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||It has been suggested that Derawali dialect and Saraiki dialect be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2013.|
|ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پنجابی, पंजाबी
The word "Punjabi" in Gurmukhi, Shahmukhi and Devanagari
|Native to||India, Pakistan|
|Region||Eastern Punjab, Western Punjab|
|Native speakers||100 million (2010)|
|Writing system||Gurmukhi (Brahmic)
Shahmukhī alphabet (Perso-Arabic)
|Official language in||India (Indian states of Punjab & Haryana, secondary officially recognised language in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, & West Bengal)|
|Regulated by||No official regulation|
pan – Indian Panjabi
pnb – Pakistani Panjabi
Distribution of native Punjabi and Lahnda speakers in India and Pakistan
||This article contains weasel words: vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. (May 2013)|
Punjabi /pʌnˈdʒɑːbi/ (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, Shahmukhi: پنجابی, Devanagari: पंजाबी) Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region (India and Pakistan). Punjabi is unusual among modern Indo-European languages because it is a tonal language.
Punjabi is natively spoken by the majority of the population of Pakistan, and it is the primary language of the Sikhs in India and the third-most natively spoken language in South Asia, after Hindustani and Bengali. Punjabi is also currently the fourth most spoken language in the United Kingdom and the third most spoken language in Canada.
The influence of Punjabi as a cultural language in the Indian Subcontinent is increasing day by day[dubious ] mainly due to Bollywood. Most Bollywood movies now have Punjabi vocabulary mixed in, along with a few songs fully sung in Punjabi. At any point in time, Punjabi songs in Bollywood movies now account for more than 50% of the top of the charts listings.
The world Punjabi is derived from the word Punjab which means "five waters" in Persian "panj aab", Panj is also derived from Sanskrit "panch" meaning "five" and refers to five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The historical Punjab region, now divided between Pakistan and India, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej River.
There are three ways to write Punjabi - Gurmukhi, Shahmukhi, and Devanagari. The word Gurmukhi translates into 'Guru's mouth', Shahmukhi means 'from the King's mouth' and Devanagari roughly translated means 'The container of divine light.'
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language. It is a descendant of the Shauraseni language, which was the chief language of medieval northern India. Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 12th century. Fariduddin Ganjshakar is generally recognized as the first major poet of the Punjabi language,.
The Sikh religion originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region and Punjabi is the predominant language spoken by the Sikhs. Most portions of the Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi language written in Gurmukhi, though Punjabi is not the only language used in Sikh scriptures. The Janamsakhis, stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature. Guru Nanak himself composed Punjabi verse incorporating vocabulary from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other Indic languages as characteristic of the Gurbani tradition. Punjabi Sufi poetry developed under Shah Hussain (1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1628–1691), Shah Sharaf (1640–1724), Ali Haider (1690–1785), Saleh muhammad safoori (son of, Mai Safoora whome Ali Haider had given great tribute) and Bulleh Shah (1680–1757). In contrast to Persian poets, who had preferred the ghazal for poetic expression, Punjabi Sufi poets tended to compose in the Kafi.
Punjabi Sufi poetry also influenced other Punjabi literary traditions particularly the Punjabi Qissa, a genre of romantic tragedy which also derived inspiration from Indic, Persian and Quranic sources. The Qissa of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qisse. Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiba by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), Sassi Punnun by Hashim Shah (1735?–1843?), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryar (1802–1892).
Heroic ballads known as Vaar enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Prominent examples of heroic or epic poetry include Guru Gobind Singh's in Chandi di Var (1666–1708). The semi-historical Nadir Shah Di Vaar by Najabat describes the invasion of India by Nadir Shah in 1739. The Jangnama, or 'War Chronicle,' was introduced into Punjabi literature during the Mughal period; the Punjabi Jangnama of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862) recounts the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845–46.
