Sirius XM Radio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Traded as||NASDAQ: SIRI|
|Founded||May 17, 1990
as Satellite CD Radio, Inc.
|Headquarters||1221 Avenue of the Americas
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Area served||United States and Canada|
|Key people||Greg Maffei
(president and CCO)
|Revenue||US$ 3.4 billion (2012)|
|Operating income||US$ 872 million (2012)|
|Net income||US$ 3.47 billion (2012)|
|Total assets||US$ 9.05 billion (2012)|
|Total equity||US$ 4.04 billion (2012)|
|Divisions||Sirius Satellite Radio
XM Satellite Radio
|Subsidiaries||Sirius XM Canada|
Sirius XM Radio Inc. is an American broadcasting company that provides two satellite radio services operating in the United States, Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Radio. The company also has a Canadian subsidiary called Sirius XM Canada, an affiliate company that provides Sirius and XM service in Canada. The company in its current incarnation was formed after the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the acquisition of XM Satellite Radio Holding, Inc. by Sirius Satellite Radio, Inc. on July 29, 2008, 17 months after the companies first proposed the merger. The merger brought the combined companies a total of more than 18.5 million subscribers based on current subscriber numbers on the date of merging. The deal was valued at $3.3 billion, not including debt.
The proposed merger was opposed by those who felt a merger would create a monopoly. Sirius and XM argued that a merger was the only way satellite radio could survive.
Early days of Sirius
Sirius Satellite Radio was founded by Martine Rothblatt, David Margolese and Robert Briskman. In 1990, Rothblatt founded Satellite CD Radio in Washington, DC. The company was the first to petition the FCC to assign unused frequencies for satellite radio broadcast, which “provoked a furor among owners of both large and small [terrestrial] radio stations.” In April 1992, Rothblatt resigned as chairman and CEO to start a medical research foundation. Former NASA engineer Briskman, who designed the company's satellite technology, was then appointed chairman and CEO. Six months later, in November 1992, Rogers Wireless co-founder Margolese, who had provided financial backing for the venture, acquired control of the company and succeeded Briskman. Margolese renamed the company CD Radio, and spent the next five years lobbying the FCC to allow satellite radio to be deployed, and the following five years raising $1.6 billion, which was used to build and launch three satellites into elliptical orbit from Kazakhstan in July 2000. In 1997, after Margolese had obtained regulatory clearance and "effectively created the industry," the FCC also sold a license to XM Satellite Radio, which followed Sirius's example. In November 1999, Margolese again changed the name of the company, this time to Sirius Satellite Radio, in order to avoid association with the soon-to-be-outdated CD technology. Having secured installation deals with automakers including Chrysler, Ford and BMW, Sirius launched the initial phase of its service in four cities on February 14, 2002, expanding to the rest of the contiguous United States on July 1, 2002.
In November 2001, Margolese stepped down as CEO, remaining as chairman until November 2003, with Sirius issuing a statement thanking him “for his great vision, leadership and dedication in creating both Sirius and the satellite radio industry.” Joe Clayton, former CEO of Global Crossing, followed as CEO from November 2001 until November 2004. Clayton stayed on as chairman until July 2008. Mel Karmazin, former president of Viacom, became CEO in November 2004, and remained in that position through the merger, until December 2012.
Early days of XM
XM Satellite Radio has its origins in the 1988 formation of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC), a consortium of several organizations originally dedicated to satellite broadcasting of telephone, fax and data signals. In 1992, AMSC established a unit called the American Mobile Radio Corporation, dedicated to developing a satellite-based digital radio service; this was spun off as XM Satellite Radio Holdings, Inc. in 1998. Its planned financing was complete by July 2000, at which point XM had raised $1.26 billion and secured installation agreements with General Motors, Honda and Toyota. Initially scheduled for September 12, 2001, XM’s service start date was postponed due to the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon. XM Satellite Radio’s first broadcast was on September 25, 2001, nearly four months before Sirius.
Gary Parsons, a founder of XM Satellite Radio Holdings, served as chairman of XM Satellite Radio from its inception through the merger, resigning from the position in November 2009. Hugh Panero served as XM’s CEO from 1998 until July 2007, shortly after the merger with Sirius was proposed. Nate Davis was appointed interim CEO until the merger was completed, at which point Sirius CEO Mel Karmazin took over as CEO of the newly merged company, Sirius XM.
|Wikinews has related news: In depth: XM and Sirius merger|
After years of speculation (the New York Post first reported on a potential merger in January 2005), and three months of serious negotiations, the $13 billion merger between Sirius and XM was officially announced on February 19, 2007. At the time, the nation’s only two satellite radio providers reported nearly 14 million combined subscribers (with nearly 8 million belonging to XM), with neither having turned an annual profit. Sirius was valued at $5.2 billion, and XM at $3.75 billion. Each subscription was sold for $12.95 monthly.
