From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Genre||Public Broadcasting Service|
|Headquarters||Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain|
|Key people||Leopoldo González-Echenique, President|
|Subsidiaries||Radio Nacional de España
The Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española, S.A. (English: Spanish Radio and Television Corporation) is the state-owned public corporation that assumed the indirect management of the Spanish public radio and television service formely called Ente Público Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE Public Body) in 2007. RTVE is the largest audiovisual group in Spain broadcasting in the Spanish language. Since January 2010 it is financed exclusively by public subsidies.
Role as a public broadcaster
In the exercise of its public service function, among the obligations of the RTVE Corporation are:
- Promote dissemination and awareness of constitutional principles and civic values.
- Guarantee the objectivity and truthfulness of the information provided, while ensuring that a broad range of views is presented.
- Facilitate democratic debate and the free expression of opinion.
- Promote the territorial cohesion and linguistic and cultural diversity of Spain.
- Offer access to different genres of programming and to the institutional, social, cultural, and sporting events that are of interest to all sectors of the audience, paying attention to those topics that are of special interest to the public.
- To serve the widest audience, ensuring maximum continuity and geographical and social coverage, with a commitment to quality, diversity, innovation, and high ethical standards.
The history of RTVE begins in 1937 with the first broadcasts by Radio Nacional de España (RNE—Spanish National Radio) from the city of Salamanca. In these early years, RNE served as a propaganda tool for the Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War; it would later be used by Francisco Franco to inform the Spanish public.
Television was officially introduced in Spain in October 1956, and in October 1973 the two broadcasting networks, RNE and Televisión Española (TVE—Spanish Television) were consolidated into the Servicio Público Centralizado RadioTelevisión Española (RTVE Centralised Public Service).
Further consolidations followed in 1977, at which time RTVE became an autonomous organization. In 1979 TVE, RNE were joined by RCE an old radio service which, unlike RNE, could broadcast commercials. In 1980, RTVE was configured, by statute, as a legal public entity with its own jurisdiction. According to RTVE's annual report (2003): "This law arose from the Spanish Constitution and the political pluralism which the constitution asserts as a fundamental value of the rule of law; and in this spirit granted RTVE the right to function as a democratic organization." The former cinema newsreels service NO-DO was merged into RTVE to be dismantled in 1981. Since then, the NO-DO archives are property of RTVE and its conservation is on their hands and Filmoteca Nacional's. In 1989, RCE was dismantled and its radio service was merged into RNE.
Creation of Corporación RTVE
RTVE throughout its history has undergone numerous restructurings and reorganisations, and has assumed numerous identities. In accordance with the Ley de la Radio y la Televisión Estatal (Ley 17/2006; Law of State Radio and Television) of 5 June 2006, and in the face of an enormous deficit, the RTVE Public Body and the companies TVE, S.A. and RNE, S.A were dissolved, and on 1 January 2007 the RTVE Corporation came into existence.
This change in the law put Corporación RTVE in control of Spain's public radio and television service. Corporación RTVE is described as a sociedad mercantil estatal (state mercantile society) with special autonomy and independence from the government and the general state administration, and it performs its functions through TVE and RNE. A Consejo de Administración (Administrative Council), consisting of 12 members elected by Parliament, exists to administer and govern the organization, carrying out its executive functions through the corporation's President. The current Consejo and the President (the journalist Luis Fernández Fernández) were elected on 19 December 2006.
As part of the 2007 restructuring, a controversial plan was put into action to reduce the workforce by 4,855 through attrition and retirement incentives, in spite of the fact that RTVE is the European public broadcasting service with the smallest workforce.
Pursuant to the 2006 Act on National Public Radio and TV, management of the national public service is entrusted to Corporación RTVE. The Management Board of the RTVE is the main body of RTVE, and appoint the executive officers of RTVE and its companies, approve its organization, and approve most major activities. The Management Board is composed of 12 members; 8 members are chosen by Congress and 4 by the Senate, each by two-thirds majority and each for a non-renewable mandate of 6 years, and 2 members appointed by Congress must be proposed by the 2 main trade unions at RTVE.