Modern Punjabi 
Majhi standard Punjabi is the written standard for Punjabi in both parts of Punjab. Pakistani Punjabi contains a stronger Persian and Arabic vocabulary influences, while Indian Punjabi relies more heavily on Sanskrit. Pakistani Punjabis use the Shahmukhī script, created from a modification of the Persian-Nasta’liq script. In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 languages with official status in India. It is the first official language of the Indian Punjab. In Pakistan, Punjabi has has not been granted official status though it is the most spoken language and is the provincial language of Punjab (Pakistan), the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan.
Official recognition 
Punjabi is one of the languages recognized by the Indian constitution at the state level, in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, and West Bengal. There is no such recognition in Pakistan. According to Dr. Manzur Ejaz, "In Central Punjab, Punjabi is amazingly still neither an official language of the province nor it is used as medium of education at any level in Pakistan. There are only two daily newspapers published in Punjabi in the Central areas of Punjab. Only a few monthly literary magazines constitute Punjabi press in Pakistan".
Punjabi in modern culture 
Punjabi is becoming more acceptable among Punjabis in modern media and communications. Punjabi has always been an integral part of Indian Bollywood cinema. In recent years a trend of Bollywood songs written totally in Punjabi can be observed. Punjabi pop and folk songs are very popular both in India and Pakistan at the national level. A number of television dramas based on Punjabi characters are telecast by different channels. The number of students opting for Punjabi literature has increased in Pakistani Punjab. Punjabi cinema in India has also seen a revival and more and more Punjabi movies are being produced. In India, number of student opting for Punjabi Literature as optional subject in IAS examinations has increased along with success rate of the students. Punjabi music is very popular in modern times.
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
Punjabi consists of many dialects that form a dialect continuum. The dialects that comprise this continuum eventually merge with Hindi in India and Sindhi in Pakistan. The dialects enjoy a relatively high level of mutual intelligibility and can be differentiated slightly with respect to their lexicons. In India, the key dialects of Punjabi are: Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, and Powadhi. In Pakistan, the key dialects are Majhi, Pothohari, Hindko, and Multani. Following the work presented in Grierson’s (1905) Linguistic Survey of India, a number of Indic scholars have further divided Punjabi into two principal languages – Western Punjabi or Lahnda and Eastern Punjabi. This decision, however, is controversial and by no means reflects the majority view in Indic linguistics. Modern linguists Nataliia Ivanovna Tolstaia write that in practice there is no contrast between Eastern or western Punjabi to the extent that it could be termed as such as different languages and speakers of Eastern or western Punjabi alike use same literary language that is why many Punjabi scholars are inclined to regard both as a form of single language Punjabi.
Note: this is not the conception of Punjabi used in this article.
Standard dialect 
The Majhi is Punjabi's prestige dialect because it is standard of written Punjabi. It is spoken in the heart of Punjab in historical region of Majha which spans Lahore, Sheikhupura, Kasur, Okara, Nankana Sahib, Faisalabad,Gujranwala, Wazirabad, Sialkot, Narowal, Gujrat, Pakpattan, Hafizabad, Mandi Bahauddin Districts of Pakistan Punjab Province and also in major cities of Pakistani Punjab.In India Amritsar, Tarn Taran Sahib, and Gurdaspur Districts of the State of Punjab and sizable population also in major cities of State of Punjab,Haryana, Utherchal Pardesh, Dehli and Mumbai India.
Eastern Punjabi dialect 
These dialects are spoken mainly in Indian Punjab
- Malwi (Ludhiana, Ambala, Bathinda, Ganganagar, Malerkotla, Fazilka, Ferozepur, Northern Haryana, Hisar, Sirsa and Kurukshetra)
- Pwadhi (Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura, Samrala, Pinjore, Kalka, Ismailabad, Pehowa to Bangar in Fatehabad district)
- Other dialects spoken in Indian Punjab include Bhatiani, Bilaspuri, Bagri, Kangri and Chambiali
- Doabi (Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur district).
