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|← Kislew Tebet (טֵבֵת) Shebat →|
On the 1st of Tebet, 362 B.C.E.,
Esther was crowned Queen of Persia.
|Number of Days:||29|
Tebet (Hebrew: טֵבֵת, Standard Tevet; Sephardim/Yemenite/Mizrachim "Tebeth"; Ashkenazi Teves; Tiberian Ṭēḇēṯ; from Akkadian ṭebētu) is the fourth month of the civil year and the tenth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It follows Kislev and precedes Shevat. It is a winter month of 29 days. Tebet usually occurs in December–January on the Gregorian calendar.
Gregorian new year
The Gregorian New Year's Day nearly always occurs in this month. Only rarely will it occur in either of the two neighbouring months.
Holidays in Tebet
Tebet in Jewish history
1 Tebet - (362 BCE) - Esther made Queen
- From the Book of Esther 2:16-17, "and Esther was taken to King Achashverosh, to his palace, in the tenth month, which is the month of Tebet, in the seventh year of his reign. And the king loved Esther more than all the women, and she won his favor and kindness more than all the virgins; he placed the royal crown on her head and made her queen in Vashti's stead." Six years later, Purim would occur on the 13th and 14th of Adar of the Hebrew year 3504 (356 BCE).
- This was the second attempt to translate the Torah into Greek (there was an unsuccessful attempt 61 years earlier), the ruling Greek-Egyptian emperor Ptolemy according to legend, gathered 72 Torah sages, had them sequestered in 72 separate rooms, and ordered them to each produce a translation. On the 8th of Tebet of the Hebrew year 3515 (246 BCE) they produced 72 independent translations, including identical changes in 13 places (where they each felt that a literal translation would constitute a corruption of the Torah's true meaning). This Greek rendition became known as the Septuagint, "of the seventy" (though later versions that carry this name are not believed to be true to the originals). Greek became a significant second language among Jews as a result of this translation. During Talmudic times, Tebet 8 was observed by some as a fast day, expressing the fear of the detrimental effect of the translation.
9 Tebet - (313 BCE) - Death of Ezra
- *Ezra, who led the return of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel after the Babylonian exile (423-353 BCE), oversaw the building of the Second Temple, canonized the 24 books of the Bible and, as head of the "Great Assembly" legislated a series of laws and practices (including formalized prayer) which left a strong impact to Judaism until even this day. He died on the 9th of Tebet of the Hebrew year 3448 (313 BCE, which is exactly 1000 years after the Torah was given on Mount Sinai). The death of Ezra marked the end of what is called the "Era of Prophesy." See also here.
- On the 10th of Tebet, the armies of the Babylonian emperor Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Jerusalem. Thirty months later, on Tammuz 17, the city walls were breached, and on Av 9th of that year, the Holy Temple was destroyed. The Jewish people were then exiled to Babylonia for 70 years.
11 Tebet - (1668) - Jews were expelled from Austria
17 Tebet - (1728) - First New York Synagogue
- In 1654, a group of Spanish and Portuguese Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition held a Rosh Hashanah service in New Amsterdam, and subsequently founding the congregation Shearith Israel ("Remnant of Israel"). On this 17th of Tebet in 1728, the congregation purchased a lot in Lower Manhattan and erected the first synagogue in New York.
17 Tebet - Death of Toldot Aaron (1754)
- Rabbi Aaron Zelig ben Joel Feivush of Ostrog[disambiguation needed], Russia, who authored of Toldot Aaron, died on Tebet 17 of the Hebrew year 5515 (1754).
17 Tebet - (1841) - Death of Maggid of Dubna
- Tebet 17 is also the yahrtzeit (anniversary of the death) of Rabbi Yaakov Wolf Krantz (1740–1804), the Maggid (itinerant preacher) of Dubna, who is particularly known for the parables (meshalim) he employed in his sermons and writings.
18 Tebet - (469)- Huna was killed
- The Exilarch ("Resh Galuta") of Babylonian Jewry, Huna Mori bar Mor Zutra, was executed in Pumpeditha by order of the Persian emperor on the 18th of Tebet of the Hebrew year 4229 (469 CE). Also killed on that day was Rav Mesharshia bar Pekod ([he third Jewish leader who was arrested with them, Rab Amemor bar Mor Yenuka, was executed two months later).
