making of an Overseas Chinese Legend". World Scientific Publishing Company. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- Jan Voon, Cham (2002). "Kuomintang's influence on Sarawak Chinese". Sarawak Chinese political thinking : 1911-1963 (master thesis). University of Malaysia Sarawak ( UNIMAS). Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- Wong, Coleen. "The KMT Soldiers Who Stayed Behind In China". THE DIPLOMAT. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- The Story of California From the Earliest Days to the Present, by Henry K. Norton. 7th ed. Chicago, A.C. McClurg & Co., 1924. Chapter XXIV, pp. 283-296.
- Kim, Hyung-jin (2006-08-29). "No 'real' Chinatown in S. Korea, the result of xenophobic attitudes". Yonhap News. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
- "출입국 외국인 정책본부". Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- Chinese flocking in numbers to a new frontier: Africa
- SA-Born Chinese and the Colours of Exclusion, allAfrica.com:
- China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration, By Malia Politzer, Migration Information Source, August 2008
- Zambians wary of "exploitative" Chinese employers, irinnews.org, November 23, 2006
- Direct air flights between Nigeria, China proposed, China Daily, August 30, 2008
- China’s African Misadventures, Newsweek, December 3, 2007
- Chinese, Algerians fight in Algiers - witnesses. Reuters. August 4, 2009.
- "Chinese Come To Russia". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Chinese - Russia - China - Worldpress.org". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Newsmax. "Newsmax.com - Breaking news from around the globe: U.S. news, politics, world, health, finance, video, science, technology, live news stream". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "BBC News - ASIA-PACIFIC - Vladivostok's Chinese puzzle". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Ganske, Charles (2009-04-01). "The Myth of the Yellow Peril: Overhyping Chinese Migration into Russia". Russia Blog. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- Chinesen in Deutschland – ein historischer Überblick
- Heimat süßsauer
- "The world's successful diasporas". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- Amy Chua, "World on Fire", 2003, Doubleday, pg. 3 & 43.
- Amy Chua, "World on Fire", 2003, Doubleday, pg. 61.
- Malaysia's race rules. The Economist Newspaper Limited (2005-08-25). Requires login.
- "404,你懂得_环球网". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "东南亚华人遭受的几次屠杀". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Indonesian academics fight burning of books on 1965 coup, smh.com.au
- Vickers (2005), p. 158
- "BBC News - Analysis - Indonesia: Why ethnic Chinese are afraid". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Wages of Hatred. Michael Shari. Business Week.
- "May 13 by Kua Kia Soong". Littlespeck.com. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- "Editorial: Racist moves will rebound on Tonga". The New Zealand Herald. November 23, 2001. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
- Spiller, Penny: "Riots highlight Chinese tensions", BBC News, Friday, 21 April 2006, 18:57 GMT
- Independent Newspapers Online. "Race clouds Malaysian birthday festivities". Independent Online. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- The World Today Barbara Miller (2011-06-30). "Chinese Australians want apology for discrimination - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- John R. Jones Guide to Vietnam 1994 - Page 29 "Confucianism. Confucianism entered Vietnam from China during the Bac Thuoc era (111 BC - AD 938) when the country was under the yoke.."
- West (2010), pp. 289-90
- Pierson, David (2006-03-31). "Dragon Roars in San Gabriel - Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times.
- West (2010), pp. 289-90
- Profile of the Singapore Chinese Dialect Groups Lee, Edward Eu Fah. Singapore Department of Statistics, 2000
- "http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/413581/1/.html". Channelnewsasia.com. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Chua, Beng Huat. Life is Not Complete Without Shopping: Consumption Culture in Singapore, 2003, Singapore University Press, p. 89-90.
- Astro AEC, Behind the Dialect Groups, Year 2012
- Tze Wei Sim, Why are the Native Languages of the Chinese Malaysians in Decline. Journal of Taiwanese Vernacular, p. 75, 2012
- Lewis 2005, p. 391.
- "Dari Tiongkok ke Pulau Bangka Bedol Desa ala Kuli Tionghoa". AMCA. August 19, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
- William Allen Smalley (1994). Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language. University of Chicago Press. pp. 212–3. ISBN 0-226-76288-2.
