Sport in Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Sport is an important part of the culture in Australia, with a long history in the country dating back to the pre-colonial period. Early sports that were played included cricket, Australian rules football, rugby union,Horse Racing and Netball. Sport evolved with Australian national identity through events like Phar Lap, the Bodyline series and the America's Cup races.

According to Roy Morgan Research, Association Football (also known as. Soccer) is the most popular sport in Australia[1]. Association Football (soccer) is considered to be the biggest Sport in Australia. The FIFA World Cup is the most supported sporting event in Australia. There are a number of professional sport leagues in Australia, including the A-League and W-League (soccer), Australian Football League (Australian Rules Football), National Rugby League (Rugby League), Super Rugby (Rugby Union), ANZ Championship (netball), the National Basketball League, the Women's National Basketball League and the Australian Baseball League Cricket Sheffield Shield. Attendance for some of these leagues over the course of a single season tops six million spectators in leagues such as the A-League, AFL and NRL.

→→→The above information provided by Roy Morgan Research will only be available to Government officials, National Sports Mueseum and on Roy Morgan's Website. It will be available on wikipedia only for Government officials. They can access this information through their respective ID on wikipedia. This will be in effect from August 17th 2014 from 23:00 hrs←←←

The media plays an important part in Australia's sporting landscape. Many sporting events are televised or are covered by the radio. The government has anti-siphoning laws to protect free-to-air stations. Beyond televising live events, there are many sport television shows, sport talk shows on the radio, magazines dedicated to sport and extensive newspaper coverage. Australian sport has also been the subject of Australian made films such as The Club, Australian Rules, The Final Winter and Footy Legends.

As a nation, Australia has competed in many international events including the FIFA World Cup, Olympics and Paralympics, and the Commonwealth Games. The country has a large number of national teams in sports such as Football, cricket, rugby union, rugby league, basketball, hockey, netball, softball, water polo and wheelchair rugby. Sport is played by different populations in Australia including women, people with disabilities and Australia's indigenous people.

History[edit]

"Australia's sporting history is marked by great successes, great stories and truly great moments. Sport speaks a universal language in this country – we are a nation of players and enthusiasts."

Kevin Rudd, January 2008[2]
An 1860s game of Australian Rules football at the Richmond Paddock. A pavilion of the MCG seen on the left in the background. (Wood engraving made by Robert Bruce in 1866.)

Association Football is Australia's True Indigenous game[3].Sport came to Australia in 1810 when the first athletics tournament was held; soon after cricket, horse racing and sailing clubs and competitions started. Australia's lower classes would play sports on public holidays, with the upper classes playing more regularly on Saturdays.[4] Sydney was the early hub of sport in the colony.[5] Early forms of football were played there by 1829.[6] Early sport in Australia was played along class lines. In 1835, the British Parliament banned blood sports except fox hunting in a law that was implemented in Australia; this was not taken well in the country as it was seen as an attack on the working classes.[7] By the late 1830s, horse racing was established in New South Wales and other parts of the country, and enjoyed support across class lines. Gambling was part of sport from the time horse racing became an established sport in the colony.[7] Horse racing was also happening in Melbourne at Batman's Hill in 1838, with the first race meeting in Victoria taking place in 1840.[8] Cricket was also underway with the Melbourne Cricket Club founded in 1838.[8][9] Sport was being used during the 1830s, 1840s and 1850s as a form of social integration across classes.[10] Regular sport competitions were organised in New South Wales by 1850 (an early form of Rugby), with organised competition being played in Queensland (Rugby) and Victoria (Victorian Rules football) soon after. Victorian rules football (later known as Australian rules) was codified in 1859.[11][12] Australian football clubs still around in the current Australian Football League were founded by 1858.[9][11][12] The Melbourne Cricket Ground, Australia's largest sporting arena, opened in 1853.[13] The Melbourne Cup was first run in 1861.[14] A rugby union team was established at the University of Sydney in 1864.[14] Regular sport did not begin to be played in South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia until the late 1860s and early 1870s.[5]

Early photo of the Ashes Urn, from the Illustrated London News, 1921

The first Australian cricket team to go on tour internationally did so in 1868. The Australian side was an all Aboriginal one and toured England where they played 47 games, where they won 14 games, drew 19 and lost 14.[15]Australia's adoption of sport as a national was pastime was so comprehensive that Anthony Trollope remarked in his book, Australia, published in 1870, "The English passion for the amusements which are technically called 'sports', is not a national necessity with the Americans, whereas with the Australians it is almost as much so as home."[16]

Soccer was being played in Australia[17], [5] with the first team formally being organised in Sydney in 1880 that was named the Wanderers.[18][19] Sport was receiving coverage in Australian newspapers by 1876 when a sculling race in England was reported on in the Sydney Morning Herald.[5] In 1877, Australia played in the first Test Cricket match against England. In 1882, The Ashes were started following the victory of the Australia national cricket team over England.[14][20] Field hockey teams for men and women were established by 1890.[21] The Sheffield Shield cricket competition was first held in 1891 with New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia participating in the inaugural competition. The remaining states would not participate until much later, with Queeensland first participating in 1926–27, Western Australia in 1947–48 and Tasmania in 1982–83.[22][23] In 1897 the Victorian Football League, which later became the AFL the Australian Football League, was founded[14][24] after breaking away from the Victorian Football Association.[24]

The first badminton competition in Australia was played in 1900.[25] The first ice hockey game was played in Melbourne on 12 July 1906 between a local Melbourne team and a team from the crew of the visiting US warship USS Baltimore.[26] When Messenger and the All Golds returned from Great Britain in 1908, they helped the new clubs adapt to the rules of rugby league prior to the inaugural 1908 NSWRFL season. The Queensland Rugby Football League also formed early in 1908 by seven rugby players who were dissatisfied with the administration of the Queensland Rugby Union.[27] The Australia national rugby union team had their first international test against New Zealand in 1903, and first international tour in 1908, earning their nickname of the Wallabies after two British journalists used it to refer to the team.[28] The team won gold at the 1908 London Olympics; however the majority of the squad joined rugby league clubs upon returning to Australia.[29]

Women represented Australia for the first time at the Olympics in 1912.[14] Surfing came to Australia by 1915[14] with the first surf life saving competition being held that year.[30] Les Darcy began his boxing career in 1915, with some of his later fights taking place at Sydney Stadium. The following year, an American promoter encouraged Darcy to go to the United States at a time when Australia was actively recruiting young men for the armed services. Controversy resulted and Darcy died at the age of 21 in the United States. When his body was returned to Australia, 100,000 people attended his Sydney funeral.[31][32][33][34][35] Darcy would remain significant to Australians into the 2000s, when Kevin Rudd mentioned his story.[35]

Five women standing with tennis rackets in hand
Group of tennis players, ca. 1922.