The President has operational control of day-to-day operations, in order to execute the decisions and guidance of the Management Board. The President is appointed by, and may be dismissed by, Congress. Before the 2006 Act, this position was filled by the role of the Director General, which had a de facto total control of RTVE. In practice, the Director General had been chosen by the Government for their political profile.
Most staff are civil servants. The News Council is an internal supervisory body composed of RTVE journalists with the aim of safeguarding RTVE's independence. Several supervisory functions are currently exercised by the The Secretariat of State of Communication within the Ministry of Presidency.
Director Generals of Radiodifusión y Televisión
- José María Revuelta Prieto (1957–1962).
- Roque Pro Alonso (1962–1964).
- Jesús Aparicio-Bernal Sánchez (1964–1969).
- Adolfo Suárez (1969–1973).
- Rafael Orbe Cano (1973–1974).
- Juan José Rosón Pérez (1974).
- Jesús Sancho Rof (1974–1975).
- Gabriel Peña Aranda (1975–1976).
- Rafael Anson Oliart (1976–1977).
Director General of Organismo Autónomo RTVE
- Fernando Arias-Salgado Montalvo (1977–1981).
Director Generals of Ente Público RTVE
- Fernando Castedo Álvarez (1981).
- Carlos Robles Piquer (1981–1982).
- Eugenio Nasarre Goicoechea (1982).
- José María Calviño Iglesias (1982–1986).
- Pilar Miró Romero (1986–1989).
- Luis Solana Madariaga (1989–1990).
- Jordi García Candau (1990–1996).
- Mónica Ridruejo Ostrowska (1996–1997).
- Fernando López-Amor (1997–1998).
- Pío Cabanillas Alonso (1998–2000).
- Javier González Ferrari (2000–2002).
- José Antonio Sánchez Domínguez (2002–2004).
- Carmen Caffarel Serra (2004–2007).
President of Corporación RTVE
- Luis Fernández Fernández (2007–2009).
- Alberto Oliart Saussol (2009–2011).
- Leopoldo González-Echenique (2011- ).
RTVE's own television service comes under the Televisión Española (TVE) division of RTVE. All of TVE's channels broadcast in Spanish, with the exception of TVE Catalonia (branded as TVE Catalunya) which is principally in Spanish with certain programming in Catalan.
|Channel's logo||Type of programming|
La 1: (colloquially known as La Uno and formerly as La Primera, TVE1, Primera Cadena or simply TVE) La 1 is a generalist channel which mainly broadcasts Spanish and Latin American TV series, films (particularly Spanish and American films), magazine programmes, news reports, news programmes and some popular sports competitions. It was Spain's first TV channel and is currently its most popular.
La 2: (colloquially known as La Dos and formerly as TVE2, Segunda Cadena, or UHF) La 2 mainly broadcasts cultural programming, North American TV series, documentaries, Spanish and European films, news reports, debates and musicals. It offers a different aspect from its generalist sister channel, La 1.
Clan: (formerly known as Clan TVE) Clan a children's channel, but also offers some programming aimed at teenagers during the evening and repeats TVE content from other channels during the early hours.
Teledeporte: Teledeporte broadcasts sporting competitions that can be broadcast on La 1 and La 2 due to lack of interest from the public.
24h: 24 horas is RTVE's 24-hour news channel created in 1997. It broadcasts news reports, debates, analyses, interviews as well as rolling news. It was Spain's first 24-hour news channel.
TVE HD: TVE HD is RTVE's HD television channel.
TVE Internacional: RTVE international television channel. It was created in 1989 and broadcasts TVE content throughout the world.
RTVE's radio stations come under the Radio Nacional de España division of RTVE.
|Station logo||Type of programming|
Radio Nacional: (formerly known as Radio 1) RNE Radio Nacional is RTVE's generalist radio station. Its programming is mainly news and other programmes. It started broadcasting in 1937.