- Tong, Chee Kiong. Alternate Identities: The Chinese of Contemporary Thailand, 2001, BRILL, p. 21-25.
- Khanh (1993), p. 31
- "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous People". Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- "Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey 2013" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, Government of Cambodia. July 2014. p. 12. Retrieved 2015-01-16.
- Moeun Nhean (28 January 2014). "Chinese New Year: family, food and prosperity for the year ahead". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- Willmott (1967), p. 104 – Table A: Chinese Urban Population in Cambodia by province and language group
- "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous People". Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- A. Doak Barnett (1960). Communist China and Asia. Published for the Council on Foreign Relations. p. 175.
- Hooker, Michael Barry (2002). Law and the Chinese in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-125-9.
- Rieffel, Lex (2010). Myanmar/Burma: inside challenges, outside interests. Brookings Institution Press. pp. 95–97. ISBN 978-0-8157-0505-5.
- "China's Ambitions in Myanmar". Asia Pacific Media Services Limited. July 2000.
- Chua, Amy (May 2004). "Review: The Ethnic Question in Law and Development". World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability (The Michigan Law Review Association) 102 (6): 1044–1103. JSTOR 4141938.
- "The ethnic Chinese variable in domestic and foreign policies in Malaysia and Indonesia" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-23.
- Teresita Ang-See, "Chinese in the Philippines", 1997, Kaisa, pg. 57.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
- John Marzulli (May 9, 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: © Copyright 2012 NY Daily News.com. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
- "Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing". QueensBuzz.com. January 25, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- "Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000" (PDF). U.S. Census Brueau. October 2003. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- "2006 Census Profile of Federal Electoral Districts (2003 Representation Order): Language, Mobility and Migration and Immigration and Citizenship". Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 2007.
- "2006 Census Area Profiles: Profile of Language, Immigration, Citizenship, Mobility and Migration for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (2003 Representation Order), 2006 Census – Data Table". Statistics Canada. Government of Canada. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Lai, H. Mark (2004). Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0458-1.
- García, Ofelia; Fishman, Joshua A. (2002). The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-017281-X.
- Community Profiles from the 2006 Census - Richmond. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- Community Profiles from the 2006 Census - Vancouver CMA. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- Chinese rich are keen to emigrate, China Daily, November 3, 2011
- 美国投资移民中国人占四分三 - 3/4 of Investment Immigrants to the USA are Chinese (bilingual), Thinking Chinese, November 2011
- "U.S., Canada favored by China's third wave of emigrants - Headlines, features, photo and videos from". ecns.cn. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- "U.S. ambassador nominee stirs strong emotions in China". Statesman.com. 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- The Cultural Imperative - Richard D. Lewis - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China -- china.org.cn". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Report: Half of China's millionaires want to leave". CNN. 2011-11-01.
- "Will China's rise shape Malaysian Chinese community?". BBC News. 2011-12-30.
- Bartlett, David (1997). The Political Economy of Dual Transformations: Market Reform and Democratization in Hungary. University of Michigan Press. p. P. 280.
- Fukuda, Kazuo John (1998). Japan and China: The Meeting of Asia's Economic Giants. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7890-0417-8.
- "Migration and Remittances: Top Countries" (PDF).
- Murray L Weidenbaum (1 January 1996). The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-684-82289-1.
- "Chapter 5: The development and future of Chinese kinship Associations in Singapore and Malaysia". The Chinese in Southeast Asia and beyond: socioeconomic and political dimensions by Qinghuang Yan. World Scientific. 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-01.
- "Economic Base and Population". Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan. Statistics Malaysia. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
- "Toronto: Largest number of visible minorities in the country". Canada's Ethnocultural Mosaic, 2006 Census: Canada's major census metropolitan areas. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- Profile of Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities for Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census.
