Syria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the modern state of Syria. For other uses, see Syria (disambiguation).
Syrian Arab Republic
الجمهورية العربية السورية
Al-Jumhūrīyah Al-ʻArabīyah As-Sūrīyah
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: "حماة الديار" (Arabic)
Guardians of the Homeland
Capital Damascus
33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500°N 36.300°E / 33.500; 36.300
Largest city Aleppo
Official languages Arabic
Government Unitary dominant-party
semi-presidential republic[1][A]
 -  President Bashar al-Assad
 -  Prime Minister Wael Nader al-Halqi
 -  Speaker of the People's Council Mohammad Jihad al-Laham
Legislature People's Council
Establishment
 -  Dissolution of Ottoman Syria; French occupation 1 September 1918 
 -  Proclamation of Arab Kingdom of Syria 8 March 1920 
 -  State of Syria established under French Mandate 1 December 1924 
 -  Syrian Republic established by merger of States of Jabal Druze, Alawites and Syria 1930 
 -  Independence from France 17 April 1946 
 -  Secession from the
United Arab Republic
28 September 1961 
 -  Ba'ath party takes power 8 March 1963 
Area
 -  Total 185,180[2] km2 (89th)
71,479 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1.1
Population
 -  July 2012 estimate 17,951,639 (2014 est.)[3] (54th)
 -  Density 118.3/km2 (101st)
306.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $107.831 billion[4]
 -  Per capita $5,100[4]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $59.957 billion[4]
 -  Per capita $2,802[4]
Gini (2004) 35.8[5]
medium
HDI (2013) Increase 0.648[6]
medium · 116th
Currency Syrian pound (SYP)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +963[B]
ISO 3166 code SY
Internet TLD .sy, سوريا.
  1. ^ Government has limited control across the country. See Syrian civil war
  2. ^ 02 from Lebanon

Syria (Listeni/ˈsɪriə/ SIRR-ee-ə ; Arabic: سوريا‎ or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. Its capital Damascus is among the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world.[7] A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including the majority Arab population which includes; Alawite, Druze, Sunni and Christian. Other ethnic groups include; Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Yezidi and Turks. Sunni Arabs make up the largest population group in Syria.

In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as al-Sham) while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the third millennium BC. In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt.

The modern Syrian state was established after World War I as a French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971. Between 1958-61, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt, which was terminated by a military coup. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic.[8] Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000.[9]

Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it is currently suspended from the Arab League[10] and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation,[11] and self-suspended from the Union for the Mediterranean.[12] Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in civil war in the wake of uprisings (considered an extension of the Arab Spring, the mass movement of revolutions and protests in the Arab world) against Assad and the Ba'athist government. An alternative government was formed by the opposition umbrella group, the Syrian National Coalition, in March 2012. Representatives of this government were subsequently invited to take up Syria's seat at the Arab League.[13]

Etymology

Main article: Name of Syria

The name Syria is derived from the ancient Greek name for Syrians: Σύριοι, Sýrioi, or Σύροι, Sýroi, which the Greeks applied without distinction to the Assyrians.[14][15] A number of modern scholars argued that the Greek word related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur.[16] Others believed that it was derived from Siryon, the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon.[17] However, the discovery of the Çineköy inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria, whose ancient homeland was located in modern northern Iraq.

The area designated by the word has changed over time. Classically, Syria lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, between Arabia to the south and Asia Minor to the north, stretching inland to include parts of Iraq, and having an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including, from west to east, Commagene, Sophene, and Adiabene.[18]

By Pliny's time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire (but politically independent from each other): Judaea, later renamed Palaestina in AD 135 (the region corresponding to modern-day Israel, the Palestinian Territories, and Jordan) in the extreme southwest, Phoenicia corresponding to Lebanon, with Damascena to the inland side of Phoenicia, Coele-Syria (or "Hollow Syria") south of the Eleutheris river, and Iraq.[19]

History

Main article: History of Syria

Ancient antiquity

Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
God head, the kingdom of Yamhad (c. 1600 BC)[20]

Since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture (known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period (PPNB) is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gyps and burnt lime (Vaisselle blanche). Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic and Bronze Age. Archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth, perhaps only preceded by those of Mesopotamia.

Eblaites and Amorites

Ebla royal palace c. 2400 BC
Main articles: Ebla, Amorite, Yamhad and Mari, Syria

The earliest recorded indigenous civilisation in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla[21] near present-day Idlib, northern Syria. Ebla appears to have been founded around 3500 BC,[22][23][24][25][26] and gradually built its fortune through trade with the Mesopotamian states of Sumer, Assyria and Akkad, as well as with the Hurrian and Hattian peoples to the northwest, in Asia Minor.[27] Gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Ebla's contact with Egypt.

One of the earliest written texts from Syria is a trading agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c. 2300 BC.[28][29] Scholars believe the language of Ebla to be among the oldest known written Semitic languages after Akkadian, Recent classifications of the Eblaite language have shown that it was an East Semitic language, closely related to the Akkadian language.[30]

Ebla was weakened by a long war with Mari, and the whole of Syria became part of the Mesopotamian Akkadian Empire after Sargon of Akkad and his grandson Naram-Sin's conquests ended Eblan domination over Syria in the first half of the 23rd century BC.[31][32]

By the 21st century BC, Hurrians settled the northern east parts of Syria while the rest of the region was dominated by the Amorites, Syria was called the Land of the Amurru (Amorites) by their Assyro-Babylonian neighbors. The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages. Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. Ugarit also arose during this time, circa 1800 BC, close to modern Latakia. Ugaritic was a Semitic language loosely related to the Canaanite languages, and developed the Ugaritic alphabet.[33] the Ugarites kingdom survived until its destruction at the hands of the marauding Indo-European Sea Peoples in the 12th century BC.

Yamhad (modern Aleppo) dominated northern Syria for two centuries,[34] although Eastern Syria was occupied in the 19th and 18th centuries BC by the Old Assyrian Empire ruled by the Amorite Dynasty of Shamshi-Adad I, and by the Babylonian Empire which was founded by Amorites. Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon.[34] Yamhad imposed its authority over Alalakh,[35] Qatna,[36] the Hurrians states and the Euphrates Valley down to the borders with Babylon.[37] The army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of Elam (modern Iran).[38] Yamhad was conquered and destroyed, along with Ebla, by the Indo-European Hittites from Asia Minor circa 1600 BC.[39]

From this time, Syria became a battle ground for various foreign empires, these being the Hittite Empire, Mitanni Empire, Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire, and to a lesser degree Babylonia. The Egyptians initially occupied much of the south, while the Hittites, and the Mitanni, much of the north. However, Assyria eventually gained the upper hand, destroying the Mitanni Empire and annexing huge swathes of territory previously held by the Hittites and Babylon.

Arameans and Phoenicians

Amrit Phoenician Temple
Reliefs from Tel Halaf dating to the Aramean kingdom of Bit Bahiani

Around the 14th century BC, various Semitic peoples appeared in the area, such as the semi-nomadic Suteans who came into an unsuccessful conflict with Babylonia to the east, and the West Semitic speaking Arameans who subsumed the earlier Amorites. They too were subjugated by Assyria and the Hittites for centuries. The Egyptians fought the Hittites for control over western Syria; the fighting reached its zenith in 1274 BC with the Battle of Kadesh.[40][41] The west remained part of the Hittite empire until it's destruction c. 1200 BC,[42] while eastern Syria largely became part of the Middle Assyrian Empire,[43] who also annexed much of the west during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser I 1114–1076 BC.

With the destruction of the Hittites and the decline of Assyria in the late 11th century BC, the Aramean tribes gained control of much of the interior, founding states such as Bit Bahiani, Aram-Damascus, Hamath, Aram-Rehob, Aram-Naharaim, and Luhuti. From this point, the region became known as Aramea or Aram. There was also a synthesis between the Semitic Arameans and the remnants of the Indo-European Hittites, with the founding of a number of Syro-Hittite states centered in north central Aram (Syria) and south central Asia Minor (modern Turkey), including Palistin, Carchemish and Sam'al.

A Canaanite group known as the Phoenicians came to dominate the coasts of Syria, (and also Lebanon and south west Turkey) from the 13th century BC, founding city states such as Amrit, Simyra, Arwad, Paltos, Ramitha and Shuksi. From these coastal regions they eventually spread their influence throughout the Mediterranean, including building colonies in Malta, Sicily, the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal), the coasts of North Africa, and most significantly, founding the major city state of Carthage (in modern Tunisia) in the 9th century BC which was much later to become the center of a major empire, rivaling the Roman Empire.