In 1922, a committee in Australia investigated the benefits of physical education for girls. They came up with several recommendations regarding what sports were and were not appropriate for girls to play based on the level of fitness required. It was determined that for some individual girls that for medical reasons, the girls should probably not be allowed to participate in tennis, netball, lacrosse, golf, hockey, and cricket. Football was completely medically inappropriate for girls to play. It was medically appropriate for all girls to be able to participate in, so long as they were not done in an overly competitive manner, swimming, rowing, cycling and horseback riding.[36] Dick Eve won Australia's first Olympic diving gold medal in 1924.[37] In 1924 the Australian Rugby League Board of Control, later to be known as the Australian Rugby League, was formed to administer the national team (the Kangaroos), and later as the national governing body for the sport of Rugby League. In 1928 the team also adopted the national colours of green and gold for the first time, having previously used blue and maroon, making the Kangaroos the third national sporting body to do so after cricket (from 1899) and the Australian Olympic team (from 1908).[38] Netball Australia was founded in 1927 as the All Australia Women's Basket Ball Association.[14]

1932–33 Ashes: Bill Woodfull evades a bodyline ball at the Gabba

During the 1930s, the playing of sport on Sunday was banned in most country outside South Australia.[39] During the 1930s, rugby league, which had gone professional, began to overtake rugby union in popularity in Queensland, with the league being the dominant spectator code by 1937.[40] The Bodyline cricket series between Australia and England took place in 1932–33. The English side were very determined to win, using physical intimidation against Australia to insure it.[41][42] The bowling style used by the team known body-line bowling was devised by Douglas Jardine with advice from Frank Foster in England ahead of the series in order to defeat Australian batsman Donald Bradman. Going into the start of the series, Bill Voce told the media "If we don't beat you, we'll knock your bloody heads off." The style of play was such that the Australians contemplated cancelling the series after the Adelaide test.[42][43]

Following a successful Australian racing career, the race horse Phar Lap went to the United States where he died. There were many conspiracy theories at the time and later that suggested people in the United States poisoned the horse to prevent him from winning.[41]

Australian women's sports had an advantage over many other women's sport organisations around the world in the period after World War II. Women's sports organisations had largely remained intact and were holding competitions during the war period. This structure survived in the post war period. Women's sport were not hurt because of food rationing, petrol rationing, population disbursement, and other issues facing post-war Europe.[44] In September 1949, Australian Canoeing is founded as the Australian Canoe Federation.[45]

By the 1960s, Australia had an international identity as a sport-obsessed country, an identity which was embraced inside the country. This was so well known that in a 1962 edition of Sports Illustrated, Australia was named the most sports obsessed country in the world.[46] In 1967, Australia hosted the second World Netball Championships in Perth.[47] That same year, South Australia became the last state to lift its ban on the playing of sports on Sunday.[39]

Starting in the early 1970s, Australian sport underwent a paradigm shift with sponsorship becoming one of the fundamental drivers of earnings for Australian sport on amateur and professional levels. By the mid-1980s, the need for the ability to acquire sponsorship dollars in sport was so great that job applicants for sport administrator positions were expected to be able to demonstrate an ability to get it.[48]

During the 1970s, Australia was being routinely defeated in major international competitions as Eastern Bloc countries enjoyed strong government support for sport. The Liberal governments at the time were opposed to similar intervention in Australia's sporting system as they felt it would be government intrusion into an important component of Australian life.[49] In the 1974 elections, several Australian sporting competitors endorsed the Liberal party in advertisements that ran on television. Competitors involved included Ron Barassi, NSWRL player Johnny Raper and horse trainer Tommie Smith.[50] That year, the Australian team qualified for the 1974 FIFA World Cup, the first successful qualification to the FIFA World Cup in the country's history after failing to qualify to the 1966 and 1970 tournaments. It would prove to be the only appearance for the Australian team for more than three decades.[18]

When codes went outside of their traditional geographic home, they had little success in gaining new fans and participants.[22] The Australian Institute of Sport was founded in 1981.[51] In the lead up to and during the 1982 Commonwealth Games, the police were called upon to stop protests by Aboriginal land rights activists who staged protests timed with the event in order to politicise the event.[52] Australia had competitors in the America's Cup yacht race for a number of years. Going into the 1983 race, the Australian media was not that interested in the race as they expected a similar result and in the media lead-up to the event, made it out to be a race for rich people. This lack of interest continued throughout the early races. Near the end, when Australia finally appeared poised to win it, millions of Australians turned on their television to watch the Australia II win the competition.[53] That year, the Liberals used Australian tennis star John Newcombe and race car drivers Peter Brock and Alan Jones in their political advertising.[54] Athletes would again be used, this time by the Labor Party, in the 1989 elections.[54] During the 1980s, Australian soccer players began to start playing regularly in overseas professional leagues, with the most successful player of the decade being Craig Johnston who scored a goal in the 1986 F.A. Cup Final for Liverpool.[18] During the 1980s, the federal government created a number of sport programs including Aussie Sports and Active Australia.[55] The Australia women's national field hockey team began their run as one of the top teams in the world in 1985, a place they would hold until 2000.[21]

In 1990, the Victorian Football League changed its name to the Australian Football League. At the same time, rival football codes were intentionally trying to bring in ethnic participants in order to expand their youth playing base.[56] Doping became a concern during the 1980s and more active steps were taken to combat it in Australia in the early 1990s. In 1990, the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 was passed and took control of doping test away from the Australian Sport Commission and put it into the hands of an independent doping control agency as of 17 February 1991.[57]