Radio Clásica: (formerly known as Radio 2) Radio Clásica mainly broadcasts classical music. It started broadcasting in 1965.
Radio 3: Radio 3 broadcasts cultural and alternative programming aimed at young people.It started broadcasting in 1979.
Ràdio 4: Ràdio 4 is RTVE's Catalan-language station aimed at people living in Catalonia, an autonomous community in the north-east of Spain. It was created in 1988 after the closure of Radiocadena Española.
Radio 5: (formerly known as Radio 5 Todo Noticias) is RTVE's 24-hour radio news station. It started broadcasting in 1994.
Radio Exterior de España:Radio Exterior de España – International broadcasting service on short wave, with an audience of 80 million listeners (surpassed only by the BBC and Vatican Radio). This station is also transmitted via DAB for Spain and by satellite. Transmissions are in Spanish, French, Arabic, Ladino, Portuguese, Russian and English.
RTVE is also responsible for the Instituto Oficial de Radio y Televisión (IORTV, Official Institute of Radio and TV) and the Orquesta Sinfónica y Coro de RTVE (RTVE Symphony Orchestra and Choir). RTVE (as RNE) was admitted to full active membership of the European Broadcasting Union in 1955. TVE joined the Eurovision Network in 1960. The corporation has contributed to the production of more than 300 films, many of which have received awards at international film festivals around the world. From 1979 to 1987, a second radio network known as Radiocadena Española was also a part of RTVE. RCE stations, unlike RNE, showed advertising. RCE was merged into RNE between 1987 and 1989. NO-DO was also merged into RTVE in 1980. Since NO-DO's closure in 1982, RTVE and Filmoteca Española are responsible for maintaining NO-DO's archives.
In 2012 political tensions associated with the austerity program of the right-wing ruling party, Partido Popular (PP) resulted in personnel changes which displaced journalists interviewed by The Guardian interpreted as an effort to remove critical political comment from RTVE's content. In 2012 the PP began staffing RTVE with party veterans. Considerable controversy was caused when Ana Pastor was fired.
Official website of the Spanish Public Broadcaster RTVE.es (in Spanish)
- Ley 4/1980, de 10 de enero, de Estatuto de la Radio y la Televisión - Radio and Television Statute passed on 10 January 1980 (in Spanish)
- Ente Público RadioTelevisión Española (2004). Informe Anual sobre el Cumplimiento de la Función de Servicio Público del Grupo Radiotelevisión Española en 2003. Madrid: Dirección Gerencia Internacional y Corporativa de RTVE Subdirección de Estudios Corporativos de RTVE(last accessed on 15 April 2007; see page 14) (in Spanish)
- Ley 17/2006 de la radio y la televisión de titularidad estatal – the law passed on 5 June 2006 granting Corporación RTVE direct management of the Spanish public broadcasting and television services (in Spanish)
- El mayor grupo audiovisual (The Biggest Audiovisual Group) – press release issued by RTVE on 1 January 2007 introducing the new corporation (in Spanish)
- Statement on RTVE website about the creation of Corporación TVE (in Spanish)
- Ley 17/2006, de 5 de junio, de la radio y la televisión de titularidad estatal, BOE n. 134, 6 de junio de 2006
- Perez 2009, p. 67.
- Perez 2009, p. 66.
- Perez 2009, pp. 67-68.
- Perez 2009, p. 68.
- Stephen Burgen (August 5, 2012). "Spanish government accused of purging critics from national radio and TV: Journalists who have questioned rightwing party's austerity policy have lost jobs at RTVE". The Guardian (Barcelona). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/aug/05/spanish-government-critics-national-tv. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- Pérez Gómez, Alberto (2007). Nikoltchev, Susanne. ed. Iris Special: The Public Service Broadcasting Culture. Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory. ISBN 978-92-871-6188-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=XahsOXBpyQ4C&pg=PA66.