Syria and the entire Near East and beyond then fell to the vast Neo Assyrian Empire (911 BC – 605 BC). The Assyrians introduced Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of their empire, This language was to remain dominant in Syria and the entire Near East until after the Arab Islamic conquest in the 7th and 8th centuries AD, and was to be a vehicle for the spread of Christianity. The Assyrians named their colonies of Syria and Lebanon Eber-Nari. Assyrian domination ended after the Assyrians greatly weakened themselves in a series of brutal internal civil wars, followed by an attacking coalition of their former subject peoples; the Medes, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Persians, Scythians and Cimmerians. During the fall of Assyria, the Scythians ravaged and plundered much of Syria. The last stand of the Assyrian army was at Carchemish in northern Syria in 605 BC.

The Assyrian Empire was followed by the Neo-Babylonian Empire (605 BC – 539 BC). During this period, Syria became a battle ground between Babylonia and another former Assyrian colony, that of Egypt. The Babylonians, like their Assyrian relations, were victorious over Egypt.

Classic antiquity

Ancient city of Palmyra

The Achaemenid Persians took Syria from Babylonia as part of their hegemony of Southwest Asia in 539 BC. The Persians, having spent four centuries under Assyrian rule, retained Imperial Aramaic as the language of the Achaemenid Empire (539 BC- 33O BC), and also the Assyrian name of the satrapy of Aram/Syria Eber-Nari.

Syria was conquered by the Greek Macedonian Empire, ruled by Alexander the Great circa 330 BC, and consequently became Coele-Syria province of the Greek Seleucid Empire (323 BC – 64 BC).

It was the Greeks who introduced the name "Syria" to the region. Originally an Indo-European corruption of "Assyria" in northern Mesopotamia, the Greeks used this term not only to describe Assyria itself but the lands to the west which had for centuries been under Assyrian dominion.[44] Thus in the Greco-Roman world both the Arameans of Syria and the Assyrians of Mesopotamia to the east were referred to as "Syrians" or "Syriacs", despite these being distinct peoples in their own right, a confusion which would continue into the modern world.

Palmyra, a rich and sometimes powerful native Aramean kingdom arose in northern Syria in the 4th century BC, independent of the Greeks. Eventually parts of southern Seleucid Syria were taken by Judean Hasmoneans upon the slow disintegration of the Hellenistic Empire.

Syria briefly came under Armenian control from 83 BC, with the conquests of Tigranes the Great, who was welcomed as a savior from the Seleucids and Romans by its people. The Armenians retained control of Syria for two decades before being driven out by the Romans.

Roman theatre of Bosra in the province of Arabia, present-day Syria

Pompey the Great of the Roman Empire, who captured Antioch in 64 BC, turning Syria into a Roman province. Palmyra again remained largely independent, and in the late 3rd century AD it became the center of the short lived Palmyrene Empire, which briefly conquered Egypt, Syria, Palestine, much of Asia Minor, Judah and Lebanon, before being finally brought under Roman control in 273 AD.

The northern Mesopotamian Assyrian kingdom of Adiabene controlled areas of north east Syria between 10 AD and 117 AD, before it was conquered by Rome.[45]

Control of Syria eventually passed from the Romans to the Byzantines, with the split in the Roman Empire.[27]

The largely Aramaic speaking population of Syria during the heyday of the empire was probably not exceeded again until the 19th century. The bulk of the population were Arameans, but Syria was also home to Greek and Roman ruling classes, Assyrians dwelt in the north east, Phoenicians along the coasts, and Jewish and Armenian communities was also extant, Nabateans and pre-Islamic Arabs such as the Lakhmids entered the deserts of southern Syria. Syria's large and prosperous population made Syria one of the most important of the Roman provinces, particularly during the 2nd and 3rd centuries (AD).[46]

The Roman Emperor Alexander Severus, who was emperor from 222 to 235, was an Aramean from Syria. His cousin Elagabalus, who was emperor from 218 to 222, was also from Syria and his family held hereditary rights to the high priesthood of the Aramean sun god El-Gabal at Emesa (modern Homs) in Syria. Another Roman emperor who was a Syrian was Philip the Arab (Marcus Julius Philippus), emperor from 244 to 249.[46]

Syria is significant in the history of Christianity; Saulus of Tarsus, better known as the Apostle Paul, was converted on the Road to Damascus and emerged as a significant figure in the Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria, from which he left on many of his missionary journeys. (Acts 9:1–43)

Middle Ages

Islamic Syria (al-Sham)

Main article: Bilad al-Sham
Fresco from Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbî, built in the early 7th century

By AD 640, Syria was conquered by the Arab Rashidun army led by Khalid ibn al-Walid. In the mid-7th century, the Umayyad dynasty, then rulers of the empire, placed the capital of the empire in Damascus. The country's power declined during later Umayyad rule; due mainly to totalitarianism, corruption and the resulting revolutions. The Umayyad dynasty was then overthrown in 750 by the Abbasid dynasty, which moved the capital of empire to Baghdad.

Arabic – made official under Umayyad rule – became the dominant language, replacing Greek and Aramaic of the Byzantine era. In 887, the Egypt-based Tulunids annexed Syria from the Abbasids, and were later replaced by once the Egypt-based Ikhshidids and still later by the Hamdanids originating in Aleppo founded by Sayf al-Dawla.[47]

Crusaders, Ayubids, Mamluks and Nizaris

The 1299 Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar. The Mongols under Ghazan defeated the Mamluks.

Sections of Syria were held by French, English, Italian and German overlords between 1098 and 1189 AD during the Crusades and were known collectively as the Crusader states among which the primary one in Syria was the Principality of Antioch. The coastal mountainous region was also occupied in part by the Nizari Ismailis, the so-called Assassins, who had intermittent confrontations and truces with the Crusader States. Later in history when "the Nizaris faced renewed Frankish hostilities, they received timely assistance from the Ayyubids."[48]

After a century of Seljuk rule, Syria was largely conquered (1175–1185) by the Kurdish warlord Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt. Aleppo fell to the Mongols of Hulegu in January 1260, and Damascus in March, but then Hulegu was forced to break off his attack to return to China to deal with a succession dispute.

A few months later, the Mamluks arrived with an army from Egypt and defeated the Mongols in the Battle of Ain Jalut in Galilee. The Mamluk leader, Baibars, made Damascus a provincial capital. When he died, power was taken by Qalawun. In the meantime, an emir named Sunqur al-Ashqar had tried to declare himself ruler of Damascus, but he was defeated by Qalawun on 21 June 1280, and fled to northern Syria. Al-Ashqar, who had married a Mongol woman, appealed for help from the Mongols. The Mongols of the Ilkhanate took the city, but Qalawun persuaded Al-Ashqar to join him, and they fought against the Mongols on 29 October 1281, in the Second Battle of Homs, which was won by the Mamluks.[49]

In 1400, the Muslim Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur Lenk (Tamurlane) invaded Syria, sacked Aleppo and captured Damascus after defeating the Mamluk army. The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand Timur-Lenk also conducted specific massacres of the Aramean and Assyrian Christian populations, greatly reducing their numbers.[50][51] By the end of the 15th century, the discovery of a sea route from Europe to the Far East ended the need for an overland trade route through Syria.

Ottoman Syria

Main article: Ottoman Syria
Syrian women, 1683

In 1516, the Ottoman Empire invaded the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, conquering Syria, and incorporating it into its empire. The Ottoman system was not burdensome to Syrians because the Turks respected Arabic as the language of the Koran, and accepted the mantle of defenders of the faith. Damascus was made the major entrepot for Mecca, and as such it acquired a holy character to Muslims, because of the beneficial results of the countless pilgrims who passed through on the hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca.[52]

Ottoman administration followed a system that led to peaceful coexistence. Each ethno-religious minority – Arab Shia Muslim, Arab Sunni Muslim, Aramean-Syriac Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Maronite Christians, Assyrian Christians, Armenians, Kurds and Jewish – constituted a millet.[53] The religious heads of each community administered all personal status laws and performed certain civil functions as well.[52] In 1831, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt renounced his loyalty to the Empire and overran Ottoman Syria, capturing Damascus. His short-term rule over the domain attempted to change the demographics and social structure of the region: he brought thousands of Egyptian villagers to populate the plains of Southern Syria, rebuilt Jaffa and settled it with veteran Egyptian soldiers aiming to turn it into a regional capital, and he crushed peasant and Druze rebellions and deported non-loyal tribesmen. By 1840, however, he had to surrender the area back to the Ottomans.

From 1864, Tanzimat reforms were applied on Ottoman Syria, carving out the provinces (vilayets) of Aleppo, Zor, Beirut and Damascus Vilayet; Mutasarrifate of Mount Lebanon was created, as well, and soon after the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was given a separate status.