- Park, Yoon Jung (2009). Recent Chinese Migrations to South Africa - New Intersections of Race, Class and Ethnicity (PDF). Representation, Expression and Identity (Interdisciplinary Perspectives). ISBN 978-1-904710-81-3. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
- VISÃO - Impresa Publishing S.A. "Angola Cerca de 259.000 chineses vivem atualmente no país". Visão. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Tremann, Cornelia (December 2013). "Temporary Chinese Migration to Madagascar: Local Perceptions, Economic Impacts, and Human Capital Flows" (PDF). African Review of Economics and Finance 5 (1).
- Background Note: Mauritius, U.S. Department of State: U.S. Department of State, 2010, retrieved 2012-03-24
- Chinese Language Educational Foundation 1999
- Kamitewoko, Edwige (2013). "Determinants of Economic Activity Choices: Case of Chinese Migrant in Congo Brazzaville". American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 1 (4): 228–235.
- Zhao, Shengnan (2012-05-25), "70 Arrested in Nigeria Freed", China Daily, retrieved 2012-09-03
- "Zambia has 13,000 Chinese". Zambia Daily Mail News. March 21, 2015.
- "Drivers of change or cut-throat competitors? Challenging Cultures of Innovation of Chinese and Nigerian migrant entrepreneurs in West Africa," p. 10
- Horta, Loro. "China, Mozambique: old friends, new business". International Relations and Security Network.
- Xinhua News Agency (2008-04-13), "达市圣火传递路线精彩纷呈 14名华人参加接力 (14 Chinese march in splendid Dar Es Salaam Olympic torch parade)", People's Daily, retrieved 2008-10-30
- Sautman, Barry; Yan Hairong (December 2007). "Friends and Interests: China’s Distinctive Links with Africa" (PDF). African Studies Review 50 (3): 89. doi:10.1353/arw.2008.0014.
- Situma, Evelyn (2013-11-07). "Kenya savours, rues China moment". Business Daily.
- Jaramogi, Pattrick (2013-02-18), Uganda: Chinese Investments in Uganda Now At Sh1.5 Trillion, retrieved 2013-02-20
- "'The Oriental Post': the new China-Africa weekly", France 24, 2009-07-10, retrieved 2009-08-26
- "Chinese Engagement In Lesotho And Potential Areas For Cooperation". Wikileaks.
- "Somalis in Soweto and Nairobi, Chinese in Congo and Zambia, local anger in Africa targets foreigners". Mail & Guardian. January 25, 2015.
- Aurégan, Xavier (February 2012). "Les "communautés" chinoises en Côte d’Ivoire". Instit Francais de Geopolitique.
- Update on Chinese activities in Namibia, WikiLeaks.org, 2009-04-09
- "China-Mali relationship: Finding mutual benefit between unequal partners" (PDF). Centre for Chinese Studies Policy Briefing. January 2014.
- "1999 年底非洲国家和地区华侨、华人人口数 (1999 year-end statistics on Chinese expatriate and overseas Chinese population numbers in African countries and territories)". Chinese Language Educational Foundation.
- Thailand CIA World Factbook
- "Malaysia". Background Notes. United States: Department of State. December 2010. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "Publication Name:". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "한국 사는 외국인, 절반이 `王서방` - 중앙일보 뉴스". Article.joinsmsn.com. 2011-06-23. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- "Cambodia is under Chinese cultural influence: Hun Xen’s confession « The Son of the Khmer Empire កម្ពុជាត្រូវការមេដឹកនាំថ្មីតែមិនមែនក្រុមក្បត់ជាតិនេះទេ!". Sokheounpang.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- "Brunei". The World Factbook. Langley, VA: Central Intelligence Agency. 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-17. The total population of Brunei is estimated at 380,000, of whom 11.2% are of Chinese descent.
- "Appeal to international organisations - Stop the China-Israel migrant worker scam!" (Press release). Kav La'Oved. 2001-12-21. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
- Joseph Puder (Sep 5, 2012). "The Growing Chinese-Israeli Relationship". Front Page Mag. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
- "Chinese in N.Korea 'Face Repression'". Chosun Ilbo. 2009-10-10. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- Fazl-e-Haider, Syed (2009-09-11). "Chinese shun Pakistan exodus". Asia Times. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
- "Qatar´s population by nationality". bq magazine. 2014-07-12. Retrieved 2014-12-21.