Sirius and XM executives felt the merger would lower programming costs by eliminating overlapping stations and duplicated marketing costs. According to their original operating licenses, the two companies were not allowed to ever own each other’s license. In proceeding with the merger, Sirius CEO Mel Karmazin ignored this rule, gambling that the FCC would consider other audio entertainment to be competitors and allow the merger to proceed by waving the rule.
After a 57-week review process, the Justice Department gave approval to the Sirius and XM merger on March 24, 2008, concluding that satellite radio competes with terrestrial radio, online streaming, and mp3 players and tablets. On July 25, 2008, the FCC approved the merger with a 3-2 vote, determining that it was not a monopoly because of all the competition on the Internet. FCC chairman Kevin Martin stated, “The merger is in the public interest and will provide consumers with greater flexibility and choices.” The biggest challenge for the newly unified company was selling more subscriptions with the drop in the number of cars sold annually in the US and the subsequent reduced demand for cars equipped with satellite radio, as well as online radio-streaming competition. Conditions of the merger included allowing any third-party company to make satellite radio devices; producing new radios that can receive both XM and Sirius channels within one year; allowing consumers to choose which channels they would like to have; freezing subscription rates for three years; setting aside 8% of its channels for noncommercial programmers; and payment of $19.7 million in fines for past rule violations. Sirius and XM began merging their channels on November 12, 2008.
Each share of XM stock was replaced with 4.6 shares of Sirius. Each company's stockholders initially retained approximately 50% of the joined company.
At the time of the merger, Sirius’s top programming included channels for Howard Stern, Martha Stewart and NPR; live NFL and NBA games; and live NASCAR races. XM’s programming included channels for Oprah Winfrey, Willie Nelson and Snoop Dogg; and live Major League Baseball games.
The National Association of Broadcasters was adamantly opposed to the merger, calling it a monopoly. Shortly after the Justice Department gave its support to the merger without restrictions, attorneys general from 11 states (Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Utah and Washington) urged the FCC to impose restrictions on the merger. Several Congressional Democrats also opposed the merger, calling it anticompetitive and criticizing the Bush administration for allowing it to go through.
Resurgence and growth
After coming close to filing for Chapter 11 only months after the 2008 merger, going so far as to hire lawyers to prepare a possible bankruptcy filing, Sirius XM was able to avoid declaring bankruptcy with the assistance of a $530 million loan from Liberty Media in February 2009, which Mel Karmazin negotiated in exchange for a 40% equity stake in Sirius XM.
In the fourth quarter of 2009, Sirius XM posted a profit for the first time, with a net income of $14.2 million. This came after net losses of $245.8 million in the year following the merger. The company’s resurgence was owed in part to the loan from Liberty Media. Increased automobile sales in the US was also a factor. Sirius XM ended 2009 with 18.8 million subscribers. By the end of 2012, Sirius XM’s subscriber base had grown to 23.9 million, mostly due to an increase in partnerships with automakers and car dealers; a strong push in the used-car market; and continued improved car sales in the US in general. The renewal of radio show host Howard Stern’s contract through 2015 ($400 million for five years, $100 million less than Stern’s previous five-year deal) was also a factor in the company’s steady growth; Stern’s show attracts over 12 million listeners per week.
As of 2012, Sirius XM had a 60% penetration rate in the new car market. Out of that 60%, approximately 45% have become subscribers. The company has long-term deals with General Motors, Ford, Toyota, Kia, Bentley, BMW, Volkswagen, Nissan, Hyundai and Mitsubishi, along with assorted trucks, boats and recreational vehicles. As of August 2012, Sirius XM satellite radios were in 50 million cars, although many of those are inactive. The company offers trial subscriptions to new car owners, and then tries to get them to purchase yearly subscriptions. By 2018, Sirius XM predicts over 100 million cars will have Sirius XM radios installed.