During World War I the Ottoman Empire entered the conflict on the side of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It ultimately suffered defeat and loss of control of the entire Near East to the British Empire and French Empire. During the conflict, genocide against indigenous Christian peoples was carried out by the Ottomans and their allies in the form of the Armenian Genocide and Assyrian Genocide, of which Deir ez-Zor, in Ottoman Syria, was the final destination of these death marches.[54] In the midst of World War I, two Allied diplomats (Frenchman François Georges-Picot and Briton Mark Sykes) secretly agreed on the post-war division of the Ottoman Empire into respective zones of influence in the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916. Initially, the two territories were separated by a border that ran in an almost straight line from Jordan to Iran. However, the discovery of oil in the region of Mosul just before the end of the war led to yet another negotiation with France in 1918 to cede this region to 'Zone B', or the British zone of influence. This border was later recognized internationally when Syria became a League of Nations mandate in 1920[55] and has not changed to date.

French Mandate

The inauguration of President Hashim al-Atassi in 1936

In 1920, a short-lived independent Kingdom of Syria was established under Faisal I of the Hashemite family. However, his rule over Syria ended after only a few months, following the Battle of Maysalun. French troops occupied Syria later that year after the San Remo conference proposed that the League of Nations put Syria under a French mandate.[56]

In 1925, Sultan al-Atrash led a revolt that broke out in the Druze Mountain and spread to engulf the whole of Syria and parts of Lebanon. Al-Atrash won several battles against the French, notably the Battle of al-Kafr on 21 July 1925, the Battle of al-Mazraa on 2–3 August 1925, and the battles of Salkhad, al-Musayfirah and Suwayda. France sent thousands of troops from Morocco and Senegal, leading the French to regain many cities, although resistance lasted until the spring of 1927. The French sentenced Sultan al-Atrash to death, but he had escaped with the rebels to Transjordan and was eventually pardoned. He returned to Syria in 1937 after the signing of the Syrian-French Treaty.

Syria and France negotiated a treaty of independence in September 1936, and Hashim al-Atassi was the first president to be elected under the first incarnation of the modern republic of Syria. However, the treaty never came into force because the French Legislature refused to ratify it. With the fall of France in 1940 during World War II, Syria came under the control of Vichy France until the British and Free French occupied the country in the Syria-Lebanon campaign in July 1941. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalists and the British forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate.[57]

Independent Syrian Republic

Aleppo in 1961

Upheaval dominated Syrian politics from independence through the late 1960s. In 1948, Syria was involved in the Arab-Israeli War, aligning with the other local Arab states attempting to prevent the establishment of the State of Israel.[58] Defeat in this war was one of several trigger factors for the March 1949 Syrian coup d'état by Col. Husni al-Za'im, described as the first military overthrow of the Arab World[58] since the start of the Second World War. This was soon followed by another overthrow, by Col. Sami al-Hinnawi, who was himself quickly deposed by Col. Adib Shishakli, all within the same year.[58]

Shishakli eventually abolished multipartyism altogether, but was himself overthrown in a 1954 coup and the parliamentary system was restored.[58] However, by this time, power was increasingly concentrated in the military and security establishment.[58] The weakness of Parliamentary institutions and the mismanagement of the economy led to unrest and the influence of Nasserism and other ideologies. There was fertile ground for various Arab nationalist, Syrian nationalist, and socialist movements, which represented disaffected elements of society. Notably included were religious minorities, who demanded radical reform.[58]

In November 1956, as a direct result of the Suez Crisis,[59] Syria signed a pact with the Soviet Union. This gave a foothold for Communist influence within the government in exchange for military equipment.[58] Turkey then became worried about this increase in the strength of Syrian military technology, as it seemed feasible that Syria might attempt to retake İskenderun. Only heated debates in the United Nations lessened the threat of war.[60]

On 1 February 1958, Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli and Egypt's Nasser announced the merging of Egypt and Syria, creating the United Arab Republic, and all Syrian political parties, as well as the communists therein, ceased overt activities.[57] Meanwhile, a group of Syrian Ba'athist officers, alarmed by the party's poor position and the increasing fragility of the union, decided to form a secret Military Committee; its initial members were Lieutenant-Colonel Muhammad Umran, Major Salah Jadid and Captain Hafez al-Assad. When Syria seceded on 28 September 1961, the ensuing instability culminated in the 8 March 1963 coup. The takeover was engineered by members of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, led by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar. The new cabinet was dominated by Ba'ath members.[57][58]

Ba'athist Syria

Hafez al-Assad greets Richard Nixon on his arrival at Damascus airport in 1974

On 23 February 1966, the Military Committee carried out an intra-party overthrow, imprisoned President Amin Hafiz and designated a regionalist, civilian Ba'ath government on 1 March.[58] Although Nureddin al-Atassi became the formal head of state, Salah Jadid was Syria's effective ruler from 1966 until 1970.[61] The coup led to a split within the original pan-Arab Ba'ath Party: one Iraqi-led ba'ath movement (ruled Iraq from 1968 to 2003) and one Syrian-led ba'ath movement was established.

In the first part of 1967 a low-key state of war existed between Syria and Israel. Dozens of attempts at infiltration of Israel were made by terrorists, and the Syrian armed forces shelled Israeli villages on multiple occasions, provoking retaliatory fire from Israel. Conflict over Israeli cultivation of land in the Demilitarized Zone led to 7 April prewar aerial clashes between Israel and Syria.[62] After Israel launched a preemptive strike on Egypt to begin the Six-Day War, Syria joined the battle against Israel as well. In the final days of the war, Israel turned its attention to Syria, capturing two-thirds of the Golan Heights in under 48 hours.[63] The defeat caused a split between Jadid and Assad over what steps to take next.[64]

Quneitra village, largely destroyed before the Israeli withdrawal in June 1974.

Disagreement developed between Jadid, who controlled the party apparatus, and Assad, who controlled the military. The 1970 retreat of Syrian forces sent to aid the PLO during the "Black September" hostilities with Jordan reflected this disagreement.[65] The power struggle culminated in the November 1970 Corrective Movement, a bloodless military overthrow that installed Hafez al-Assad as the strongman of the government.[66]

On 6 October 1973, Syria and Egypt initiated the Yom Kippur War against Israel. The Israel Defense Forces reversed the initial Syrian gains and pushed deeper into Syrian territory.[67]

In early 1976, Syria entered Lebanon, beginning the thirty-year Syrian military occupation. Over the following 15 years of civil war, Syria fought for control over Lebanon, and attempted to stop Israel from taking over in southern Lebanon, through extensive use of proxy militias. Syria then remained in Lebanon until 2005.

In the late 1970s, an Islamist uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood was aimed against the government. Islamists attacked civilians and off-duty military personnel, leading security forces to in turn kill civilians in a retaliatory strike. The uprising had reached its climax in the 1982 Hama massacre,[68] when some 10,000 – 40,000 people were killed by regular Syrian Army troops.

In a major shift in relations with both other Arab states and the Western world, Syria participated in the US-led Gulf War against Saddam Hussein. Syria participated in the multilateral Madrid Conference of 1991, and during the 1990s engaged in negotiations with Israel. These negotiations failed, and there have been no further direct Syrian-Israeli talks since President Hafez al-Assad's meeting with then President Bill Clinton in Geneva in March 2000.[69]

Current military situation in Syria.
  Controlled by the Syrian government
  Controlled by Kurdish forces
  Controlled by other rebels

(For a more detailed map, see here)

Hafez al-Assad died on 10 June 2000. His son, Bashar al-Assad, was elected President in an election in which he ran unopposed.[57] His election saw the birth of the Damascus Spring and hopes of reform, but by autumn 2001 the authorities had suppressed the movement, imprisoning some of its leading intellectuals.[70] Instead, reforms have been limited to some market reforms.[9][71][72]

On 5 October 2003, Israel bombed a site near Damascus, claiming it was a terrorist training facility for members of Islamic Jihad.[73] In March 2004, Syrian Kurds and Arabs clashed in the northeastern city of al-Qamishli. Signs of rioting were seen in the towns of Qameshli and Hassakeh.[74] In 2005, Syria ended its occupation of Lebanon.[75] On 6 September 2007, Israeli jet fighters carried out Operation Orchard against a suspected nuclear reactor under construction by North Korean technicians.[76]