- "India’s fading Chinese community faces painful war past". AFP. November 2, 2014.
- "Chinese population statistics - Countries compared". NationMaster. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- Population and Housing Census 2009. Book 2. Part 1. (in tables). Population of Kyrgyzstan. (Перепись населения и жилищного фонда Кыргызской Республики 2009. Книга 2. Часть 1. (в таблицах). Население Кыргызстана) (PDF), Bishkek: National Committee on Statistics, 2010
- Zayonchkovskaya 2004
- Larin 2008
- ""Chinois de France" ne veut rien dire | Slate". Slate.fr. 2010-06-28. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- ""Population of the UK, by ethnic group, 2001" (Note that in UK usage Asian in this context refer to South Asia)". Retrieved 23 June 2006.
- CBS 2012
- "PX-Web - välj tabell". Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Statistics Yearbook of Ireland 2012
- "Innvandrarbefolkninga og personar med annan innvandringsbakgrunn, etter innvandringskategori, kjønn og landbakgrunn. 1. januar 2001". Statistics Norway (in Norwegian).
- Statistics Denmark 2009
- Кръстева, Анна (2005). "Китайците". Имиграцията в България (PDF). София: IMIR. pp. 80–104. ISBN 954-8872-56-0.
- "Foreign population with legal status of residence (No.) by Place of residence (NUTS-2002) and Nationality". Population. Instituto Nacional de Estatística. 2007. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- Tilastokeskus .
- Czech Statistical Office 2007
- Vasiliu, Adrian O.; Vasileanu, Marius; Duţă, Mihai; Covaci, Talida (2005-08-01). "Chinezii din Romania - polul est-european al civilizatiei asiatice/Chinese in Romania - Eastern European pole of Asian civilisation". Adevărul. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији: Становништво према националној припадности - „Oстали“ етничке заједнице са мање од 2000 припадника и двојако изјашњени
- Population by country of citizenship sex and age
- " Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data," 
- http://www.eluniversal.com/internacional/130708/la-diaspora-china-en-venezuela-acelera-su-relevo-generacional "Chinese diaspora in Venezuela: There is around 400,000 Chinese, said the President of the Chinese Federation in Venezuela" "Quantitative studies estimate 450,000 Chinese in Venezuela, being the second biggest community of chinese in Latin America" (SPANISH)
- President Chen's State Visit to Panama, Government Information Office, Republic of China, October 2003, retrieved 2007-11-07
- Hua, Vanessa (2002-06-23), "Playing the Panama card - The China-Taiwan connection", The San Francisco Chronicle, retrieved 2007-11-07
- Clarín: As of 2010, Chinese community becomes the fourth largest group of immigrants in Argentina (Spanish)
- CIA World Factbook. Cuba. 2008. May 15, 2008. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cu.html>.
- Joshua Project. "Han Chinese, Hakka in Jamaica". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Rodriguez, Olga R. (November 24, 2012). "Chinese-Mexicans Celebrate Return To Mexico". The Huffington Post.
- By Rachel Will Date Published: 10/21/2011 
- Romero, Simon (2011-04-10). "China Aids Suriname, Expanding South American Role". The New York Times.
- "The Chinese Community and Santo Domingo's Barrio Chino". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Nicaragua: People groups". Joshua Project. Retrieved 2007-03-26.
- "Chinese in Guyana: Their Roots". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Redatam::CEPAL/CELADE - R+SP WebServer". Celade.cepal.org. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- , 2013 Census, Statistics New Zealand. Accessed 2014-5-31.
- Fiji, CIA World Factbook, retrieved March 23rd, 2012
- Nelson 2007, p. 8
- Chin 2008, p. 118
- "Tonga announces the expulsion of hundreds of Chinese immigrants", John Braddock, wsws.org, December 18, 2001
- Paul Raffaele and Mathew Dearnaley (November 22, 2001). "Tonga to expel race-hate victims". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
- Palau, CIA World Factbook, rertieved March 23rd, 2012