Western Punjabi dialects 
Western Punjabi (Lahnda) dialects spoken in Western Parts of Pakistani Punjab are
- Pothohari (Rawalpindi and Jehlum Districts),
- Pahari(Dhundi-Kairali,Chibaali-Punchhi) (Tehsil Muree, Kotli sattian, & AJK)
- Dhani (Chakwal district)
- Shah puri (Sargodha division)
- Jhangochi (Khanewal and Jhang District)
- Jangli/Rachnavi (Sahiwal Distrct)
- Chenavari (Tehsil Athara Tehsil Jhang)
- Chhachi (Attock Tehsil)
- Jandali/Awankari (Jand Tehsil and Mianwali district)
- Ghebi (Pindi Gheb Tehsil)
- Thalochi (Bhakkar, Layyah and Muzzaffargarh District)
- Riasti (Bahawalpur Lodhran and Rahim Yar Khan districts)
- Hindko/Kohati/Peshawari (Hazara Division)
- Multani/Saraiki (Multan and Lodhran districts)
- Dogri (Jammu)
- Derawali (Rajanpur, Dera Ghazi Khan districts)
- Darhab (Narowal district)
In Indo-Aryan dialectology generally, the presence of transitional dialects creates problems in assigning some dialects to one or another "language". Northern dialects Hindko of Hazara/Kohati/Peshaweri and are now classified as a separate language Hindko.Jummu's Dogri is also classified as a separate languages. Similarly Southern dialects of Western Punjabi (Multani, Derawali and Riasti) are now also classified as a separate language Saraiki. However this sepration is controversial and Saraiki, Hindko and dogri are considered as a dialect of Main stream Punjabi because These are Mutually intangible, Morphologicaly and Syntactically similar with Standard Punjabi and is in fact dialect of Punjabi agreed by majority of local linguists such as Dulai, K Narinder, Gill, Harjeet Singh Gill, A Henry. Gleason (Jr), Koul, N Omkar, Siya Madhu Bala, Afzal Ahmed Cheema, Aamir Malik, Amar Nath  as well as modern linguistics publications such as US National advisory Committee based The UCLA Language Materials Project (LMP) along with modern Foreign linguistics such as Cardona and Nataliia Ivanovna Tolstaia classifing Hindko, Saraiki, Dogri as a dialects of Punjabi.
Geographic distribution 
Punjabi is the most widely spoken mother tongue in Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as first language by over 44.15% of Pakistanis. Lahore is the largest Punjabi speaking city in the world. 86% of the total population of Lahore are native Punjabis, and Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan, has 71% Native Punjabis of its total population.
|Year||Population of Pakistan||Percentage||Punjabi Speakers|
|3||Islamabad Capital Territory||1,343,625||71.66%|
|6||Federally Administered Tribal Areas||12,880||0.23%|
In the National Census of Pakistan (1981) Seraiki, Pahari or Potohari and Hindko (previously categorized as "Western Punjabi"), got the status of separate languages, which explains the decrease of the percentage of Punjabi speakers.
Punjabi is spoken as a native language by 3% of Indians. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. Some of its major urban centers are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, and Patiala
|Year||Population of India||Punjabi Speakers in India||Percentage|
The Punjabi diaspora 
Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, where it is the second-most-commonly used language, and Canada, where it is the fourth-most-spoken language.
There were 76 million Panjabi speakers in Pakistan in 2008, 33 million in India in 2011, 1.3 million in the UK in 2000, 368,000 in Canada in 2006, and smaller numbers in other countries.