The ongoing Syrian civil war was inspired by the Arab Spring Revolutions. It began in 2011 as a chain of peaceful protests, followed by a crackdown by the Syrian Army.[77] In July 2011, army defectors declared the formation of the Free Syrian Army and began forming fighting units. The opposition is dominated by Sunni Muslims, whereas the leading government figures are Alawites.[78] According to various sources, including the United Nations, up to 100,000 people have been killed,[79][80][81] including 11,000 children.[82] To escape the violence, over 2.1 million Syrian refugees have fled to neighboring countries of Jordan,[83] Iraq,[84] Lebanon, and Turkey.[85][86] An estimated 450,000 Syrian Christians have fled their homes.[87] As the civil war has dragged on, there have been worries that the country could become fragmented and cease to function as a state.[88]

Geography

Main article: Geography of Syria
Burj Islam, a well-known beach just north of Latakia

Syria lies between latitudes 32° and 38° N, and longitudes 35° and 43° E. It consists mostly of arid plateau, although the northwest part of the country bordering the Mediterranean is fairly green. The Northeast of the country "Al Jazira" and the South "Hawran" are important agricultural areas.[89] The Euphrates, Syria's most important river, crosses the country in the east. It is considered to be one of the fifteen states that comprise the so-called "Cradle of civilization".[90]

The climate in Syria is dry and hot, and winters are mild. Because of the country's elevation, snowfall does occasionally occur during winter.[89] Petroleum in commercial quantities was first discovered in the northeast in 1956. The most important oil fields are those of Suwaydiyah, Qaratshui, Rumayian, and Tayyem, near Dayr az–Zawr. The fields are a natural extension of the Iraqi fields of Mosul and Kirkuk. Petroleum became Syria's leading natural resource and chief export after 1974. Natural gas was discovered at the field of Jbessa in 1940.[57]

Politics and government

Main article: Politics of Syria
The Syrian Parliament in the mid-20th century

Syria is formally a unitary republic. The constitution adopted in 2012 effectively transformed Syria into a semi-presidential republic due to the constitutional right for individuals to be elected which do not form part of the National Progressive Front.[91] The President is Head of State and the Prime Minister is Head of Government.[92] The legislature, the Peoples Council is the body responsible for passing laws, approving government appropriations and debating policy.[93] In the event of a vote of no confidence by a simple majority, the Prime Minister is required to tender the resignation of their government to the President.[94]

The executive branch consists of the president, two vice presidents, the prime minister, and the Council of Ministers (cabinet). The constitution requires the president to be a Muslim[95] but does not make Islam the state religion.

The constitution gives the president the right to appoint ministers, to declare war and state of emergency, to issue laws (which, except in the case of emergency, require ratification by the People's Council), to declare amnesty, to amend the constitution, and to appoint civil servants and military personnel.[96] According to the 2012 constitution, the president is elected by Syrian citizens in a direct election.

Syria's legislative branch is the unicameral People's Council. Under the previous constitution, Syria did not hold multi-party elections for the legislature,[96] with two-thirds of the seats automatically allocated to the ruling coalition.[97] On 7 May 2012, Syria held its first elections in which parties outside the ruling coalition could take part. Seven new political parties took part in the elections, of which Popular Front for Change and Liberation was the largest opposition party. The armed anti-government rebels, however, chose not to field candidates and called on their supporters to boycott the elections.

The President is currently the Regional Secretary of the Ba'ath party in Syria and leader of the National Progressive Front governing coalition. Outside of the coalition are 14 illegal Kurdish political parties.[98]

Syria's judicial branches include the Supreme Constitutional Court, the High Judicial Council, the Court of Cassation, and the State Security Courts. Islamic jurisprudence is a main source of legislation and Syria's judicial system has elements of Ottoman, French, and Islamic laws. Syria has three levels of courts: courts of first instance, courts of appeals, and the constitutional court, the highest tribunal. Religious courts handle questions of personal and family law.[96] The Supreme State Security Court (SSSC) was abolished by President Bashar al-Assad by legislative decree No. 53 on 21 April 2011.[99]

The Personal Status Law 59 of 1953 (amended by Law 34 of 1975) is essentially a codified sharia.[100] Article 3(2) of the 1973 constitution declares Islamic jurisprudence a main source of legislation. The Code of Personal Status is applied to Muslims by sharia courts.[101]

As a result of the ongoing civil war, various alternative governments were formed, including the Syrian Interim Government, the Democratic Union Party and localised regions governed by sharia law. Representatives of the Syrian Interim government were invited to take up Syria's seat at the Arab League on 28 March 2013 and[13] was recognised as the "sole representative of the Syrian people" by several nations including the United States, United Kingdom and France.[102][103][104]

Human rights

Main article: Human rights in Syria
Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo, October 2012

The situation for human rights in Syria has long been a significant concern among independent organizations such as Human Rights Watch, who in 2010 referred to the country's record as "among the worst in the world."[105] The US State Department funded Freedom House[106] ranked Syria "Not Free" in its annual Freedom in the World survey.[107]

The authorities are accused of arresting democracy and human rights activists, censoring websites, detaining bloggers, and imposing travel bans. Arbitrary detention, torture, and disappearances are widespread.[108] Although Syria's constitution guarantees gender equality, critics say that personal statutes laws and the penal code discriminate against women and girls. Moreover, it also grants leniency for so-called 'Honour killing'.[108] As of 9 November 2011 during the uprising against President Bashar al-Assad, the United Nations reported that of the over 3500 total deaths, over 250 deaths were children as young as 2 years old, and that boys as young as 11 years old have been gang raped by security services officers.[109][110] People opposing President Assad's rule claim that more than 200, mostly civilians, were massacred and about 300 injured in Hama in shelling by the Government forces on 12 July 2012.[111]

In August 2013 the government was suspected of using chemical weapons against its civilians. US Secretary of State John Kerry said it was "undeniable" that chemical weapons had been used in the country and that President Bashar al-Assad's forces had committed a "moral obscenity" against his own people. "Make no mistake," Kerry said. "President Obama believes there must be accountability for those who would use the world's most heinous weapon against the world's most vulnerable people. Nothing today is more serious, and nothing is receiving more serious scrutiny".[112]

The Emergency Law, effectively suspending most constitutional protections, was in effect from 1963 until 21 April 2011.[99] It was justified by the government in the light of the continuing war with Israel over the Golan Heights.

Military

Main article: Military of Syria
Syrian soldier wearing a Soviet-made Model ShMS nuclear-biological-chemical warfare mask aiming a Chinese Type-56 automatic assault rifle

The President of Syria is commander in chief of the Syrian armed forces, comprising some 400,000 troops upon mobilization. The military is a conscripted force; males serve in the military upon reaching the age of 18.[113] The obligatory military service period is being decreased over time, in 2005 from two and a half years to two years, in 2008 to 21 months and in 2011 to year and a half.[114] About 20,000 Syrian soldiers were deployed in Lebanon until 27 April 2005, when the last of Syria's troops left the country after three decades.[113]

The breakup of the Soviet Union—long the principal source of training, material, and credit for the Syrian forces—may have slowed Syria's ability to acquire modern military equipment. It has an arsenal of surface-to-surface missiles. In the early 1990s, Scud-C missiles with a 500-kilometer range were procured from North Korea, and Scud-D, with a range of up to 700 kilometers, is allegedly being developed by Syria with the help of North Korea and Iran, according to Zisser.[115]

Syria received significant financial aid from Persian Gulf Arab states as a result of its participation in the Persian Gulf War, with a sizable portion of these funds earmarked for military spending.

Foreign relations

Ensuring national security, increasing influence among its Arab neighbors, and securing the return of the Golan Heights, are the primary goals of President Bashar al-Assad's foreign policy. At many points in its history, Syria has seen virulent tension with its geographically cultural neighbors, such as Turkey, Israel, Iraq, and Lebanon. Syria enjoyed an improvement in relations with several of the states in its region in the 21st century, prior to the Arab Spring and the Syrian civil war.

Since the ongoing civil war of 2011, and associated killings and human rights abuses, Syria has been increasingly isolated from the countries in the region, and the wider international community. Diplomatic relations have been severed with several countries including: Britain, Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, the United States, Belgium, Spain, and the Gulf States.[116]

From the Arab league, Syria continues to maintain diplomatic relations with Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan and Yemen. Syria's violence against civilians has also seen it suspended from the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation in 2012. Syria continues to foster good relations with her traditional allies, Iran, China, Venezuela and Russia, who are among the few countries which have supported the Syrian government in its conflict with the Syrian opposition.

Syria considers the Hatay Province of Turkey as part of its own territory.[117]

Israel unilaterally annexed the Golan Heights in 1981, although the Syrian government continues to demand the return of this territory.

The Syrian occupation of Lebanon began in 1976 as a result of the civil war and ended in April 2006 in response to domestic and international pressure after the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.

Syria is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer.