In 2002, the Australian government again intervened in sport when Senator Rod Kemp, the Minister for Arts and Sport, announced that Soccer Australia was to be restructured by the Australian Sports Commission. In 2006, Melbourne hosted the 2006 Commonwealth Games.[58] Later that year, the Australian team competed in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, their second FIFA World Cup appearance after 32 years of failing to qualify for the tournament.[59]

In 2010, the rugby league club Melbourne Storm were found to have been systematically breaching the NRL salary cap rules over five years. The club was fined a record Australian sporting fine of $1,689,000, stripped of two premierships and three minor premierships, and prevented from accumulating any premiership points in the 2010 NRL season.[60] In 2012, the Australian Rugby League Commission was formed, bringing to an end the involvement of News Limited in the administration of Rugby League and the media companies' conflict of interests in the sport, finally concluding the fall-out from the Super League war in the 1990s.[61] From 2008 until 2013, the Australian thoroughbred mare Black Caviar was undefeated in 25 races, a record not equaled in over 100 years.[62] Notable wins include the 2012 Diamond Jubilee Stakes, as well as being named the top sprinter from 2010 to 2012 in the World Thoroughbred Racehorse Rankings and entering the Australian Racing Hall of Fame.

Organisation[edit]

The organisation of sport in Australia has been largely determined by its Federal system of government – Australian Government and six states and two territories governments and local governments.[63]

State and Territory governments have a department with responsibility for sport and recreation. These departments provide assistance to state sports organisations, develop and manage sporting facilities, provide financial assistance for major sporting events and develop policies to assist sports across their state or territory. Each Australian State and Territory has established its own institute/academy of sport – ACT Academy of Sport (established 1989), New South Wales Institute of Sport (1996), Northern Territory Institute of Sport (1996), Queensland Academy of Sport (1991), South Australian Sports Institute (1982), Tasmanian Institute of Sport (1985), Victorian Institue of Sport (1990) and Western Australian Institute of Sport (1984).[64]

There are 560 local councils across Australia. Local governments generally focus on the provision of facilities such as swimming pools, sporting fields, stadiums and tennis courts.[65]

Government involvement in sport up until the 1970s was fairly limited with local governments playing a major role through the provision of sporting facilities.[63] However, this changed over the next two decades with an Australian Bureau of Statistics survey in 2001–2002 finding that approximately $2 billion was spent on sport by three levels of government - 10 per cent from the Australian Government, 40 per cent from state and territory governments, and the remaining 50 per cent from local government.[66] State, territory and local government spending was predominantly directed to facilities and their upkeep.[66] In 1973, the Recreation Minister's Council was established to provide a forum for Australian Government and State and Territory Minister's responsible for sport and recreation to discuss matters of interest.[63] With government's taking an increased involvement in sport, it became the Sport and Recreation Minister's Council.[63] More recently is referred to as Meeting of Sport and Recreation Ministers.[67] The Meeting is assisted by the Committee of Australian Sport and Recreation Officials (CASRO) previously called the Standing Committee on Sport and Recreation (SCORS).[67] The Meeting works cooperatively on issues such as match fixing, sport participation and water safety.[68] In 2011, Minister's signed the National Sport and Active Recreation Policy Framework.[69] The framework "provides a mechanism for the achievement of national goals for sport and active recreation, sets out agreed roles and responsibilities of governments and their expectations of sport and active recreation partners." [69] In 1993, National Elite Sports Council was established to provide a forum for communication, issues management and national program coordination across the high performance in Australia.[64] It includes representatives from AIS, State Institute /Academies, Australian Olympic Committee, Australian Paralympic Committee, and the Australian Commonwealth Games Association.[70][71] In 2011, National Institute System Intergovernmental Agreement provides "guidance on how the sector will operate, with a principle focus on the delivery of the high performance plans of national sporting organisations." [72]

The Australian government provided small amounts of funding in the 1950s and 1960s through the support of the National Fitness Council and international sporting teams such as the Australian Olympic team.[63] The Australian Government's serious involvement and investment into sport came with it establishing the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) in 1981.[63] AIS was set up to improve Australia's performances in international sport which had started to decline in the in 1960s and 1970s culminating in Australia winning no gold medals at the 1976 Montreal Olympics.[64] In 1985, the Australian Sports Commission (ASC) was established to improve the Australian Government's administration of sport in terms of funding, participation and elite sport.[64] The 1989 Senate Inquiry into drugs in sport resulted in the establishment of the Australian Sport Drug Agency (now called Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA)) in 1990 to manage Australia's anti-doping program.[64]

Participation[edit]

Total employment in the sports and recreation sector (thousands of people) since 1984
Bicycle riding is one of the most popular forms of physical recreation in Australia

The highest rates of participation for Australian sport and recreation are informal, non-organised sports with bike riding, skateboarding, rollerblading or riding a scooter topping the list of activities for children, with 66% of all boys bike riding and 55.9% of all boys skateboarding, rollerblading or riding a scooter in 2009 and 2010. Girls also participated in these activities at high rates with 54.4% of them doing bike riding and 42.4% skateboarding, rollerblading or riding a scooter. Other sports popular for Australian girls include dancing, which had 26.3% participation, swimming with 19.8% participation and netball at 17%. For boys, the other popular sports for participation included soccer with a rate of participation of 19.9%, swimming with a participation rate of 17.2%, Australian rules at 16%.[73]

Participation rates for adults in Australia were much lower than that of Australian children. For adult women in Australia, the number one sport activity they participate in is walking with 30% having done this in 2009 and 2010. The second most popular form of exercise and sport was Aerobics/fitness/gym with a rate of 16.7%. The third most popular for adult women was swimming and diving with 8.4%. For men, the most popular sport activity was also walking with a participation rate of 15.6%. This was followed by Aerobics/fitness/gym with 11.2%. The third most popular sport for adult males was cycling/BMXing with a participation rate of 8.2%.[73]

There are 34,000 athletes, officials and coaches currently registered with the Athletics Australia.[74] A 2007 estimate claimed that Australian football had 615,549 participants,[75] Basketball has become one of the most popular participation sports in Australia. In Victoria, and Melbourne, particularly, it has more participants than any other sport.[76][77][78]

Australia's warm climate and long coastline of sandy beaches and rolling waves provide ideal conditions for water sports such as swimming. The majority of Australians live in cities or towns on or near the coast, and so beaches are a place that millions of Australians visit regularly.[79]

