Politics of Somaliland

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The politics of Somaliland take place within a hybrid system of governance, which, under the Somaliland region's constitution, combines traditional and western institutions. The constitution separates government into an executive branch, a legislative branch, and a judicial branch, each of which functions independently from the others.[1]

History[edit]

For its first twelve years, Somaliland had no political parties but instead followed more traditional clan-based forms of political organization. Political parties were introduced during the presidential elections and it was hoped that the recent parliamentary elections would help to usher in a representative system without allowing representation to be overtly clan-based.

District elections then held determined which parties were allowed to contest the parliamentary and presidential elections, where a party was required to demonstrate at least twenty percent of the popular vote from four out of the six regions. This was designed to ensure that parties would not organize around ethnic lines. Three parties were selected to submit presidential candidates: the United Democratic Peoples’ Party (UDUB), Kulmiye, and the Party for Justice and Welfare (UCID). On April 14, 2003, 488,543[citation needed] voters participated in the presidential elections, which ran more or less smoothly. The result was a slim eighty vote controversial victory for UDUB over the Kulmiye, complicated by allegations of ballot stuffing against the incumbent UDUB. Despite calls for the Kulmiye to form a rival government, the party’s leadership did not do so, instead choosing to abide by the Supreme Court ruling that declared UDUB’s victory. Despite minor demonstrations, the transition to the presidency of Dahir Riyale Kahin proceeded peacefully. A traditional system of governance consisted of clan elders who go by titles such as sultans, guurti or akils. They usually ordered the paying of diya, which is a payment system for any grievances, or dealt in arbitration matters.[2]

Foreign policy[edit]

The central theme of Somaliland's foreign policy is the pursuit of international recognition of its de facto independence. It refused to participate in pan-Somali peace talks and declined to reintegration in Somalia.

Relations with Ethiopia[edit]

maintains with the adjacent Ethiopia Somaliland good (economic) relations; since Eritrean-Ethiopian War 1998-2000, much of the Ethiopian exports through the port of Berbera is handled as Ethiopia ports Eritrea s (Massawa and especially Assab) can no longer use. These relationships are contrary to many Somali felt in other areas "traditional enmity" against Ethiopia and against the background that many Northern Somalis to Ogaden War Siad Barre had not supported against Ethiopia already and the SNM was sponsored by Ethiopia.[3] However, to date they have not for a official recognition through Ethiopia.

Ethiopia also supports the transitional government in southern Somalia against Islamists and other opponents and intervened there from late 2006 to early 2009 military. This military presence was largely unpopular and has been widely regarded as occupation. Parts of the Somali people throwing Ethiopia of wanting to Somalia weaken and fragment to prevent future claims on a Greater Somalia [4] from this perspective, they consider the Ethiopian support for Somaliland as part of this strategy or Somaliland cooperation with Ethiopia as a betrayal.

Relations with the wider international community[edit]

Other states in the region refuse for various reasons from a recognition of Somaliland. So feared Djibouti that, for a recognition of the port Berbera gain importance and so would be the competition for their own harbor. From Sudan esischer view the recognition of Somaliland would be a sign of the independence Sudan s. Egypt, the dispute with Ethiopia over the distribution of the Nile water , the emergence of Ethiopia friendly to state saw also reluctant.[5] It advocates like other Arab states - especially Saudi Arabia - a united Somalia as a counterweight Ethiopia, which is marked christian and maintains good relations with the US and Israel [6]

The main reason for the reluctance of the rest of the international community is the fear that a recognition of Somaliland would impact negatively on the peace efforts in the rest of Somalia and used by others striving for independence structures as a precedent. apply in Africa especially Africa, Zambia, Rwanda and Ghana [7] as supporters of Somaliland [6] but you feel as Western states with a recognition. as long as the African Union does not do this step. Within the European Union are particularly Britain and Denmark and Sweden Somaliland positive about while especially Italy - the former colonial power of the rest Somalia - wants to maintain the unity of Somalia [8] The USA currently support the transitional government; since this has so far proved largely unpopular and unsuccessful, advocating some foreign policy and military circles, meanwhile, a change of US support to the Somaliland side. Somaliland has established itself as a location for the Regional Command of the US Armed Forces AFRICOM offered after this had encountered in many parts of Africa to reject [9][10][11]

Defect recognition received Somaliland little external support for its economic and political structure, partly through remittances expatriate Somalilanders. Is offset [12] Some observers believe that Somaliland is precisely why more firmly anchored within the population could avoid the negative effects of dependence on external aid [6] Unlike many African countries Somaliland has no foreign debt, as there are no loans of world Bank or . International Monetary Fund receives.