Administrative divisions

Syria is divided into 14 governorates, which are sub-divided into 61 districts, which are further divided into sub-districts.

No. Governorate Capital
Governorates of Syria
1 Latakia Latakia
2 Idlib Idlib
3 Aleppo Aleppo
4 Al-Raqqah Al-Raqqah
5 Al-Hasakah Al-Hasakah
6 Tartus Tartus
7 Hama Hama
8 Deir ez-Zor Deir ez-Zor
9 Homs Homs
10 Damascus
11 Rif Dimashq
12 Quneitra Quneitra
13 Daraa Daraa
14 Al-Suwayda Al-Suwayda

Internet and telecommunications

The Telecommunications in Syria are overseen by the Ministry of Communications and Technology.[118] In addition, Syrian Telecom plays an integral role in the distribution of government internet access.[119] The Syrian Electronic Army serves as a pro-government military faction in cyberspace and has been long considered an enemy of the hacktivist group Anonymous.[120] Because of internet censorship laws, 13,000 internet activists have been arrested between March 2011 and August 2012.[121]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Syria
Syria Export Treemap

Syria is classified by the World Bank as a "lower middle income country."[122] Syria remains dependent on the oil and agriculture sectors.[123] The oil sector provides about 40% of export earnings.[123] In addition, proven offshore expeditions have indicated that large sums of oil exist on the Mediterranean Sea floor between Syria and Cyprus.[124] The agriculture sector contributes to about 20% of GDP and 20% of employment. Oil reserves are expected to decrease in the coming years and Syria has already become a net oil importer.[123] Since the civil war began, the economy shrank by 35%, and the Syrian pound has fallen to one-sixth of its prewar value.[125] The government increasingly relies on credit from Iran, Russia and China.[125]

The economy is highly regulated by the government, which has increased subsidies and tightened trade controls to assuage protesters and protect foreign currency reserves.[126] Long-run economic constraints include foreign trade barriers, declining oil production, high unemployment, rising budget deficits, and increasing pressure on water supplies caused by heavy use in agriculture, rapid population growth, industrial expansion, and water pollution.[126] The UNDP announced in 2005 that 30% of the Syrian population lives in poverty and 11.4% live below the subsistence level.[57]

Syria's main exports include crude oil, refined products, raw cotton, clothing, fruits, and grains. The bulk of Syrian imports are raw materials essential for industry, vehicles, agricultural equipment, and heavy machinery. Earnings from oil exports as well as remittances from Syrian workers are the government's most important sources of foreign exchange.[57]

Syria's share in global exports has eroded gradually since 2001.[127] The real per capita GDP growth was just 2.5% per year in the 2000–2008 period.[127] Unemployment is high at above 10%. Poverty rates have increased from 11% in 2004 to 12.3% in 2007.[127]

Political instability poses a significant threat to future economic development.[128] Foreign investment is constrained by violence, government restrictions, economic sanctions, and international isolation. Syria's economy also remains hobbled by state bureaucracy, falling oil production, rising budget deficits, and inflation.[128]

Prior to the civil war in 2011, the government hoped to attract new investment in the tourism, natural gas, and service sectors to diversify its economy and reduce its dependence on oil and agriculture. The government began to institute economic reforms aimed at liberalizing most markets, but those reforms were slow and ad hoc, and have been completely reversed since the outbreak of conflict in 2011.[129]

As of 2012, because of the ongoing Syrian civil war, the value of Syria's overall exports has been slashed by two-thirds, from the figure of US$12 billion in 2010 to only US$4 billion in 2012.[130] Syria's GDP declined by over 3% in 2011,[131] and is expected to further decline by 20% in 2012.[132]

As of 2012, Syria's oil and tourism industries in particular have been devastated, with US$5 billion lost to the ongoing conflict of the civil war.[130] Reconstruction needed because of the ongoing civil war will cost as much as US$10 billion.[130] Sanctions have sapped the government's finance. US and European Union bans on oil imports, which went into effect in 2012, are estimated to cost Syria about $400 million a month.[133]

Revenues from tourism have dropped dramatically, with hotel occupancy rates falling from 90% before the war to less than 15% in May 2012.[134] Around 40% of all employees in the tourism sector have lost their jobs since the beginning of the war.[134]

Petroleum industry

Oil refinery in Homs

Syria has produced heavy-grade oil from fields located in the northeast since the late 1960s. In the early 1980s, light-grade, low-sulphur oil was discovered near Deir ez-Zor in eastern Syria. Syria's rate of oil production has decreased dramatically from a peak close to 600,000 barrels per day (95,000 m3/d) (bpd) in 1995 down to less than 140,000 bbl/d (22,000 m3/d) in 2012.[135]

Syria exported roughly 200,000 bbl/d (32,000 m3/d) in 2005, and oil still accounts for a majority of the country's export income. Syria also produces 22 million cubic meters of gas per day, with estimated reserves around 8.5 trillion cubic feet (240 km3). While the government has begun to work with international energy companies in the hopes of eventually becoming a gas exporter, all gas currently produced is consumed domestically.[57]

Prior to the uprising, more than 90% of Syrian oil exports were to EU countries, with the remainder going to Turkey.[134] Oil and gas revenues constituted around 20% of total GDP and 25% of total government revenue.[134]

Expressway M5 Near Al-Rastan

Transport

Main article: Transport in Syria

Syria has three international airports (Damascus, Aleppo and Lattakia), which serve as hubs for Syrian Air and are also served by a variety of foreign carriers.

The majority of Syrian cargo is carried by Chemins de Fer Syriens (the Syrian railway company), which links up with Turkish State Railways (the Turkish counterpart). For a relatively underdeveloped country, Syria's railway infrastructure is well maintained with many express services and modern trains.[136]

The road network in the Syria is 69,873 km long including 1,103 km of expressways, the country also have 900 km of navigable but not economically significant Waterways.[137]

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Syria
Historical populations (in thousands)
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1960 4,565 —    
1970 6,305 +3.28%
1981 9,046 +3.34%
1994 13,782 +3.29%
2004 17,921 +2.66%
2011 21,124 +2.38%
Source: Population in Syria[138]

Most people live in the Euphrates River valley and along the coastal plain, a fertile strip between the coastal mountains and the desert. Overall population density in Syria is about 99 per km² (258 per square mile). According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Syria hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 1,852,300. The vast majority of this population was from Iraq (1,300,000), but sizeable populations from the former Palestine (543,400) and Somalia (5,200) also lived in the country.[139]

More than 7 million Syrians have been displaced,[87] and more than 2.1 million Syrians fled the country and became refugees since the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War in March 2011.[140]

Ethnic groups

Main article: Syrian people
Children in Aleppo
Damascus, traditional clothing

Syrians are an overall indigenous Levantine people, closely related to their immediate neighbours, like Lebanese people, Palestinians, Israelis, Iraqis, Maltese and Jordanians.[141][142] Syria has a population of approximately 17,951,639 (2014 est.)[3] Syrian Arabs, together with some 400,000 Palestinian Arabs, make up roughly 74% of the population (if Syriac Christians are excluded).[126]

The indigenous Christian Syriac-Aramean people and Assyrians are numbered around 400,000 people,[143] with the Syriac-Aramaic group living all over the country, particularly in major urban centers, while the Assyrians mainly reside in the north and northeast (Homs, Aleppo, Qamishli, Hasakah). Many (particularly the Assyrian group) still retain several Akkadian infused Neo-Aramaic dialects as spoken and written languages, while a small number of Syriac-Arameans still retain Western Aramaic.[144]

The second largest ethnic group in Syria are The Kurds. They constitute about 9% of the population, or approximately 2 million people.[145] Most Kurds reside in the northeastern corner of Syria and most speak the Kurmanji variant of the Kurdish language.

Syria is also a home to several other ethnic groups mainly the Turkmens (number around 500,000–1,000,000),[146] Circassians (number some 100,000),[147] Greeks,[148] Jews,[149] and Armenians (number approximately 100,000), most arrived during the Armenian Genocide. Syria holds the 7th largest Armenian population in the world. They are mainly gathered in Aleppo, Qamishli, Damascus and Kesab.