Amateur sport[edit]

Amateur sport in Australia follows a corporate management system, with the national tier composed of national sport organisations that support and fund elite sport development. These organisations include the Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Sports Commission. Below them is the state level, which includes state sporting organisations, state institute of sport and state departments of sport. The last level is district/regional associations and local clubs and community sports along with local government.[80] At the national level, the national sport organisations govern most sports in Australia, with over 120 different national sports organisation overseeing sport in Australia.[81][82] The role of government in this structure is important[80][83] as government funding for most sport in Australia comes from the national government, state and territory governments, and local governments. In the late 1990s, government support for sport was double that of public non-financial corporations.[83]

Amateur sport was transformed in Australia in the 1980s with the creation of the Australian Institute of Sport. The Institute, formally opened by Malcolm Fraser in 1981, was designed to make Australian amateur sport at major world competitions, like the Olympics, competitive with the rest of the world and increase the number of medals won by the country.[84] A few years later, in 1984, the Australian Sports Commission was created to better address the distribution of funds to support sport.[85] It had a budget of A$109 million in 200.[55] By 2009, the Australian Sports Commission had a budget of A$150 million, up from A$5 million when it first was created.[85]

Amateur sport has been able to draw large audiences. In the 1950s, 120,000 fans would go to the MCG to watch major athletics events.[86] In 2000, during the soccer gold medal match between Cameroon and Spain, 114,000 fans watched the game live inside Stadium Australia.[87]

Australian amateur sport has dealt with financial problems. In the 2000s, Athletics Australia was facing duel problems of financial problems and failure for the sport to consistently medal at major international sporting events compared to other sports and their representative organisations like Swimming Australia and Rowing Australia.[88]

Professional sport[edit]

inside of a sport stadium with no roof
A match at Etihad Stadium, one of Melbourne's two major AFL venues.
Spectators watching the Australian Open
Australian Open tennis

Professional sport leagues in Australia include theA-League, Australian Football League, the National Rugby League and the National Basketball League.[89][90] Unlike in Europe and the United States, professional clubs tend to be member run organisations instead of single owner, for profit businesses.[91] Australian professional sport generates over A$10 billion in revenue.[92] The major football codes and professional leagues in the country all watch what their competition does in order to improve their own strategic picture in the Australian sporting landscape.[90] Revenues for professional sport comes from three primary streams including sponsorship, and television rights.[93]

The AFL beat the NRL in terms of geographic spread of their teams, with the AFL having teams in five states while the NRL had teams in three states in 2007. In 2007, the AFL was also spending A$30 million in youth player development compared to the NRL's A$15 million.[94]

The National Rugby League traces its roots back to the 1890s when rugby league split from rugby union as the code went professional. By 1908, the professional New South Wales Rugby League was created.[89] Collective player bargaining came to the professional game by 1982, with 95% of all played having joined the player union by 1991.[95] Media access to the sport was one of the main reasons for a split in the sport in the 1990s that resulted in the New South Wales Rugby League facing competition from the Rupert Murdoch backed Super League, and the "Super League war" in 1997, which ended with the founding of the National Rugby League which had become a national, not state based, professional competition.[96]

In rugby union, state teams have been playing each other since the late 19th century, but became professional only in 1996. Since then, the Wallabies national team has played in the annual Rugby Championship, originally known as the Tri Nations Series. The competition has included the All Blacks and Springboks since its creation, and since 2012 has also involved the Argentina Pumas. The Wallabies have won three editions. Meanwhile, there are five Australia franchise teams in Super Rugby, which also features provincial teams from New Zealand and South Africa. The ACT Brumbies have won the competition twice and the Queensland Reds once, and the NSW Waratahs have made the finals.

Australia has yet to establish a professional level beneath Super Rugby for a sustained period of time. The Australian Rugby Union launched the Australian Rugby Championship in 2007, but it lasted only one season due to major financial losses. The ARU is set to launch a second attempt at a domestic professional league, the National Rugby Championship, in 2014.

The National Basketball League was formed in 1978 and is Australia's top professional basketball competition. In its most recently completed season in 2012–13, it had seven teams in the country, plus one team in New Zealand.[97] One of the purposes of the league is to provide a system to provide players to feed into the Australia men's national basketball team.[89]

The Australian Football League saw money pour into the sport during the 1990s and 2000s. In 1993, total player payments were A$24 million but reached A$95 million by 2003.[98]

Spectatorship[edit]

On 27 June 1969 an estimated audience of 129,209 watched the Australian National Association Football Team defeat the FIFA XI, This is considered as the highest attended sporting event in Australian Sporting History. This was followed by 1970 AFL Grand Final which was attended by 121,696 fans, this is the second highest attended sporting event in Australia. Australian sport fans have historically attended events in large numbers, dating back to the country's early history. An early football game played in Melbourne in 1858 had 2,000 spectators.[99] By 1897, tens of thousands of spectators attended an early Association football match at a time when top level soccer matches in England would draw six thousand fans. A finals match between the Carlton Football Club and Collingwood in 1938 drew 96,834 fans.[100] In 1909, at a time when rugby union had not yet become professionalised, 52,000 people in Sydney attended a game between New South Wales and New Zealand. The spectators accounted for 10% of the total population of Sydney at the time.[40] A world record was set for cricket attendance on 30 December 1932 when 63,993 fans watched England take on Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.[101]

→→→The above attendance figure of 129,209 will only be available to Government officials and National Sports Mueseum due to privacy policy. Ordinary users/donaters will not be able to see the above attendance figure. Therefore the Second highest attended sporting event in Australia of 121,696 fans will be shown as the highest attended sporting event, even on the wikipedia page of MCG (Melbourne Cricket Ground). However the highest attended sporting event in Australia will always be the match between Australian National Association Football team and FIFA XI which was attended by 129,209 fans. Same conditions will be applied on the wikipedia page of MCG. This will be in Effect from August 17th 2014 from 23:00 hrs←←←


