From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text, due to a coincidental alignment of spaces. They can occur regardless of the spacing settings, but are most noticeable with wide inter-word spaces caused by full text justification or monospaced fonts.
Rivers occur due to a combination of the x-height of the typeface (whether the type appears broad or skinny), the values assigned to the widths of various characters, and the degree of control over character spacing and word spacing. Broader typefaces are more prone to exhibit rivers, as are the less sophisticated typesetting applications that offer little control over spacing. Increased sentence spacing can also exaggerate the river effect. More sophisticated typesetting applications divide individual characters into larger numbers, giving more numerical control. They also offer more comprehensive libraries of "kerning pairs" that tell the application how much space to allow between all possible combinations of letter pairs.
Typographers can test for rivers by turning a proof sheet upside down (top to bottom) to examine the text. From this perspective, the eye is less likely to recognize words and the type can be viewed more readily as an overall pattern.
- Dowding, Geoffrey (1995). Finer Points in the Spacing & Arrangement of Type (Revised ed.). Vancouver, BC: Hartley & Marks Publishers. ISBN 0881791199.
- Felici, James (2003). The Complete Manual of Typography. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press. ISBN 0321127307.
- Fogarty, Mignon (2008). Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. New York: Holt Paperbacks. ISBN 9780805088311.
- Garner, Bryan A.; Jeff Newman, Tiger Jackson (2006). The Redbook: A Manual on Legal Style (2nd ed.). Thompson West. ISBN 9780314168917.
- Jury, David (2009). "What is Typography?". Rotovision. pp. 28–87. http://www.rotovision.com/images/2880468221.pdf. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
- Schriver, Karen A. (1997). Dynamics in Document Design. New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore, Weinheim: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471306363.
- Smith, Laurie (8 July 2009). "Don't Date Yourself by Using Two Spaces after a Period in Your Resume!". Executive Resumes and Career Transition Strategies: Reflections of an Executive Resume Writer. Creative Keystrokes™ Executive Resume Service. http://www.executive-resumes.com/2009/07/dont-date-yourself-by-using-two-spaces.html. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Squire, Victoria; Willberg, Hans Peter; Forsmann, Friedrich (2006). Getting it Right with Type. London: Laurence King Publishing. ISBN 9781856694742.
- Williams, Robin (2003). The Mac is Not a Typewriter: A Style Manual for Creating Professional-level Type on Your Macintosh (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press. ISBN 0201782634.
|This typography-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|