The largest concentration of the Syrian diaspora outside the Arab world is in Brazil, which has millions of people of Arab and other Near Eastern ancestries.[150] Brazil is the first country in the Americas to offer humanitarian visas to Syrian refugees.[151] The majority of Arab Argentines are from either Lebanese or Syrian background.[152]

Religion

Main article: Religion in Syria

Sunni Arabs account for 59–60% of the population, most Kurds (9%) and Turkomen (3%) are Sunni, while 13% are Shia (Alawite, Twelvers, and Ismailis combined),[153] 10% Christian[153] (the majority Antiochian Orthodox, the rest including Greek Catholic, Assyrian Church of the East, Armenian Orthodox, Protestants and other denominations), and 3% Druze.[153] Druze number around 500,000, and concentrate mainly in the southern area of Jabal al-Druze.[154]

President Bashar al-Assad's family is Alawite and Alawites dominate the government of Syria and hold key military positions.[155]

Christians (2.5 million), a sizable number of whom are found among Syria's population of Palestinian refugees, are divided into several groups. Chalcedonian Antiochian Orthodox make up 35.7% of the Christian population; the Catholics (Melkite, Armenian Catholic, Syriac Catholic, Maronite, Chaldean Catholic and Latin) make up 26.2%; the Armenian Apostolic Church 10.9%, the Syriac Orthodox make up 22.4%; Assyrian Church of the East and several smaller Christian denominations account the remainder. Many Christian monasteries also exist. Many Christian Syrians belong to a high socio-economic class.[156]

Languages

Main article: Languages of Syria

Arabic is the official language. Several modern Arabic dialects are used in everyday life, most notably Levantine in the west and Mesopotamian in the northeast. Kurdish (in its Kurmanji form) is widely spoken in the Kurdish regions of Syria. Armenian and Turkish (South Azeri dialect) are spoken among the Armenian and Turkmen minorities.

Aramaic was the lingua franca of the region before the advent of Arabic, and is still spoken among Assyrians, and Classical Syriac is still used as the liturgical language of various Syriac Christian denominations. Most remarkably, Western Neo-Aramaic is still spoken in the village of Ma'loula as well as two neighboring villages, 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Damascus. Many educated Syrians also speak English and French.

Largest cities

Culture

Main article: Culture of Syria

Syria is a traditional society with a long cultural history.[157] Importance is placed on family, religion, education, self-discipline and respect. The Syrians' taste for the traditional arts is expressed in dances such as the al-Samah, the Dabkeh in all their variations, and the sword dance. Marriage ceremonies and the birth of children are occasions for the lively demonstration of folk customs.[158]

Arts

Art gallery in Damascus

The literature of Syria has contributed to Arabic literature and has a proud tradition of oral and written poetry. Syrian writers, many of whom migrated to Egypt, played a crucial role in the nahda or Arab literary and cultural revival of the 19th century. Prominent contemporary Syrian writers include, among others, Adonis, Muhammad Maghout, Haidar Haidar, Ghada al-Samman, Nizar Qabbani and Zakariyya Tamer.

Ba'ath Party rule, since the 1966 coup, has brought about renewed censorship. In this context, the genre of the historical novel, spearheaded by Nabil Sulayman, Fawwaz Haddad, Khyri al-Dhahabi and Nihad Siris, is sometimes used as a means of expressing dissent, critiquing the present through a depiction of the past. Syrian folk narrative, as a subgenre of historical fiction, is imbued with magical realism, and is also used as a means of veiled criticism of the present. Salim Barakat, a Syrian émigré living in Sweden, is one of the leading figures of the genre. Contemporary Syrian literature also encompasses science fiction and futuristic utopiae (Nuhad Sharif, Talib Umran), which may also serve as media of dissent.

Popular culture

Cinema advert in Aleppo

The Syrian music scene, in particular that of Damascus, has long been among the Arab world's most important, especially in the field of classical Arab music. Syria has produced several pan-Arab stars, including Asmahan, Farid al-Atrash and singer Lena Chamamyan. The city of Aleppo is known for its muwashshah, a form of Andalous sung poetry popularized by Sabri Moudallal, as well as for popular stars like Sabah Fakhri.

Television was first introduced to Syria in 1960, when Syria and Egypt (which adopted television that same year) were part of the United Arab Republic. It broadcast in black and white until 1976. Syrian soap operas have considerable market penetration throughout the eastern Arab world.[159]

Nearly all of Syria's media outlets are state-owned, and the Ba'ath Party controls nearly all newspapers.[160] The authorities operate several intelligence agencies,[161] among them Shu'bat al-Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya, employing a large number of operatives.[162]

Sports

The most popular sports in Syria are football, basketball, swimming, and tennis. Damascus was home to the fifth and seventh Pan Arab Games. Many popular football teams are based in Damascus, Aleppo, Homs, Latakia, etc.

The Abbasiyyin Stadium in Damascus is home to the Syrian national football team. The team enjoyed some success, having qualified for four Asian Cup competitions. The team had its first international on 20 November 1949, losing to Turkey 7–0. The team was ranked 138th in the world by FIFA as of May 2013.

Cuisine

Main article: Syrian cuisine
Fattoush, an example of Syrian cuisine

Linked to the region of Syria where a specific dish has originated, Syrian cuisine is rich and varied in its ingredients. Syrian food mostly consists of Southern Mediterranean, Greek, and Southwest Asian dishes. Some Syrian dishes also evolved from Turkish and French cooking: dishes like shish kebab, stuffed zucchini, yabra' (stuffed grape leaves, the word yapra' derıves from the Turkish word 'yaprak' meaning leaf).

The main dishes that form Syrian cuisine are kibbeh, hummus, tabbouleh, fattoush, labneh, shawarma, mujaddara, shanklish, pastırma, sujuk and baklava. Baklava is made of filo pastry filled with chopped nuts and soaked in honey. Syrians often serve selections of appetizers, known as meze, before the main course. Za'atar, minced beef, and cheese manakish are popular hors d'œuvres. The Arabic flatbread khubz is always eaten together with meze.

Drinks in Syria vary, depending on the time of the day and the occasion. Arabic coffee, also known as Turkish coffee, is the most well-known hot drink, usually prepared in the morning at breakfast or in the evening. It is usually served for guests or after food. Arak, an alcoholic drink, is also a well-known beverage served mostly on special occasions. More examples of Syrian beverages include Ayran, Jallab, White coffee, and a locally manufactured beer called Al Shark.[163]

Education

Main article: Education in Syria

Education is free and compulsory from ages 6 to 12. Schooling consists of 6 years of primary education followed by a 3-year general or vocational training period and a 3-year academic or vocational program. The second 3-year period of academic training is required for university admission. Total enrollment at post-secondary schools is over 150,000. The literacy rate of Syrians aged 15 and older is 90.7% for males and 82.2% for females.[164][165]

Since 1967, all schools, colleges, and universities have been under close government supervision by the Ba'ath Party.[166]

There are 6 state universities in Syria[167] and 15 private universities.[168] The top two state universities are University of Damascus (180,000 students)[169] and University of Aleppo.[170] The top private universities in Syria are: Syrian Private University, Arab International University, University of Kalamoon and International University for Science and Technology. There are also many higher institutes in Syria, like the Higher Institute of Business Administration, which offer undergraduate and graduate programs in business.[171]

According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, the top-ranking universities in the country are Damascus University (3540th worldwide), the University of Aleppo (7176th) and Tishreen University (7968th).[172]

Health

Main article: Health in Syria

In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 3.41% of the country's GDP. In 2008, there were 14.92 physicians and 18.50 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants.[173] The life expectancy at birth was 75.70 years in 2010, or 74.19 years for males and 77.30 years for females.[174]