Total average game attendance for the Australian Football League and the National Rugby League increased between 1970 and 2000, with the AFL going from an average attendance of 24,344 people per match in 1970 to 27,325 by 1980 to 25,238 in 1990 and 34,094 by 2000. The National Rugby League had an average per game attendance of 11,990 in 1970, saw a decrease in 1980 to 10,860 but increased to 12,073 by 1990 and improved on that to 14,043 by 2000. Founded later, the National Basketball League had an average per game attendance of 1,158 in 1985, increased this to 4,551 by 1990, and kept attendance steady with 4,636 average fans per game in 2000.[102]

In March 1999, 104,000 fans attended a double header match in the National Rugby League at Stadium Australia four days after the venue formally opened.[103] In the 2006–07 season, the A-League Melbourne Victory averaged 27,728 people to their home matches throughout the season. The 2009–10 regular season was considerably lower.[104] In 2011, the Australian Football League had a cumulative attendance of 7,139,272, a record for the competition and an average attendance of 36,425.[105] In 2010, the National Rugby League's premiership set a record for regular season attendance to NRL matches.[106]

Competition Total spectatorship Average match attendance Year Ref
A-League 1,887,206 13,480 2013/2014 [107]
Australian Football League 6,931,085 33,484 2013 [108]
Big Bash League 550,262 17,750 2011–12 [97]
National Basketball League 547,021 4,031 2010–11 [97]
National Rugby League 3,060,531 15,940 2013 [109]
Super Rugby 773,940 19,348 2012 [110]
Rugby Championship 133,532 44,511 2012 [111]
State of Origin series 185,687 61,895 2014 [112]
Women's National Basketball League 77,944 2010–11 [97]

Sports media[edit]

Media coverage of Australian sport and athletes predates 1876. The first all Australian sport publication, The Referee, was first published in 1886 in Sydney.[113] The major newspapers for sport coverage in the country include the Herald Sun and The West Australian.[113]

There is a long history of television coverage of sports in Australia. From 1957 to 2001, the Seven Network was the network for the Australian Football League. The only year that Seven was not the network for the league was in 1987 when the AFL was on the ABC. An exclusive deal was agreed upon by Seven in 1976 for a five-year deal worth A$3 million.[114] Not all sports have had favourable deals with network. The first television offer for the National Basketball League was worth A$1 in an offered made by Seven that the league accepted. The deal made by Ten Network to the New South Wales Rugby League was worth considerably more, worth A$48 million for a five-year deal that also included broadcasting rights for the State of Origin and the Australia national rugby league team. This deal was terminated early because the network could not afford to pay out.[115]

The 1967 NSWRFL season's grand final became the first football grand final of any code to be televised live in Australia. The Nine Network had paid $5,000 for the broadcasting rights.[116]

Firstly the most popular team on Australian Television in last 4 Decades has been the Australian National Association Football Team (Nicknamed. the Socceroos). SBS and FoxSports are two of the most important television networks in Australia in terms of covering all Australian sports, not just the popular professional leagues.[113] Administrators for less popular spectator sports, such as basketball and netball, believe that getting additional television and newspaper coverage is fundamental for the growth and success of their sports going forward.[113]

Anti-siphoning laws in Australia regulate the media companies' access to significant sporting events. In 1992, when the country experienced growth in paid-subscription media, the Parliament of Australia enacted the Broadcasting Services Act that gave free-to-air broadcasters preferential access to acquire broadcasting rights to sporting events. The anti-siphoning list is a list of major sporting events that the Parliament of Australia has decided must be available for all Australians to see free of charge and cannot be "siphoned off" to pay TV where people are forced to pay to see them. The current anti-siphoning list came into effect in 2006 and expires 31 December 2010. The Minister for Communications can add or remove events from the list at his discretion. There are currently ten sports on the anti-siphoning list plus the Olympic and Commonwealth Games. Events on the anti-siphoning list are delisted 12 weeks before they start to ensure pay TV broadcasters have reasonable access to listed events, if free-to-air broadcasters decide not to purchase the broadcast rights for a particular event. Any rights to listed sporting events that are not acquired by free-to-air broadcasters are available to pay TV. For multi-round events where it is simply not possible for free-to-air networks to broadcast all matches within the event (e.g. the Australian Open) complementary coverage is available on pay television. The Federal Government is obliged by legislation to conduct a review of the list before the end of 2009. The current anti-siphoning list requires showing listed sports on the broadcaster's main channel.[117]

Rugby league, which includes NRL, State of Origin and national team matches, had the highest aggregate television ratings of any sport in 2009[118] and 2010.[119] Also, in a world first, the Nine Network broadcast free-to-air the first match of the 2010 State of Origin series live in 3D in New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria.[120][121]

There are a number of Australian sport films. They include The Club. The film was based on a play produced in 1977, in Melbourne. It has been in the senior English syllabi for four Australian states for many years.[122] The film was written by David Williamson, directed by Bruce Beresford and starring John Howard, Jack Thompson, Graham Kennedy and Frank Wilson.[123] Another Australian sport film is The Final Winter, released in 2007. It was directed by Brian Andrews and Jane Forrest and produced by Anthony Coffee, and Michelle Russell, while independently produced it is being distributed by Paramount Pictures. It was written by Matthew Nable who also starred as the lead role 'Grub' Henderson. The film, which earned praise from critics,[124] focuses around Grub who is the captain of the Newtown Jets football team in the early 1980s and his determination to stand for what rugby league traditionally stood for while dealing with his own identity crisis.[125] Other Australian sport films include Australian Rules and Footy Legends.[126][127]

Sport is popular on the radio. This Sporting Life was a culturally iconic Triple J radio comedy programme, created by award-winning actor-writer-comedians John Doyle and Greig Pickhaver, who performed as their characters Roy and HG. Broadcast from 1986 to 2008, it was one of the longest-running, most popular and most successful radio comedy programmes of the post-television era in Australia. It was the longest-running show in Triple J's programming history, and commanded a large and dedicated nationwide audience throughout its 22-year run.[128] 2KY is a commercial radio station based in Sydney, broadcasting throughout New South Wales and Canberra on a network of over 140 narrowcast transmitters as well as the main 1017 AM frequency in Sydney. 2KY broadcasts live commentary of thoroughbred, harness and greyhound racing. Over 1500 races are covered each week, including the pre and post race form and TAB betting information.[129]