Meanwhile Somaliland is treated in various ways in practice as a country, without being connected to an official recognition. This development has been called "creeping informal and pragmatic acceptance of Somaliland as a political reality" [13] describes. So Djibouti and Ethiopia accept somaliländische passports. Britain, the EU and the US have supported the conduct of elections. A number of international organizations and companies that are active in Somaliland, are in contact with Somaliland authorities and have agreements with these closed. President Dahir Riyale Kahin in 2008 in London and Washington taken by officials in receiving, and in Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Italy, Kenya and Yemen were representatives of Somaliland receive. Ethiopia maintains a trading office in Hargeysa, the de facto tantamount to a message.[6] Somaliland has its part in Ethiopia, South Africa, Ghana, London and Brussels officially recognized representatives.[14]

Somaliland is a member of the UNPO and has applied for membership of the African Union in December 2005.[15] A fact-finding mission of the AU visited in April and May that year Somaliland and said in their report carefully for a recognition of the country. The AU predecessor OAU had declined because they feared that the recognition of a secession could make further wars of independence in Africa feed [16][17] She had held since its inception to the principle that the conclusions drawn in colonial state borders must not be changed to the potential for conflict to reduce. Somaliland replies that it British Somaliland was a private limited area in the colonial period as that have voluntarily elected union with Italian Somaliland five days after its recognized independence and this now with in accordance the colonial borders would leave. Law all, it will move to the position that there is no secession, but the resolution of a Union have completed.[18]

The International Crisis Group advocates in a report in 2006 in favor of Somaliland observer in the AU, in the United Nations and in the regional organization IGAD give and to consider recognizing the independence.

Somaliland and exiled Somalilanders[edit]

Because significantly strengthened as a result of dictatorship and civil war by a long tradition of emigration for the purpose of commercial activities, training or job search, and more recently from 1970 to the early 1990s, today a large number of people living in the area of ​​Somaliland as refugees and economic migrants in Arab countries, in Europe or North America. These exiled Somalilanders have contributed significantly to the development of Somaliland, continue to play a role in the economy and are committed to a large extent in the Politics of Somaliland. Somaliland was therefore referred to as "transnational state", whose capital Hargeysa is, but of which many citizens are scattered throughout the world and provide much of the economic performance there.

Virtually all exiled Somalilanders regularly transfer money to Somaliland, an estimated 200 to 500 million US dollars (for the whole of Somalia estimations range from 500 million to one billion). About half of these remittances go directly to relatives and contributes to their household income with. In addition, flow remittances also to local non-governmental organizations, or in the form of investments. Exiled Somalilanders financed the revolt of SNM in the 1980s and became involved in the peace process in the early 1990s. As returnees bring in increasing numbers qualifications and experience, and they represent the main source of funding for the existing since 2002 parties. Especially Isaaq, who live abroad, sit there for a recognition Somaliland one. [19]

System of government[edit]

Somaliland has a hybrid system of governance combining traditional and western institutions. In a series of inter-clan conferences, culminating in the Borama Conference in 1993, a qabil (clan or community) system of government was constructed, which consisted of an Executive, with a President, Vice President, and legislative government; a bicameral Legislature; and an independent judiciary. The traditional Somali elderates (guurti) was incorporated into the governance structure and formed the upper house, responsible for managing internal conflicts. Government became in essence a "power-sharing coalition of Somaliland's main clans," with seats in the Upper and Lower houses proportionally allocated to clans according to a pre-determined formula. In 2002, after several extensions of this interim government, Somaliland finally made the transition to multi-party democracy, with district council elections contested by six parties.[citation needed]

Current situation[edit]

Despite setbacks in 1994 and 1996, Somaliland has managed to prosper, assisted by its trade in livestock with Saudi Arabia.