See also

Portal icon Syria portal

References

Footnotes
  1. ^ "Constitution of Syria 2012". Scribd.com. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  2. ^ "Syrian ministry of foreign affairs". 
  3. ^ a b "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Syria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  5. ^ "World Bank GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  6. ^ "Human Development Index and its components. Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  7. ^ "Neolithic Tell Ramad in the Damascus Basin of Syria". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 11 November 2006. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  8. ^ "Freedom on the world report". Freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Michael Bröning (7 March 2011). "The Sturdy House That Assad Built". The Foreign Affairs. 
  10. ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (12 November 2011). "Arab League Votes to Suspend Syria". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  11. ^ "Regional group votes to suspend Syria; rebels claim downing of jet". CNN. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  12. ^ "Syria suspends its membership in Mediterranean union". Xinhua News Agency. 1 December 2012. 
  13. ^ a b Black, Ian (26 March 2013). "Syrian opposition takes Arab League seat". The Guardian. 
  14. ^ Herodotus, The Histories, VII.63, s:History of Herodotus/Book 7.
  15. ^ Joseph, John (2008). "Assyria and Syria: Synonyms?" (PDF). 
  16. ^ First proposed by Theodor Nöldeke in 1881; cf. Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Syria". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 June 2007. 
  17. ^ Pipes, Daniel (1992). Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition. Middle East Forum. p. 13. ISBN 0-19-506022-9. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  18. ^ Pliny (77). "Book 5 Section 66". Natural History. University of Chicago. ISBN 84-249-1901-7. 
  19. ^ "Syria :: Roman provincial organization". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  20. ^ "jabbul head louvre". Louvre.fr. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  21. ^ Pettinato, Giovanni. The Archives of Ebla; Gelb, I. J. "Thoughts about Ibla: A Preliminary Evaluation" in Monographic Journals of the Near East, Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 1/1 (May 1977) pp. 3–30.
  22. ^ William J. Hamblin. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. p. 239. 
  23. ^ Ian Shaw,Robert Jameson. A Dictionary of Archaeology. p. 211. 
  24. ^ Ross Burns. Monuments of Syria: A Guide. p. 155. 
  25. ^ Paolo Matthiae,Nicoló Marchetti. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. p. 35. 
  26. ^ Victor Harold Matthews, Don C. Benjamin. Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East. p. 241. 
  27. ^ a b "Syria: A country Study – Ancient Syria". Library of Congress. Data as of April 1987. Retrieved 5 September 2007. 
  28. ^ Kenneth Anderson Kitchen. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. p. 285. 
  29. ^ Stephen C. Neff. Justice Among Nations. p. 14. 
  30. ^ "The Aramaic Language and Its Classification". Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies 14 (1). 
  31. ^ Trevor Bryce. Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. p. 16. 
  32. ^ Cyrus Herzl Gordon,Gary Rendsburg,Nathan H. Winter. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language, Volume 4. p. 68. 
  33. ^ John F. Healey. The Early Alphabet. p. 22. 
  34. ^ a b Stephanie Dalley. Mari and Karana: Two Old Babylonian Cities. p. 44. 
  35. ^ Nadav Naʼaman. Canaan in the Second Millennium B.C.E.. p. 285. 
  36. ^ Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards. The Cambridge Ancient History. p. 32. 
  37. ^ William J. Hamblin. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. p. 259. 
  38. ^ Jack M. Sasson. The Military Establishments at Mari. p. 2+3. 
  39. ^ Relations between God and Man in the Hurro-Hittite Song of Release, Mary R. Bachvarova, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Jan–Mar SAAD 2005
  40. ^ John Lange. The Philosophy of Historiography. p. 475. 
  41. ^ Immanuel Velikovsky. Ramses II and His Time. p. 23. 
  42. ^ Douglas Frayne. Ugarit in Retrospect. p. 23,24,25. 
  43. ^ Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, 3rd ed., Penguin Books, London, 1991, p.381
  44. ^ Rollinger, Robert (2006). "The terms "Assyria" and "Syria" again" (PDF). Journal of Near Eastern Studies 65 (4): 284–287. doi:10.1086/511103.
  45. ^ Hist." xviii., vii. 1
  46. ^ a b Cavendish Corporation, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. p. 183. ISBN 0-7614-7571-0. 
  47. ^ "Syria: History". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  48. ^ Farhad Daftary. A Short History of the Ismailis. 1998, Edinburg, UK. Edinburg University Press. Page 146.
  49. ^ Timeframe pp. 59–75.
  50. ^ "Battle of Aleppo". Everything2.com. 22 February 2003. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  51. ^ "The Eastern Mediterranean, 1400–1600 A.D". Metmuseum.org. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  52. ^ a b "Syria – Ottoman". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  53. ^ a b Stanford J. Shaw, "Dynamics of Ottoman Society and administration", in "History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey"
  54. ^ Pouring a People into the Desert:The "Definitive Solution" of the Unionists to the Armenian Question, Fuat Dundar, A Question of Genocide, ed. Ronald Grigor Suny, Fatma Muge Gocek and Norman M. Naimark, (Oxford University Press, 2011), 280–281.
  55. ^ "Mandat Syrie-Liban" (PDF). Archived from the original on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  56. ^ Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer (2001). "The Middle East, p. 761". The Encyclopedia of World History. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 978-0-395-65237-4. 
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h "Background Note: Syria". United States Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs, May 2007. 
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Syria: World War II and independence". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 
  59. ^ Robson, John (10 February 2012). "Syria hasn't changed, but the world has". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  60. ^ Brecher, Michael; Jonathan Wilkenfeld (1997). A Study of Crisis. University of Michigan Press. pp. 345–346. ISBN 0-472-10806-9. 
  61. ^ "Salah Jadid, 63, Leader of Syria Deposed and Imprisoned by Assad". The New York Times. 24 August 1993. 
  62. ^ Mark A. Tessler (1994). A History of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 382. ISBN 978-0-253-20873-6. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  63. ^ "A Campaign for the Books". Time. 1 September 1967. 
  64. ^ Line Khatib (23 May 2012). Islamic Revivalism in Syria: The Rise and Fall of Ba'thist Secularism. Routledge. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-415-78203-6. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  65. ^ "Jordan asked Nixon to attack Syria, declassified papers show". CNN. 28 November 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  66. ^ Seale, Patrick (1988). Asad: The Struggle for the Middle East. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06976-5. 
  67. ^ Rabinovich, Abraham (2005). The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East. New York City: Schocken Books. p. 302. ISBN 0-8052-4176-0. 
  68. ^ Itzchak Weismann. "Sufism and Sufi Brotherhoods in Syria and Palestine". University of Oklahoma. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  69. ^ Marc Perelman (11 July 2003). "Syria Makes Overture Over Negotiations". Forward.com. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  70. ^ George, Alan (2003). Syria: neither bread nor freedom. London: Zed Books. pp. 56–58. ISBN 1-84277-213-9. 
  71. ^ Ghadry, Farid N. (Winter 2005). "Syrian Reform: What Lies Beneath". The Middle East Quarterly. 
  72. ^ "Profile: Syria's Bashar al-Assad". BBC News. d:. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  73. ^ Huggler, Justin (6 October 2003). "Israel launches strikes on Syria in retaliation for bomb attack". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2008. 
  74. ^ "Naharnet Newsdesk – Syria Curbs Kurdish Riots for a Merger with Iraq's Kurdistan". Naharnet.com. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  75. ^ Guerin, Orla (6 March 2005). "Syria sidesteps Lebanon demands". BBC News. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  76. ^ Sanger, David (14 October 2007). "Israel Struck Syrian Nuclear Project, Analysts Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 October 2007. 
  77. ^ "Syrian army tanks 'moving towards Hama'". BBC News. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  78. ^ Sengupta, Kim (20 February 2012). "Syria's sectarian war goes international as foreign fighters and arms pour into country". The Independent (Antakya). Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  79. ^ "Syria deaths near 100,000, says UN – and 6,000 are children". The Guardian. 13 June 2013. 
  80. ^ Carsten, Paul (15 March 2012). "Syria: Bodies of 23 'extreme torture' victims found in Idlib as thousands rally for Assad". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  81. ^ "Arab League delegates head to Syria over 'bloodbath'. USA Today. (22 December 2011). Retrieved 26 June 2012". USA Today. 22 December 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  82. ^ "Syria conflict: Children 'targeted by snipers'". BBC News. 24 November 2013
  83. ^ Location Settings (12 March 2012). "Syria: Refugees brace for more bloodshed". News24.com. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  84. ^ Lara Jakes And Yahya Barzanji (14 March 2012). "Syrian Kurds get cold reception from Iraqi Kurds". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  85. ^ "Syria crisis: number of refugees tops 1.5 million, says UN". The Guardian. 16 May 2013. 
  86. ^ Syria Regional Refugee Response – Demographic Data of Registered Population. UNHCR.
  87. ^ a b "Beleaguered Syrian Christians Fear Future". NPR. 28 October 2013. 
  88. ^ "The death of a country". The Economist. 23 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  89. ^ a b National Council of Geography Teachers (U.S.) (1928). The Journal of Geography. The Journal of geography. p. 167. 
  90. ^ F. A. Schaeffer, Claude (2003). Syria and the Cradle of Civilization: The Findings of Claude F a Schaeffer in Ras Shamra. Trubner & Company. ISBN 1-84453-129-5. 