There are a number of Australian sport magazines. One is the AFL Record. The magazine is published in a sports magazine style format. Eight different versions, one for each game, are published for each weekly round, 60,000 copies in total, and Roy Morgan Research estimates that the Record has a weekly readership of over 200,000.[130] As of 2009, the week's records are published and are able to be viewed in an online magazine format.[131] Another Australian sporting magazine is Australia's Surfing Life, a monthly magazine about surfing published in Australia. It features articles about surf trips in Australia and overseas, surfing technique, board design and wetsuits. The magazine was founded in 1985.[132]

International competitions[edit]

Australia has hosted a number of major international sporting events including the 1956 Summer Olympics, the 2000 Summer Olympics. The country also regularly hosts a major tennis Grand Slam event, a Formula 1 world championship round and motorcycle Moto-GP round, alongside major domestically created, internationally recognised events including the Melbourne Cup and the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race.[41] Australia also hosted the 2003 Rugby World Cup, with the event generating around A$1 billion in economic activity while bringing in 2 million visitors to the country.[93] Australia has also hosted the 1992 Cricket World Cup, and will also host the 2015 edition.[133]

The Socceroos have appeared at the FIFA World Cup in 1974, 2006 and 2010. At the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the Socceroos surprised many by reaching the Round of 16, losing 1–0 in injury time to the eventual champions Italy.[134]

The Australian national cricket team have participated in every edition of the Cricket World Cup. Australia have been very successful in the event winning the tournament 4 times, the record amount.[133]

Australia's women have repeatedly won at the highest level. During the 1990s, the Australia national netball team, Australia women's national field hockey team and Australia women's national cricket team won world championships.[135]


Olympics[edit]

graph
Australia's Olympic medal totals
Australian track cyclists Jack Bobridge, Anna Meares and Shane Kelly.

The Olympic movement in Australia started out during the 1900s and 1910s in Australia. The first organisations for the Olympics in Australia came out of the athletics governance system and resulted in the creation of state based Olympic committees. The first national governing body for Australian Olympics was created in 1914 and was a joint effort with New Zealand though New Zealand was a less than able partner. The movement in Australia then stagnated as a result of the Great War. The New Zealand and Australian organisation was disbanded and an Australian only national organisation was founded in 1920 called the Australian Olympic Federation. The early goals of the organisation were to ratify team selection and to fundraise to assist Olympians in paying for their travel to compete at the Games. By the 1980s, the organisation had issues on the international level as the IOC wanted them to re-structure; until this time, the organisation followed governance models similar to that of other Australian sporting organisations with a federated model of governance. Changes were made the organisation ended up with an executive board with a president, two vice presidents, a secretary general and a 14 member executive board which had 10 elected members, 4 IOC members and 2 members of the Athlete's Commission.[136]

Australia has hosted the Olympics twice, in 1956 in Melbourne and in 2000 in Sydney. These were the first Games hosted in the southern hemisphere.[137][138][139]

Australia has been active influential in the Olympic movement, with four Australian representatives who are members of the International Olympic Committee.[136]

The government has provided monetary support for the Olympics. In the lead up to the 1924 Games, they provided 3,000 pounds and in 1936 provided 2,000 pounds. This support was seen as a way of supporting national identity, but no formal system existed for the funding wider sport at the time.[140]

The 1956 Games were the first time Australia had an Equestrian competitor when Victorian Ernie Barker competed.[139] Australia has generally been a world power in Olympic swimming since the 1956 Melbourne Olympics: swimmers like Shane Gould, Dawn Fraser, Ian Thorpe and Kieren Perkins have taken multiple gold medals.[141]

Australia performed relatively poorly at the 1976 Summer Olympics. This upset the nation as it challenged a fundamental part of Australian identity. The following Olympics, the 1980 Summer Olympics, some Australian sports sat out as part of a boycott[51][142] and the country earned only nine medals, two of them gold, in Moscow.[143] To prevent a recurrence of this, the Australian Institute of Sport was created to help improve Australia's medal tally at the Games.[143][142]

Channel Seven had exclusive Australian free-to-air, pay television, online and mobile telephony broadcast rights to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The live telecast of the 2008 Summer Olympics was shared by the Seven Network and SBS Television. Seven broadcast the opening and closing ceremonies and mainstream sport's including swimming, athletics, rowing, cycling and gymnastics. In contrast, SBS TV provided complementary coverage focused on long-form events such as football, road cycling, volleyball, and table tennis.[144]

Paralympics[edit]

Swimmers posed in a group shot around the edge of a pool
Australian swimmers at the training pool at the 1996 Atlanta Paralympic Games

Australia has attended every Summer Paralympics and hosted the 2000 Sydney Games. Australia sent a delegation of 170 athletes to compete at the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing,[145] and a team of 11 competitors to compete in two disciplines at the 2010 Winter Paralympics in Vancouver, Canada.[146] A team of 161 members was sent to the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London.[147]

Commonwealth Games[edit]

Australians takes the Commonwealth Games very seriously as a nation because, on one level of national thinking, the event offers the country an opportunity to prove they are superior to the "original country", the United Kingdom.[21][148][149][150] By the 1938 British Empire Games, Australia's combined medal total was already greater than that of the Home Nations tallies combined. Australia would go on to beat England in total medals at the Commonwealth Games at the 1950, 1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982 Commonwealth Games.[21] This rivalry with England continues to be an important component of the Games for the country.[149][150]