After trying for four years, on December 21, 2010, Sirius XM received approval from the FCC to add service in Alaska and Hawaii. Sirius XM announced on January 17, 2011 that it would place repeaters in those states and adjust three of its satellites to cover those areas. The move gave Sirius XM coverage in all 50 states.
On January 12, 2011, XM Satellite Radio, Inc. was dissolved as a separate entity and merged into Sirius XM Radio, Inc. On April 11, 2011, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) approved the merger of Sirius and XM’s Canadian affiliates in Sirius XM Canada.
On April 11, 2013, a New York appeals court upheld a New York judge’s ruling from April 2012, that Howard Stern was not entitled to stock bonuses based on Sirius XM exceeding subscriber target projections. The court ruled that subscribers to XM Satellite Radio from before the Sirius XM merger should not be counted as “Sirius subscribers” for the purposes of Stern’s lawsuit. Stern argued the opposite, due to the fact that his popularity had played an integral role in helping Sirius acquire XM. He had been seeking $330 million in stock bonuses.
Following the merger, Sirius CEO Mel Karmazin became CEO of the combined company, and XM chairman Gary Parsons retained his role. XM CEO and co-founder Hugh Panero stepped down in August 2007, shortly after the merger was first announced.
XM Satellite Radio executives who were not offered jobs in the new combined company were assured golden parachute severance packages that had been approved in 2007. Former CEO Nate Davis received a severance package worth $10 million. Erik Toppenberg, executive vice president of programming, received a severance package worth $5.34 million. CFO Joseph Euteneuer received a severance package worth $4.9 million. Vernon Irvin, chief marketing officer, received a severance package worth $4.5 million.
In November 2009, Parsons resigned as chairman of Sirius XM, receiving a payout of more than $9 million. He was succeeded by Eddy Hartenstein, former publisher and CEO of the Los Angeles Times. In December 2012, Mel Karmazin stepped down as Sirius XM CEO after Liberty Media gained control of 49.5% of the company. Jim Meyer was named interim CEO. On April 30, 2013, he was named permanent CEO. Also in April 2013, Liberty Media CEO Greg Maffei was named Sirius XM’s chairman, succeeding Hartenstein.
Internet and mobile
Sirius XM radio content is available to stream online as an add-on to existing subscriptions, or as an Internet-only option. Internet and mobile services directly challenging Sirius XM include Pandora, Spotify and iHeartRadio. In order to better compete, in August 2011, SiriusXM announced that the company would start offering a personalized interactive online radio experience, similar to Pandora. The feature would allow listeners to replay, skip and ban songs on certain channels. MySXM debuted on April 15, 2013, allowing users to fine-tune over 50 existing Sirius XM channels. MySXM is available to all Sirius XM subscribers.
On June 17, 2009, Sirius XM released an application for use on Apple’s iPhone and iPod Touch, allowing its subscribers to listen to its programming on those devices. The app did not feature all of the programming available to satellite listeners. On March 17, 2011, the app was also made available for the iPad. In 2012, the app was updated for iOS and Android, featuring additional content, and the ability to pause, rewind and fast-forward through audio streams.
On February 4, 2010, the Sirius XM BlackBerry application was announced, for use on BlackBerry smartphones (the Storm, Bold, Tour and Curve). As of April 2013, the app features over 150 channels.
As part of Howard Stern’s new five-year contract with Sirius XM, which he signed on December 9, 2010, The Howard Stern Show, which hadn’t previously been made available on mobile devices, would now be a part of Sirius XM’s mobile app package.
Following the merger, Sirius XM jettisoned the simplicity of previous monthly subscription models, and began offering numerous new options, including a la carte offerings, a family-friendly version and “mostly music” or “news, sports and talk” packages, ranging in price from $6.99 to $16.99 per month. As of April 2013, almost all music, talk and news programming is available on both Sirius, XM and SiriusXM Internet Radio services.
Prior to the merger, Sirius offered a lifetime subscription for a one-time fee, with the subscription being for the lifetime of the receiver, not the person. After the merger, due to changes in bundling policies, some customers who had purchased lifetime subscriptions had their service reduced or canceled, and were unable to obtain a refund. Sirius XM stopped offering the lifetime subscription plan in 2010, but continues to honor any previously purchased lifetime subscriptions.