Native speakers of Punjabi per country 
|5||United Arab Emirates||720,000|
|Close||iː ਈ||uː ਊ|
|Close-mid||eː ਏ||ɪ ਇ||ʊ ਉ||oː ਓ|
|Open-mid||ɛː ਐ||ɔː ਔ|
The long vowels (the vowels with [ː]) also have nasalized versions.
|Nasal||m ਮ||n ਨ||ɳ ਣ||ɲ ਞ||ŋ ਙ|
|voiceless||p ਪ||t̪ ਤ||ʈ ਟ||t͡ʃ ਚ||k ਕ|
|voiceless aspirated||pʰ ਫ||t̪ʰ ਥ||ʈʰ ਠ||t͡ʃʰ ਛ||kʰ ਖ|
|voiced||b ਬ||d̪ ਦ||ɖ ਡ||d͡ʒ ਜ||ɡ ਗ|
|Fricative||(f) ਫ਼||s ਸ (z) ਜ਼||(ʃ) ਸ਼||ɦ ਹ|
|Flap||ɾ ਰ||ɽ ੜ|
|Approximant||ʋ ਵ||l ਲ||ɭ ਲ਼||j ਯ|
Punjabi has three phonemically distinct tones that developed from the lost murmured (or "voiced aspirate") series of consonants. Phonetically the tones are rising or rising-falling contours and they can span over one syllable or two, but phonemically they can be distinguished as high, mid, and low.
A historical murmured consonant (voiced aspirate consonant) in word initial position became tenuis and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: ghoṛā [kòːɽɑ̀ː] "horse". A stem final murmured consonant became voiced and left a high tone on the two syllables preceding it: māgh [mɑ́ːɡ] "October". A stem medial murmured consonant which appeared after a short vowel and before a long vowel became voiced and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: maghāuṇā [məɡɑ̀ːʊ̀ɳɑ̀ː] "to have something lit". Other syllables and words have mid tone.
The grammar of the Punjabi language is the study of the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language. This main article discusses the grammar of Modern Standard Punjabi as defined by the sources cited therein.
Writing system 
There are three ways to write Punjabi - Gurmukhi, Shahmukhi, and Devanagari. The word Gurmukhi translates into 'Guru's mouth', Shahmukhi means 'from the King's mouth' and Devanagari roughly translated means 'The container of divine light.'
In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi and differs from the standard Nastaʿlīq script as it has four additional letters. The eastern part of the Punjab region, located in India, is divided into three states. In the state of Punjab, the Gurmukhī script is generally used for writing Punjabi. Punjabi Hindus, who are mainly concentrated in the neighbouring Indian states such as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, sometimes use the Devanāgarī script to write Punjabi.
Sample text 
Example 1 
This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Amritsar and transliterated into Latin script
Gurmukhi: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ, ਮਤਲਬ "ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਦਾ ਸਰੋਵਰ", ਪੰਜਾਬ, ਭਾਰਤ ਦਾ ਸਰਹੱਦੀ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਸਥਾਨ ਸਿੱਖ ਧਰਮ ਦ ਧਾਰਮਿਕ ਅਤੇ ਸਭਿਆਚਾਰਕ ਕੇਂਦਰ ਹੈ| ਇਹ ਦੀ ਆਬਾਦੀ ਕਰੀਬ ੨੦੦੦੦੦੦ ਸ਼ਹਿਰੀ ਅਤੇ ੩੦੦੦੦੦੦ ਦੇ ਕਰੀਬ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ ਜ਼ਿਲੇ ਵਿੱਚ ੨੦੦੧ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਜਨ-ਸੰਖਿਆ ਗਣਨਾ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਹੈ। ਇਸ ਦਾ ਪਰਸ਼ਾਸਕੀ ਮੁੱਖ ਦਫ਼ਤਰ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ ਜ਼ਿਲਾ ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਭਾਰਤ ਦੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਪਰਦੇਸ਼ ਵਿੱਚ ਉੱਤਰੀ ਭਾਗ ਹੈ, ਜੋ ਕਿ ਲਾਹੌਰ ਤੋਂ 67 ਕਿਲੋਮੀਟਰ ਦੂਰ ਹੈ।
Shahmukhi: امرتسر، مطلب "امرت دا سروور"، پنجاب، بھارت دا سرحدی شہر ہے۔ ایہہ ستھان سکھی د دھارمک اتے سبھیاچارک کیندر ہے| اس دی آبادی قریب 2000000 شہری اتے 3،000،000 دے قریب امرتسر ضلع وچّ 2001 بھارتی جن-سنکھیا گننا انوسار ہے۔ اس دا پرشاسکی مکھ دفتر امرتسر ضلع ہے۔ ایہہ بھارت دی پنجاب پردیش وچّ اتری بھاگ ہے، جو کہ لاہور توں 67 کلومیٹر دور ہے۔
Transliteration: ammritsar, matlab "amrit dā sarōvar", panjāb, pā̀rat dā sarhaddī shahir he. ih sathān sikkh tàram da tā̀rmik atē sàbiācārak kēndar he. ih dī ābādī karīb 2,000,000 shahirī atē 3,000,000 dē karīb ammritsar zilē vicc 2001 pā̀ratī jan-sankhiā gaṇanā anusār he. is dā parshāskī mukkh daftar ammritsar zilā he. ih pā̀rat dī panjāb pardēsh vicc uttarī pā̀g he, jō ki lāhor tō᷈ 67 kilōmīṭar dūr he.