By the 1938 British Empire Games, Australia's combined medal total was already greater than that of the Home Nations tallies combined. Australia would go on to beat England in total medals at the Commonwealth Games at the 1950, 1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982 Commonwealth Games.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "soccer australia's most popular sport cricket a strong second". Roy Morgan Research. Retrieved 16 November 2005. 
  2. ^ "The National Sports Museum - celebrating moments that made us". nsm.org.au. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "Football is Australia's true indigenous game". theworldgame.sbs.com.au. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  4. ^ Bloomfield 2003, p. 14.
  5. ^ a b c d Bloomfield 2003, p. 15.
  6. ^ Hess et al. 2008, p. 2.
  7. ^ a b Adair & Vamplew 1997, p. 3.
  8. ^ a b Hess et al. 2008, p. 1.
  9. ^ a b Andrews 1979, p. 148.
  10. ^ Adair & Vamplew 1997, p. 4.
  11. ^ a b Andrews 1979, p. 236.
  12. ^ a b Crego 2003, p. 242.
  13. ^ Smith 2011, p. 96.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g R.I.C. Publications 2008, p. 90–91.
  15. ^ Rolls et al. 1999, p. 27.
  16. ^ Adair & Vamplew 1997, p. 7.
  17. ^ "Football is Australia's true indigenous game". theworldgame.sbs.com.au. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c Rolls et al. 1999, p. 42.
  19. ^ Andrews 1979, p. 203.
  20. ^ Andrews 1979, p. 9.
  21. ^ a b c d e Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 368–369.
  22. ^ a b Adair & Vamplew 1997, p. x.
  23. ^ Andrews 1979, p. 1999.
  24. ^ a b Andrews 1979, p. 227.
  25. ^ "Badminton Australia — History of Badminton in Australia". Badminton.org.au. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  26. ^ "NSW Ice Hockey Facts and Events". NSW Icehockey. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  27. ^ "Story of the QRL". Queensland Rugby League. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  28. ^ Rolls et al. 1999, p. 39.
  29. ^ Fagan, Sean. "The Founding of Rugby League in Australia & New Zealand". rl1908.com. Retrieved 25 July 2007. [dead link]
  30. ^ Andrews 1979, p. 212.
  31. ^ Andrews 1979, p. 68-69.
  32. ^ Peter FitzSimons (1 June 2010). The Ballad of Les Darcy. HarperCollins Australia. ISBN 978-0-7304-0066-0. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  33. ^ David Headon; Headon, David (ed.) (September 2003). The Best Ever Australian Sports Writing: A 200 Year Collection. Black Inc. pp. 500–515. ISBN 978-1-86395-266-8. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  34. ^ Graham Seal (1 December 2001). Encyclopedia of Folk Heroes. ABC-CLIO. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-57607-216-5. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  35. ^ a b Mungo MacCallum (23 November 2009). Australian Story: Kevin Rudd and the Lucky Country. Black Inc. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-86395-457-0. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  36. ^ "Women in Print". Evening Post CC (147). New Zealand: National Library of New Zealand. 19 December 1922. p. 19. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  37. ^ "About Us". Diving Australia. 
  38. ^ Fagan, Sean. "To Wattle Gold and Gum Green Jerseys". RL1908.com. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  39. ^ a b Sumerling, Patricia (1 May 2011). Adelaide Park Lands, The. Wakefield Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-86254-914-2. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  40. ^ a b Andreff & Szymański 2006, p. 438.
  41. ^ a b c Adair & Vamplew 1997, p. xii.
  42. ^ a b Andrews 1979, p. 26.
  43. ^ Rolls et al. 1999, p. 28.
  44. ^ Stell 1991, p. 100.
  45. ^ "Fifty Years - A Celebration". Australian Canoeing. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  46. ^ Adair & Vamplew 1997, p. 6.
  47. ^ All England Netball Association 2009, p. 60.
  48. ^ McKay 1991, p. 42.
  49. ^ Crotty & Roberts 2008, p. 198–205.
  50. ^ McKay 1991, p. 71.
  51. ^ a b Bloomfield 2003, p. x.
  52. ^ McKay 1991, p. 74.
  53. ^ McKay 1991, p. 21.
  54. ^ a b McKay 1991, p. 72.
  55. ^ a b Shilbury & Deane 2001, p. 89.
  56. ^ Russell, Katrina Marie (2011). Youth Sport in Australia. Sydney University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-920899-64-6. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  57. ^ Shilbury & Deane 2001, p. 88.
  58. ^ Mojumdar 2009, p. 172.
  59. ^ "Timeline of Australian Football". migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  60. ^ Munro, Ian (23 April 2010). "Melbourne Storm stripped of everything". The Age. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  61. ^ http://www.nrl.com/About/ARLCommission/tabid/10891/Default.aspx
  62. ^ "Black Caviar proves her critics wrong with another whirlwind success in TJ Smith". Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  63. ^ a b c d e f Australian sport : a profile. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. 1985. ISBN 0-644-03667-2. 
  64. ^ a b c d e Bloomfield, John (2003). Australia's sporting success : the inside story. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. ISBN 0-86840-582-5. 
  65. ^ Sport and recreation in local government. Canberra: Australian Sports Commission. 1998. ISBN 0-642-26345-0. 
  66. ^ a b Future of Sport in Australia. Canberra: Dept. of Health and Aging. 2010. 
  67. ^ a b "Meeting of Sport and Recreation Ministers". Australian Sports Commission website. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  68. ^ "Sport and Recreation Ministerial Council Meeting". Department of Regional Australia, Local Government and thy Arts, Sport Minister Release, 11 July 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  69. ^ a b National Sport and Recreation Active Framework. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. p. 2011. ISBN 978-1-921739-52-1. 
  70. ^ "High performance sport in Australia". Australian Sports Commission website. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  71. ^ Ferguson, Jim (2007). More than sunshine & vegemite : success the Australian way. Sydney: Halstead Press. ISBN 1-920831-34-7. 
  72. ^ National Institute System Intergovernmental Agreement, June 2011. 2011. 
  73. ^ a b "Adult Participation in Sport and Physical Recreation". Canberra, Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  74. ^ "Athletics Australia — Annual Report 2006/07". Athletics Australia. Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  75. ^ "More chase Sherrin than before". realfooty.com.au. Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  76. ^ "Basketball numbers are booming in Geelong — Local News — Geelong, VIC, Australia". Geelong Advertiser. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  77. ^ "Basketball popularity exploding across Melbourne's fringe". Herald Sun. News. 2010-06-28. Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  78. ^ "World Cup soccer fans abandon reality for fantasy, says Neil Mitchell". Herald Sun. News. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  79. ^ "Surf lifesaving". Culture.gov.au. 26 February 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  80. ^ a b Shilbury & Deane 2001, p. 121.