From the outset, Sirius and XM each attracted celebrity personalities to host shows. Howard Stern, Opie and Anthony, Bubba the Love Sponge, Scott Ferrall, Bob Dylan, Tom Petty, Ron & Fez, Broadminded, Bam Margera, Tony Hawk, Jason Ellis, Martha Stewart and Oprah Winfrey are among those who signed contracts with one of the two companies. Exclusive sports programming (The National Football League, Premier League, Canadian Football League and NASCAR on Sirius and Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, National Hockey League, PGA Tour and Indy Racing League on XM) initially differentiated the networks from one another.
In Canada, Sirius Canada and XM Canada are partially owned by Sirius XM (20% and 23.3% respectively) in joint ventures with Canadian companies. After the US merger, the two Canadian ventures did not immediately agree to a similar merger, but instead remained in competition as distinct services. Complicating matters was that Sirius Canada has nearly 80% of the total satellite radio subscriber base in that country, and felt they deserved greater than a 50/50 split of the new company, whereas XM Canada felt that their deal with the NHL — a particularly lucrative prize in Canadian sports broadcasting — also warranted a significant amount of value in the new company.
On November 24, 2010, XM Radio Canada and Sirius Canada announced that they would merge their services. On April 12, 2011, the CRTC approved the companies' merger into Sirius XM Canada. John Bitove's Canadian Satellite Radio Holdings Inc., the licensee of XM Canada, gained a 30% share in the new company as its primary and controlling shareholder, while Slaight Communications and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the current owners of Sirius Canada, each retained 20% ownership. Sirius XM's American parent company would hold 25%. The merger was completed on June 21, 2011.
XM and Sirius use different compression and conditional access systems, making their receivers incompatible with each other's service. A condition of the merger was that Sirius XM would bring to the market satellite radios that can receive both XM and Sirius channels within one year. The interoperable radio, called the MiRGE, was made available beginning in March 2009. As of April 2013, Sirius XM offers portable, vehicular and home/office radios.
As of October 2012, there are nine satellites in orbit: five XM and four Sirius satellites. There are also two unlaunched satellites, one of which has been retired, and another, called FM-6, capable of broadcasting to either service. As of February 2012, the launch of FM-6 has been delayed due to technical concerns, and the launch has not been officially rescheduled. The most recently launched satellite, XM-5, was sent into orbit by Proton from Kazakhstan on October 14, 2010, and is capable of broadcasting to either service. Sirius XM will not need to begin building new satellites until some time around 2017.
The following milestones have been set during and after the merger:
|February 2007||Execute definitive agreement|
|March 2007||File FCC application|
|June 2007||FCC places application on "Public Notice" (DA 07-2417)||Comments/Petitions due July 11, 2007; Responses/Oppositions due July 24, 2007|
|November 2007||SIRIUS/XM shareholder votes||Announced October 4, 2007, and voted upon on November 13, 2007. 96% of Sirus shareholders approved the merger, and 99.8% of XMSR shareholders also approved.|
|March 2008||Receive regulatory approvals||On March 24, 2008, the U.S. Department of Justice ended its investigation of the merger (i.e., decided against blocking the deal).|
|July 2008||Receive FCC approval||On July 25, 2008, the FCC approved the merger voting 3-2 down party lines.|
|July 2008||Merger Completed||XM stock trading ceases July 28, 2008. Sirius XM Radio, Inc. becomes the name of the merged corporation.|
|November 2008||Programming merged|
|March 2009||MiRGE released||The first satellite radio receiver to play both Sirius and XM audio is available for purchase.|
|December 2010||Alaska & Hawaii expansion||Receives FCC approval to add service to the two states, thus giving Sirius XM coverage in all 50 states.|
|April 2013||MySXM debuts||A personalized interactive online radio experience.|
- Sirius XM Radio Inc. (SIRI) Income Statement, Annual Data, Yahoo! Finance, December 30, 2012. Accessed April 18, 2013.
- Sirius XM Radio Inc. (SIRI) Balance Sheet, Annual Data, Yahoo! Finance, December 30, 2012. Accessed April 18, 2013.
- “SIRIUS Total Asset vs. Number of Employees,” Macro Axis. Accessed April 18, 2013.
- "Sirius completes acquisition of XM Satellite," Reuters, July 29, 2008.
- Kim Hart, “Satellite Radio Merger Approved,” Washington Post, July 26, 2008.
- Matthew Herper, "From Satellites to Pharmaceuticals," Forbes, April 22, 2010.
- Steve Warren, Radio: The Book, Focal Press, 2004, p. 166.
- Edmund L. Andrews, “F.C.C. Plan For Radio By Satellite,” New York Times, October 8, 1992.