Example 2 
This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore and transliterated into Latin script
Gurmukhi: ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦਾ ਦਾਰੁਲ ਹਕੂਮਤ ਐ। ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਬ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਐ। ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਐ ਤੇ ਇਸੇ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਏ। ਲਹੌਰ ਦਰਿਆਏ ਰਾਵੀ ਦੇ ਕੰਡੇ ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਏ ਉਹਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਐ ।
Shahmukhi: لہور پاکستان پنجاب دا دارالحکومت اے۔ لوک گنتی دے نال کراچی توں بعد لہور دوجا سب توں وڈا شہر اے۔ لہور پاکستان دا سیاسی، رہتلی تے پڑھائی دا گڑھ اے تے ایسے لئی اینوں پاکستان دا دل وی کیا جاندا اے۔ لہور دریاۓ راوی دے کنڈے تے وسدا اے اسدی لوک گنتی اک کروڑ دے نیڑے اے ۔
Transliteration: lahor pākistān panjāb dā dārul hakūmat e. lōk giṇtī dē nāḷ karācī tō᷈ bāad lahor dūjā sab tō᷈ vaḍḍā shahir e. lahor pākistān dā siāsī, rahtalī tē paṛā̀ī dā gā́ṛ e tē isē laī ihnū᷈ pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ē. lahor dariāē rāvī dē kanḍē tē vasdā ē uhdī lōk giṇtī ikk karōṛ dē nēṛē e.
- Kalra, Surjit S. & Nagi, J.S., English–Panjabi Topic Dictionary. DTF Publishers and Distributors, 117 Soho Road, Handsworth, Birmingham B21 9ST. 2009. (Useful for U.K. diaspora).
- Singh, Maya. The Panjabi dictionary. Lahore: Munshi Gulab Singh & Sons, 1895.
- http://www.ijunoon.com Online dictonary for all languages spoken in Pakistan, including English to Punjabi, or vice-versa.
- Shabdkosh.com: Punjabi to English Dictionary English to Punjabi Dictionary
- Online translator English to Punjabi, or vice-versa
- Punjabi Kashmiri Dictionary by Omkar N Koul and Rattan Lal Talashi. Patiala: Language Department. 1998.
Potohari-Pahari (Northern Lahnda) dictionary by Sharif Shad
See also 
|Punjabi language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Panjabi Wikipedia
- Languages of Pakistan
- Languages of India
- List of Indian languages by total speakers
- List of Punjabi-language newspapers
- Hindi-to-Punjabi Machine Translation System
- Punjabi Computing Resources
- Modern Punjabi poets
- Bhai Vir Singh
- Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha
- Ajit Cour
- Nanak Singh
- Nand Lal Nurpuri
- Dhani Ram Chatrik
- Prof. Mohan Singh
- Amrita Pritam
- Shareef Kunjahi
- Mir Tanha Yousafi
- Khushwant Singh
- Sheikh Muhammad Sadiq
- Balwant Gargi
- Shiv Kumar Batalvi
- S M Sadiq
- Surjit Paatar
- Anwar Masood
- Afzal Ahsan Randhawa
- Shaista Nuzhat
- Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2010" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2010
- Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
- Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
- Barbara Lust, James Gair. Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Page 637. Walter de Gruyter, 1999. ISBN 978-3-11-014388-1.