It faces some significant problems to its continued survival. Like other Somali governments, it lacks a consistent taxation base and receives most of its support from private actors. Corruption remains a problem, women are virtually unrepresented in government, and there are growing concerns about voting patterns based on ethnic lines as well as the majority that UDUB has gained over both the regional councils and presidency as well as the parliament.

Economic development has been heavily supported the diaspora, lack of international recognition prevents international aid to it as a country.

International relations[edit]

In 2005 Somaliland joined the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO), an international organization dedicated to the promotion of the right to self-determination. The UN still says there are some boundaries Somaliland will have to cross before it is recognized.

Wales[edit]

On March 1, 2006, the Welsh Assembly invited Abdirahman Mohamed Abdullahi, the speaker of the Somaliland parliament to the opening of a new Assembly building. Mr. Abdillahi said that Somaliland sees his invitation "as a mark of recognition by the National Assembly for Wales that [Somaliland has] legitimacy." The Somali community in Wales numbers 8.000-10.000, most of whom come from Somaliland.

In December 2006 representatives of the Somaliland Parliament again attended the Welsh Assembly receiving a standing ovation from its members. Two months earlier the Assembly approved the establishment of an aid budget for Africa. These moves were approved by the UK Foreign Office and Department for International Development and are seen as an attempt by the UK to encourage and reward the authorities in its former colony while avoiding the issue of formal recognition.[20]

Executive Branch[edit]

The House of Representatives in Hargeisa
Meeting hall, House of Representatives
Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Ahmed M. Mahamoud Silanyo PUDP 27 July 2010

Legislative Branch[edit]

The Parliament (Baarlamaanka) has two chambers. The House of Representatives (Golaha Wakiilada) has 82 members, elected for a five-year term. The House of Elders (Golaha Guurtida) has 82 members, representing traditional leaders.

Political parties and elections[edit]

For other political parties, see List of political parties in Somaliland. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Somaliland.

Somaliland elects on national level a head of state (the president) and a legislature. The president is elected by the people for a five-year term.

2005 Parliamentary election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 28 September 2005 House of Representatives of Somaliland election results
Parties Votes % Seats
UDUB For Unity, Democracy, and Independence (Ururka dimuqraadiga ummadda bahawday) 261,449 39.0 33
KULMIYE Peace, Unity, and Development Party (KULMIYE Nabad, Midnimo iyo horumar) 228,328 34.1 28
UCID For Justice and Development (Ururka Caddaalada iyo Daryeelka) 180,545 26.9 21
Total 680,322 100.0 82
Invalid votes 4,585
Total votes cast 674,907
Source: IRI

2003 Presidential election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 14 April 2003 Somaliland presidential election results
Candidates - Nominating parties Votes %
Dahir Riyale Kahin - For Unity, Democracy, and Independence 205,595 41.23
Ahmed M. Mahamoud Silanyo - Peace, Unity, and Development Party 205,515 41.21
Faysal Cali Warabe - For Justice and Development 77,433 15.52
Valid votes 488,543 98.0
Invalid votes 10,096 2.0
Total (Turnout ?%) 498,639 100.0
Source: African elections

Dahir Riyale Kahin's Cabinet[edit]