- "Robert Briskman appointed chairman and CEO," Satellite News, June 1, 1992.
- Bethany McLean, “Satellite Killed The Radio Star,” Fortune, January 22, 2001, pp. 94-100.
- Nancy Dillon, “Beaming Radio Into High-Tech Fast Lane,” New York Daily News, June 5, 2000.
- Christopher H. Sterling, Encyclopedia of Radio, Volume 1, Taylor & Francis, 2003, p. 750.
- Simon Romero, “XM Satellite Radio Completes Its Financing,” New York Times, July 10, 2000.
- Simon Houpt, "Radio Flyer," Report on Business, September 2001, pp. 14-16.
- “Sirius Begins Satellite Service,” Radio, February 14, 2002.
- Steve Parker, “XM plus Sirius = Satellite Radio Monopoly,” Huffington Post, July 24, 2008.
- "David Margolese Steps Down as Sirius CEO," PRNewswire, October 16, 2001.
- Robin Wauters, “Former Sirius CEO Joseph Clayton Takes Over The Reins From Ergen At DISH,” TechCrunch, May 16, 2011.
- Tim Arango, “Satellite Chat – Sirius, XM Are Exploring a Possible Merger,” New York Post, January 26, 2005.
- Paul Bond, “Mel Karmazin Leaves Sirius XM Radio,” Hollywood Reporter, December 19, 2012.
- Rob Beschizza, “10 Things You Might Not Know About the Sirius-XM Merger,” Wired, February 20, 2007.
- “AMRC changes name to XM Satellite Radio,” XM Satellite Radio press release, New York, BBC Archive, November 16, 1998.
- “G.M. and Clear Channel Buy Stake in XM Satellite Radio,” New York Times, June 9, 1999.
- David Goldman, “XM-Sirius merger approved by DOJ,” CNNMoney.com, March 24, 2008.
- Victoria Shannon, “Attacks Postpone the Start of Satellite Radio Service,” New York Times, September 12, 2001.
- Kathy Shwiff, “Parsons Resigns as Chairman of Sirius XM Radio,” Wall Street Journal, November 12, 2009.
- William Triplett, “Hugh Panero leaving XM radio,” Variety, July 24, 2007.
- Richard Siklos and Andrew Ross Sorkin, “Merger Would End Satellite Radio’s Rivalry,” New York Times, February 20, 2007.
- Olga Kharif, “XM and Sirius Should Join Bands,” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 13, 2005.
- Scott Moritz, “Justice Department approves XM-Sirius deal,” Fortune, March 24, 2008.
- Philip Shenon, “Justice Dept. Approves XM Merger With Sirius,” New York Times, March 25, 2008.
- Olga Kharif, “The FCC Approves the XM-Sirius Merger,” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 25, 2008.
- Steven Musil, “FCC approves Sirius-XM satellite radio merger,” CNET, July 25, 2008.
- Matt Rosoff, “Sirius-XM channel merge begins next week,” CNET, November 8, 2008.
- David Ellis and Paul R. La Monica, “XM, Sirius announcer merger,” CNNMoney.com, February 20, 2007.
- James Rowley, “States Urge FCC to Limit XM Satellite, Sirius Merger,” Bloomberg Businessweek, March 27, 2008.
- Eliot Van Buskirk, “Surprise, Surprise... Sirius XM Already Talking Bankruptcy,” Wired, February 11, 2009.
- Reuters, “Sirius XM Posts Profit, Its First Since Merger,” New York Times, February 25, 2010.
- Jeff Bercovici, “Sirius XM’s Mel Karmazin: ‘I’m One of the Most Underpaid Executives in the History of Executive Payment’,” Forbes, April 3, 2012.
- Trefis Team, “Can Sirius XM Tune In Big Subscriber Growth This Year?” Forbes, April 12, 2013.
- Robert Holmes, “Sirius XM Gets Hedge Fund Love,” TheStreet.com, February 22, 2011.
- Carl Marcucci, “Sirius XM moving to offer service in Alaska, Hawaii,” rbr.com, January 17, 2011.
- “2010 Form 10-K, Sirius XM Radio, Inc.” US Securities and Exchange Commission. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2011-240. Accessed April 23, 2013.
- Eriq Gardner, “Howard Stern Loses Bid to Revive $300 Million Sirius XM Lawsuit,” Hollywood Reporter, April 11, 2013.