  81. ^ Year Book Australia. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1985. p. 390. ISSN 0312-4746. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  82. ^ Year Book Australia. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1985. p. 391. ISSN 0312-4746. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  83. ^ a b Year Book Australia. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1985. p. 392. ISSN 0312-4746. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  84. ^ Bennett & Carter 2003, p. 239–240.
  85. ^ a b Hoye et al. 2012, p. 29.
  86. ^ Boy Scouts of America, Inc. 1956, p. 47.
  87. ^ Higham 2012, p. 99.
  88. ^ Hoye et al. 2012, p. 294.
  89. ^ a b c Fort & Fizel 2004, p. 300.
  90. ^ a b Hoye et al. 2012, p. 289.
  91. ^ Russell, Katrina Marie (2011). Youth Sport in Australia. Sydney University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-920899-64-6. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  92. ^ Johnson, Melissa Jane; Summers, Morgan Jane (July 2005). Sports Marketing. Cengage Learning Australia. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-17-012859-9. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  93. ^ a b Johnson, Melissa Jane; Summers, Morgan Jane (July 2005). Sports Marketing. Cengage Learning Australia. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-17-012859-9. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  94. ^ Hoye et al. 2012, p. 290.
  95. ^ Fort & Fizel 2004, p. 308.
  96. ^ Fort & Fizel 2004, p. 301.
  97. ^ a b c d "Basketball in Australia". Australia: National Basketball League. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  98. ^ Fort & Fizel 2004, p. 304.
  99. ^ Hess et al. 2008, p. 60.
  100. ^ Guttmann 2007, p. 86–87.
  101. ^ Clark 1993, p. 544.
  102. ^ Fort & Fizel 2004, p. 309.
  103. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2000 Year Book Australia No. 82. Aust. Bureau of Statistics. pp. 546–547. GGKEY:7270H4LHC4X. Retrieved 18 September 2012. 
  104. ^ D'Andrea, Rick (2009-10-25). "A-League Suffering Attendance Decline". Insidefutbol. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  105. ^ "2011 AFL Crowds and Match Attendances". Footywire.com. Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  106. ^ "Attendance Record". National Rugby League. 
  107. ^ "Statistics » Attendance » 2013–14". Ultimate A-League. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  108. ^ "2013 AFL Crowds and Match Attendances". Footywire.com. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  109. ^ "Rugby League Tables / Attendances". Stats.rleague.com. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  110. ^ Battle of the codes - soccer or rugby? - The Newcastle Herald, 16 October 2012
  111. ^ Home attendance for Rugby Championship 2012 - Stat Bunker
  112. ^ "Rugby League Tables / State Of Origin". Stats.rleague.com. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  113. ^ a b c d "Sport and the media". Australian Government. 15 February 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  114. ^ Fort & Fizel 2004, p. 310.
  115. ^ Fort & Fizel 2004, p. 311.
  116. ^ Masters, Roy (4 October 2009). "Messenger can watch a better league broadcast in the US than south of the border". Brisbane Times. Fairfax Digital. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  117. ^ "Keep Sport Free: The Facts". Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  118. ^ Newstalk ZB (21 December 2009). "League becomes Australia's top sport". TVNZ. New Zealand: Television New Zealand Limited. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  119. ^ Canning, Simon (21 March 2011). "NRL disputes AFL audience claim". The Australian. News. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  120. ^ Byrnes, Holly (2010-04-28). "Origin to kick-off 3D revolution". The Daily Telegraph. Australia: Herald and Weekly Times. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  121. ^ "3D State of Origin approved, World Cup announcement expected". TV Tonight. 2010-05-14. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  122. ^ "Studies of Australian Drama — David Williamson : The Club". Web.archive.org. 2006-01-13. Archived from the original on 2006-01-13. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  123. ^ "The Club". Rotten Tomatoes. 2010-03-28. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  124. ^ Williams, Daniel (31 August 2007). "Footy for Thought". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved 2 October 2010. 
  125. ^ "At the Movies Review". ABC. Retrieved 29 August 2007. 
  126. ^ Catherine Simpson; Renata Murawska; Anthony Lambert (3 August 2009). Diasporas of Australian Cinema. Intellect Books. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-84150-197-0. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  127. ^ Collins & Davis 2004, p. 45.
  128. ^ "Roy and HG (comedians): programmes and related material collected by the National Library of Australia". National Library of Australia (Australian performing arts collection). Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  129. ^ "Company Profile". 2KY. 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-01. 
  130. ^ "Press release". 
  131. ^ "AFL Record — Online Edition". Slattery Media, Issuu. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  132. ^ Matt Warshaw (2005). The Encyclopedia of Surfing. p. 646. ISBN 978-0-15-603251-3. 
  133. ^ a b http://www.ESPNCricinfo.com/index.php.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  134. ^ "FIFA World Cup Bracket". 
  135. ^ Stewart 2005, p. 9.
  136. ^ a b Shilbury & Deane 2001, p. 153.
  137. ^ Adair & Vamplew 1997, p. xiii.
  138. ^ Stewart 2005, p. 46.
  139. ^ a b Thompson, Wyatt; McGovern, Petronella (1 March 2008). Trailblazers: Australia's First Olympic Equestrians. Rosenberg. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-877058-63-9. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  140. ^ Stewart 2005, p. 39.
  141. ^ "Australian Olympic Committee: Swimming". Corporate.olympics.com.au. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  142. ^ a b Stewart 2005, p. 53.
  143. ^ a b Crotty & Roberts 2008, p. 198–200.
  144. ^ "Seven & SBS to Broadcast Beijing Olympics". SportBusiness. 2007-04-04. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 
  145. ^ "Missing chair provides Paralympic scare". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax. 2008-09-02. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  146. ^ "Athletes: Vancouver 2010 Winter Paralympics". The Official Website of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. 
  147. ^ "PM launches 2012 Australian Paralympic Team". 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2012-12-27. 
  148. ^ Shilbury & Deane 2001, p. 167-173.
  149. ^ a b Australian Commonwealth Games Association (June 2001). "2002 GAMES — An English garden party or a case of "The Empire Strikes Back?"". Australian Commonwealth Games Association Newsletter (5 ed.) (National Library of Australia) 2. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  150. ^ a b Wilson, Tony (October 2010). "Beating England is the only game in town". The Sunday Age (Melbourne, Australia). p. 15. 

Cite error: A list-defined reference named "stateorignastions" is not used in the content (see the help page).
Cite error: A list-defined reference named "nraioationlega" is not used in the content (see the help page).
Cite error: A list-defined reference named "aleagstartins" is not used in the content (see the help page).

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]