- "Punjabi language and the Gurmukhi and Shahmuhi scripts and pronunciation". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- Phonemic Inventory of Punjabi
- Geeti Sen. Crossing Boundaries. Orient Blackswan, 1997. ISBN 978-81-250-1341-9. Page 132. Quote: "Possibly, Punjabi is the only major South Asian language that has this kind of tonal character. There does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about the possible origin of Punjabi's tone-language character but without any final and convincing answer..."
- Pakistan Census
- Census of India, 2001: population of Punjab by religion. Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 2012-01-18.
- "2011 Census: Main language (detailed), local authorities in England and Wales" (XLS). ONS. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- , Census Profile - Province/Territory
- , 2006 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations|Detailed Mother Tongue (103), Knowledge of Official Languages
- Khalsa, Sukhmandir. "Introduction to Gurmukhi". About.com. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Saini, Tejinder, Lehal Gurpreet, and Kalra Virinder (2008). Shahmukhi to Gurmukhi Transliteration System. p. 177.
- Poole, Katyayani. "Devanagari: Sanskrit's Illumined Script". Shruti Institute for Vedic Arts. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- India's culture through the ages by Mohan Lal Vidyarthi. Published by Tapeshwari Sahitya Mandir, 1952. Page 148: "From the apabhramsha of Sauraseni are derived Punjabi, Western Hindi, Rajasthani and Gujerati [sic]..."
- National Communication and Language Policy in India By Baldev Raj Nayar. Published by F. A. Praeger, 1969. Page 35. "...Sauraseni Aprabhramsa from which have emerged the modern Western Hindi and Punjabi."
- The Sauraseni Pr?krit Language. "This Middle Indic language originated in Mathura, and was the main language used in drama in Northern India in the medieval period. Two of its descendants are Hindi and Punjabi."
- Shiv Kumar Batalvi sikh-heritage.co.uk.
- Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, Ian A. Skoggard, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. p. 1077. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9.
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- Malik, Amar Nath, Afzal Ahmed Cheema : 1995 : The Phonology and Morphology of Panjabi: New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
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- "Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada". The Times of India. 14 February 2008.
- Pakistan 1998 census – Population by mother tongue
- Indian Census
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- Harjeet Singh Gill, "The Gurmukhi Script", p. 397. In Daniels and Bright, The World's Writing Systems. 1996.
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- "AQA A-level Panjabi". Web.aqa.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- Punjabi language website http://www.apnaorg.com/
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- Burling, Robbins. 1970. Man's many voices. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
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- Grierson, George A. 1904–1928. Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India. Calcutta.
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Further reading 
|Wikivoyage has travel information related to: Punjabi_phrasebook|
- Bhatia, Tej. 1993 and 2010. Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar. London: Routledge. Series: Descriptive grammars.
- Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference grammar of Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages Deparmtent, Punjab University.
- Shackle, C. 1972. Punjabi. London: English Universities Press.
- Chopra, R. M., Perso-Arabic Words in Panjabi, in: Indo-Iranica Vol.53 (1–4).
- Chopra, R. M.., The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.
- Let's Learn Punjabi Animation Punjabi Film on YouTube
- English to Punjabi Dictionary
- Learn about the Punjabi language
- Learn how to read Gurmukhi, muharni and count in Gurmukhi/punjabi
- Listen to some basic Punjabi words on WikiBabel
- Online Punjabi keyboard for typing in Punjabi
- Punjabi Forum - punjabi.cc
|Eastern Punjabi edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Western Punjabi edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|