- Jim Probasco, “Is Stern’s loss a win for Sirius XM?” MSN Money, April 15, 2013.
- “SIRIUS and XM to Combine in $13 Billion Merger of Equals,” PR Newswire, February 19, 2007.
- Darlene Darcy, “Severance deals protext XM Satellite executives,” Washington Business Journal, August 4, 2008.
- “Jim Meyer Appointed Interim CEO of Sirius XM, Mel Karmazin Officially Steps Down,” Billboard, December 19, 2012.
- Georg Szalai, "Sirius XM Names Jim Meyer Permanent CEO, Boosts Subs, Profit in First Quarter," Hollywood Reporter, April 30, 2013.
- Alex Sherman, “Sirius Names Liberty’s Maffei Chairman After Shift in Control,” Bloomberg Businessweek, April 11, 2013.
- Marc Saltzman, “MySXM: SiriusXM app adds more personalization features,” USA Today, April 16, 2013.
- Charlie White, “SiriusXM To Get Pandora-Like Upgrade,” Mashable, August 5, 2011.
- Glenn Peoples, “SiriusXM Launches MySXM Interactive Internet Radio Feature,” Billboard, April 15, 2013.
- Eliot Van Buskirk, “Sirius XM Releases ‘Lite’ iPhone App. WTF?” Wired, June 23, 2009.
- “Sirius XM Internet Radio App Featuring iPad-Optimized Design Now Available on the iTunes App Store,” PRNewswire, March 17, 2011.
- Marc Saltzman, “Sirius XM Internet Radio: Newly updated app rocks on iPad,” USA Today, October 28, 2012.
- Nicholas DeLeon, “Sirius XM application now available for BlackBerry (but there’s no Howard Stern),” TechCrunch, February 4, 2010.
- BlackBerry, siriusxm.com. Accessed April 23, 2013.
- “SIRIUS XM Radio Android App Now Available,” PRNewswire, May 28, 2010.
- Android, siriusxm.com. Accessed April 23, 2013.
- “Howard Stern Signs New Five-Year Contract With SIRIUS XM,” PRNewswire, December 9, 2010.
- Jim Puzzanghera, “Sirius XM Radio to offer the best of both services (sort of); Karmazin predicts success,” Los Angeles Times, July 30, 2008.
- Channel Guide PDF, siriusxm.com. Accessed April 17, 2013.
- Cathy Woodruff, “Sirius XM merger leaves users with serious mess,” Times Union (Albany), February 10, 2011.
- “What Happens With That Sirius Lifetime Subscription?” Sirius Buzz, November 13, 2011.
- Paul Jay, “XM, Sirius merger in U.S. raises competition concerns in Canada,” CBC News, July 30, 2008.
- Elan Vlessing, "XM-Sirius merger not replicated in Canada," Hollywood Reporter, July 29, 2008.
- Emil Protalinski, “XM and Sirius to finally merge in Canada,” techspot.com, November 25, 2010.
- "CRTC Approves Sirius XM Merger In Canada," All Access, April 12, 2011.
- "Sirius Canada and XM Canada Complete Merger," Broadcaster, June 21, 2011.
- Donald Melanson, “Sirius XM rolls out interoperable MiRGE satellite radio,” Engadget, January 8, 2009.
- Shop, siriusxm.com. Accessed April 18, 2013.
- “SiriusXM – Satellites and Repeaters,” Sirius Buzz, October 7, 2012.
- “Real Time Satellite Tracking: XM and Sirius Satellites,” n2yo.com. Accessed April 18, 2013.
- Stephen Clark, “Next Sirius XM Radio satellite facing multi-month delay,” Spaceflight Now, February 27, 2012.
- Stephen Clark, “Sirius CM Radio satellite launched by Russian rocket,” Spaceflight Now, October 14, 2010.
- "Satellite S Band Radio Frequency Table," CSG Network, updated August 15, 2011. Accessed April 23, 2013.
- "Sirius stockholders approved merger". Orbitcast.com. 2007-11-13. Retrieved 2008-07-31.
- "XM shareholders approve merger". Orbitcast.com. 2007-11-13. Retrieved 2008-07-31.
- Department of Justice, Statement of the Department of Justice Antitrust Division on its Decision to Close its Investigation of XM Satellite Radio Holdings Inc.'s Merger with Sirius Satellite Radio Inc.
- "XM/Sirius Merger Gets FCC Approval". FOXBusiness.com. Associated Press. 2008-07-24. Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-07-31.