  • President: Dahir Riyale Kahin
  • Vice-President: Ahmed Yusuf Yasin
  • Minister of foreign affairs: Abdillahi Mohamed Dualeh
  • Deputy Minister for Foreign affairs: Kayse Ahmed and Said Mohamed Nuur has already died
  • Minister of planning: Ali Ibrahim MohamedDeputy Minister: Ahmed Hashi Abdi
  • Minister of resettlement and rehabilitation: Abshir Ahmed Hussein He was replaced
  • Minister of defence: Adan Mire Mohamed He was replaced
  • Minister of water and mineral resources: Osman Sheikh and Qasim Sheekh Yusuf has died
  • Minister of sports: Mohamoud Said Mohamed
  • Minister of justice: Adan Ahmed Elmi
  • Minister of agriculture: Abdi Haybe
  • Minister of interior: Abdillahi Ismail Ali
  • Minister of finance: Huseen Ali Duale
  • Minister of information: Ahmed Haji Dahir Elmi
  • Minister of education: Hassan Haji Mohamoud
  • Minister of commerce and industry: Abib Hassan Fil-fil
  • Minister of religion: Sh. Mohamed Sh Mohamoud
  • Minister of fisheries: ali Qorseef
  • Minister of livestock:Omar Sh.Mohamoud Farah and Dr. Idiris Abdi has unfortunately died
  • Minister of range and rural development New minister had been named and Fuad Adan Addb became opposition
  • Minister of tourism and culture: Abdulkadir Waberi and Osman Bile Ali has died
  • Minister of health and labour: Adan Ahmed Elmi and Abdillahi Hussein Iman come opposition in KULMIYE
  • Minister of civil aviation: Ali Mohamed
  • Minister of presidency: Hassan Wadaad and come president adviser Nuh Mohamed Osman
  • Minister for public works: Said Sulub
  • Minister of state for reconstruction, resettlement and rehabilitation: Khalil Abdulkadir Farah Hersi
  • Minister of state for interior: Aw Adan Ali Saeed
  • Minister of relations with houses of parliament: He died Abdi Hassan Buuni
  • Minister of post and telecommunications: Ali Sandule
  • Minister for family affairs and social development: Fadumo Hassan Sudi
  • Minister of state for public works:Adan Ahmed Mohamoud

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Somaliland Government". The Somaliland Government. Retrieved 28 July 2012. 
  2. ^ World Disasters Report retrieved 25 February 2012
  3. ^ Maria Brons: Somaliland: Two years after the Declaration of independence , 1993, ISBN 978-3-928049-23-8 (S. 11, 23, 25)
  4. ^ Ken Menkhaus:. To understand the state failure in Somalia: internal and external dimensions , in: Heinrich Böll Foundation (ed.): Somalia - conflicts and new chances for State Building , 2008
  5. ^ GEO N o 338, April 2007:! Somaliland - Bienvenue au pays qui n 'existe pas
  6. ^ a b c d Seth Kaplan:. the Remarkable Story of Somaliland , in: Journal of Democracy , Vol. 19/3, July 2008
  7. ^ Dahir Riyale Kahin: / 26 / bittersweet-independence / Bittersweet Independence, in: Washington post, June 26, 2007 (Ghana)
  8. ^ the Senlis Council. Chronic Failures in the War on Terror, From Afghanistan to Somalia (p.67)
  9. ^ Jeremy Sare: co.uk/commentisfree/2008/oct/08/somalia.africanunion It's time Somaliland which declared independent, in: Guardian.co.uk, October 8, 2008
  10. ^ J. Peter Pham: The US and Somaliland: A Roadmap, in: World Defense Review, 22 February 2008
  11. ^ Richard Lough: [http: // english.aljazeera.net/focus/2008/07/200871383754692.html Africa's isolated state], in: Al Jazeera English 24 February 2009.
  12. ^ David H. Shinn : Somaliland: the Little country that Could. (2002)
  13. ^ Mark Bradbury, Adan Yusuf Abokor, Haroon Ahmed Yusuf: Somaliland: Choosing Politics over Violence , in: Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 30 No. 97 (creeping informal and pragmatic acceptance of Somaliland as a political reality) .
  14. ^ [http : //www.afrol.com/articles/25633 Somaliland closer to recognition by Ethiopia], in: afrol News, June 2007
  15. ^ International Crisis Group.: Somaliland: Time for African Union Leadership, 2006
  16. ^ ? articlePage.aspx articleid = 263915 & area = / insight / insight__africa / mail & Guardian online: AU supports Somaliland split
  17. ^ Template:Web Archive
  18. ^ Brons 1993
  19. ^ Bradbury 2008 ( S. 146-151, 174-179)
  20. ^ "Somaliland: Wales Strikes Out On Its Own In Its Recognition of Somaliland". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. 6 March 2005. 

External links[edit]