  91. ^ "Constitution of Syria. Articles 58–59". Scribd.com. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  92. ^ "Constitution of Syria. Articles 83–118". Scribd.com. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  93. ^ "Constitution of Syria. Article 75(1)2)(4)". Scribd.com. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  94. ^ "Constitution of Syria. Article 77(2)". Scribd.com. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  95. ^ "Constitution of Syria". Retrieved 22 October 2008. 
  96. ^ a b c "Syria (05/07)". State.gov. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  97. ^ "Syria: Elections without Politics". Carnegie Endowment. 
  98. ^ "Syria clamps down on Kurd parties". BBC News. 3 June 2004. Retrieved 22 October 2008. 
  99. ^ a b "Decrees on Ending State of Emergency, Abolishing SSSC, Regulating Right to Peaceful Demonstration". Syrian Arab News Agency. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  100. ^ "Syria". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. 13. 
  101. ^ "Syria (Syrian Arab Republic)". Law.emory.edu. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  102. ^ "Syria conflict: UK recognises opposition, says William Hague". BBC. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  103. ^ Hugh Schofield (13 November 2012). "Syria: France backs anti-Assad coalition". BBC. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  104. ^ Madhani, Aamer (12 December 2012). "Obama says U.S. will recognize Syrian opposition". USA Today. 
  105. ^ "Syria among worst for rights abuses: HRW report". Reuters. 24 January 2011. 
  106. ^ Guy Dinmore (31 March 2006). "Bush enters debate on freedom in Iran". Financial Times. Retrieved 6 April 2006. (subscription required)
  107. ^ "Freedom in the World Report: Syria". January 2011. 
  108. ^ a b "Syria: Events of 2008". Human Rights Watch. 
  109. ^ Joe Lauria (29 November 2011). "More than 250 children among dead, U.N. says". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 November 2011. 
  110. ^ "UN report: Syrian forces commit 'gross violations' of human rights, CNN". 29 November 2011. 
  111. ^ "200 massacred in Hama, claim Syrian activists". 13 July 2012. 
  112. ^ "Iran warns west against military intervention in Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  113. ^ a b John Pike. "Syria – Overview". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  114. ^ "Syria reduces compulsory military service by three months". China Daily. 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  115. ^ "Syria's embrace of WMD"[dead link] by Eyal Zisser, The Globe and Mail, 28 September 2004 (link leads only to abstract; purchase necessary for full article).
  116. ^ Strenger, Carlo (8 February 2012). "Assad takes a page out of Russia's book in his war against rebels". Haaretz. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  117. ^ Morris, Chris (2005). "Chapter 9: Crossroads". The New Turkey. London: Granta Books. pp. 203–227. ISBN 1-86207-865-3. 
  118. ^ "وزارة الاتصالات والتقانة". Moct.gov.sy. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  119. ^ "AT&T – 4G LTE, Cell Phones, U-verse, TV, Internet & Phone Service". Ste.gov.sy. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  120. ^ Katerji, Oz (4 April 2013). "The Syrian Electronic Army Are at Cyber War with Anonymous". Vice.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  121. ^ "Internet Anonymity in Syria, Challenges and Solution". Link.springer.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  122. ^ "Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  123. ^ a b c "Syria Country Brief, September 2010". World Bank. 
  124. ^ "Transactions of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  125. ^ a b "Syria Weighs Its Tactics as Pillars of Its Economy Continue to Crumble". The New York Times. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  126. ^ a b c "Syria". The World Factbook. 2007. 
  127. ^ a b c "Economic Challenges and Reform Options for Syria: A Growth Diagnostics Report". World Bank. 21 February 2011. p. 10. 
  128. ^ a b "Syria". Index of Economic Freedom. 
  129. ^ "Syria reverts to socialist economic policies to ease tension". Reuters. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  130. ^ a b c "Syria's battling economy may hold on with help from friends". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 28 August 2012. 
  131. ^ "Syria's ailing economy hits citizens and regime". Financial Times. 6 February 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  132. ^ "Syrian Economy To Shrink By 20 Percent in 2012 As Country Struggles With War". Huffington Post. 12 October 2012. 
  133. ^ "Syrians struggle with shortages as economy buckles". Associated Press. 22 January 2013. [dead link]
  134. ^ a b c d "The Syrian Economy: Hanging by a Thread". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 20 June 2012. 
  135. ^ "Syria says preparing to finalize oil deal with Russia". Reuters. Retrieved 28 August 2012. 
  136. ^ "How to travel by train from London to Syria | Train travel in Syria". Seat61.com. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  137. ^ "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". The World Factbook. 
  138. ^ "Population Existed in Syria According To Censuses (1960, 1970, 1981, 1994, 2004) And Estimates of Their Number in Mid Years 2005–2011(000)". Central Bureau of Statistics. 
  139. ^ "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 19 June 2008. 
  140. ^ "Demographic Data of Registered Population". UNHCR. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  141. ^ Richards, M; Rengo, C; Cruciani, F; Gratrix, F; Wilson, JF; Scozzari, R; MacAulay, V; Torroni, A (2003). "Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations". American Journal of Human Genetics (PMC – NCBI) 72 (4): 1058–1064. doi:10.1086/374384. PMC 1180338. PMID 12629598. 
  142. ^ "In the Wake of the Phoenicians: DNA study reveals a Phoenician-Maltese link". National Geographic Magazine. October 2004. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  143. ^ "Syria’s Assyrians threatened by extremists - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  144. ^ "Turkey-Syria deal allows Syriacs to cross border for religious holidays". Today's Zaman. 26 April 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  145. ^ "Syria – Kurds". Library of Congress Country Studies. 
  146. ^ "Suriye Türkmenleri". Review of International Law and Politics. 2007. p. 112. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  147. ^ "A Country Study: Syria". Library of Congress. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  148. ^ ^ Jump up to: a b Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs Relations with Syria
  149. ^ "Damascus – Amid Civil War, Syria's Remaining Jews To Celebrate High Holy Days". vosizneias. 
  150. ^ "The Arabs of Brazil". Saudi Aramco World. September–October 2005. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  151. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UN refugee agency welcomes Brazil announcement of humanitarian visas for Syrians". Unhcr.org. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  152. ^ "Inmigracion sirio-libanesa en Argentina" (in Spanish). Confederación de Entidades Argentino Árabes. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  153. ^ a b c "Syria – International Religious Freedom Report 2006". U.S. Department of State. 2006. Retrieved 28 June 2009. 
  154. ^ Danna, Nissim (December 2003). The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-1-903900-36-9. 
  155. ^ The Alawi capture of power in Syria, Middle Eastern Studies, 1989
  156. ^ Tomader Fateh (25 October 2008). "Patriarch of Antioch: I will be judged if I do not carry the Church and each one of you in my heart". Forward Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 March 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  157. ^ Hopwood, Derek (1988). Syria 1945–1986: Politics and Society. Routledge. ISBN 0-04-445039-7. 
  158. ^ Salamandra, Christa (2004). A New Old Damascus: Authenticity and Distinction in Urban Syria. Indiana University Press. p. 103. ISBN 0-253-21722-9. 
  159. ^ Salti, Rasha (2006). Insights into Syrian Cinema: Essays and Conversations with Contemporary Filmmakers. ArteEast. ISBN 1-892494-70-1. 
  160. ^ "Freedom House report on Syria (2010)". Freedom House. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. 
  161. ^ Wright, Robin (2008). Dreams and shadows, the Future of the Middle East. Penguin Press. p. 214. "more than one dozen intelligence agencies" 
  162. ^ Wright, Robin (2008). Dreams and shadows, the Future of the Middle East. Penguin Press. p. 230. "hundreds of thousands of mukhabarat according to dissident Riad Seif" 
  163. ^ "Damascus". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 15 October 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2009. [dead link]
  164. ^ "U.S. Relations With Syria". State.gov. 24 October 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  165. ^ "Syria's Education System – Report – June 2001" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  166. ^ "Syria – Education". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  167. ^ Ministry of Higher Education (23 November 2011). "Public universities". Ministry of Higher Education. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  168. ^ "Private universities". Ministry of Higher Education. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  169. ^ "Forward Magazine, Interview with President of Damascus University". February 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. 
  170. ^ Forward Magazine, Interview with President of Aleppo University, May 2008[dead link].
  171. ^ "Getting education right". March 2008. Archived from the original on 3 October 2010. 
  172. ^ "Syrian Arab Republic". Ranking Web of Universities. Retrieved 26 February 2013. 
  173. ^ "Health". SESRIC. Retrieved 5 March 2013. 
  174. ^ "Demography". SESRIC. Retrieved 5 March 2013. 
General references
  • Boczek, Boleslaw Adam (2006). International Law: A Dictionary. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5078-8
  • Finkelstein, Norman (2003). Image and reality of the Israel-Palestine conflict. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-442-1. 
  • Glass, Charles. "Tribes with Flags: A Dangerous Passage Through the Chaos of the Middle East", Atlantic Monthly Press (New York) and Picador (London), 1990 ISBN 0-436-18130-4
  • Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi (2004). Just or Unjust War? Ashgate Publishing ISBN 0-7546-2375-0
  • The editors of Time-Life Books. (1989). Timeframe AD 1200–1300: The Mongol Conquests. Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6437-3. 
  • Forward Magazine ([1]), Syria's English monthly since 2007.
  • Orsam Suriye Türkleri Raporu-Orsam Syria Turks[dead link]

Further reading

External links