18 Tebet - (1841) - Death of B'nei Yissachar
- The 18th of Tebet the yahrtzeit (anniversary of the death) of Rabbi Zvi Elimelech Shapiro of Dynov (1783?-1841), author of the Chassidic work B'nei Yissacha
19 Tebet - (1854) - Judah Touro's death
- The 19th of Tebet is the yahrtzeit (anniversary of the death) of American Jewish philanthropist, Judah Touro (1775–1854).
20 Tebet - (1204) - Death of Maimonides
- Rabbi Moses ben Maimon, a famous Talmudist, Halachist, physician, philosopher and communal leader, and known by the acronym "Rambam" as well as "Maimonides", died in Egypt on the 20th of Tebet in 1204.
20 Tebet - (1483) - Printing of the Talmud
- The first volume of the Babylonian Talmud, the tractate Berachot, was printed in Soncino, Italy, on the 20th of Tebet of the Hebrew year (1483).
22 Tebet - (1496) - Portuguese Expulsion
- Four years after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492), many of whom found refuge in the neighboring country of Portugal, a decree was issued giving all the Jews living in Portugal one year to either convert to Christianity or leave the country. The Inquisition would last for the next 350 years, persecuting, torturing and burning at the stake thousands of "marranos" throughout Spain, Portugal and their colonies for continuing to secretly practice the Jewish faith.
22 Tebet - (1622) - Prague rescue
- In the yearbook of the Meisel Synagogue in Prague, the 22nd of Tebet is designated to commemorate the escape of Yosef Thein from the gallows in the Hebrew year 5383 (1622).
24 Tebet - (1812) - Death of Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi
- The founder of Chabad Chassidism, Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi (1745–1812), died on the eve of the 24th of Tebet, at approximately 10:30 pm, shortly after reciting the Havdalah prayer, which marks the end of Shabbat.
24 Tebet - (1837) - Galilee earthquake of 1837
- A devastating earthquake struck northern Israel, killing four thousand Jews in Safed and between 700 to 1000 Jews in Tiberias.<br
24 Tebet - (1852) - Mount Sinai Hospital
- The first hospital in America under Jewish direction, Mount Sinai Hospital, was founded in New York on the 24 of Tebet in 1852.
25 Tebet - (1559) - Chovat Halevavot published
- Chovat Halvavot, the classical work on Jewish ethics, and who was authored by Rabbi Bachya ben Yosef ibn Paquda on or before 1161, and translated into Hebrew from the original Arabic by the famed translator Rabbi Judah idn Tibbon in 1167. It was first published on the 25th of Tebet of the Hebrew year 5319 (1559).
- This law was on condition that the Jew would accept the concept of reward and punishment in the afterlife. Maryland was founded as an haven for Catholics in 1634, and in the early days the denial of Christianity was a capital crime in Maryland. Anyone speaking negatively about Mary or the Apostles was subject to a fine or public whipping. The practice of Judaism was not legalized in Maryland until 1776, but other restrictions remained in place. It was not until 50 years later that Jews became qualified for public office.
27 Tebet - (1888) - Death of Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch
- Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch (1808–1888), a Talmudist, scholar, philosopher, prolific author and Rabbi of Frankfurt am Main died. He is noted for encouraging Orthodox Judaism to German Jewry, convincing thousands to the teachings of the Torah at a time when assimilationist trends were very high for Jewish life in Western Europe.
- Shimon ben Shetach successfully completed the expulsion of the Sadducees (a sect which denied the Oral Torah and the authority of the Sages) who had dominated the Sanhedrin (supreme court), and replaced them with his Mishnah (loyal Pharisaic disciples), on the 28th of Tebet of the Hebrew year 3680 (81 BCE).
29 Tebet - (2006) - Death of Rabbi Yitzchak Kaduri
- Rabbi Yitzchak Kaduri, known in recent years as "the eldest of the Kabbalists," in Israel, was born in Baghdad, Iraq in 1898. As a youth, he studied under "Ben Ish Chai" (Rabbi Yosef Chaim of Baghdad, 1840–1913) and was regarded as an illu (prodigy) by the sages of the venerable Baghdad Jewish community. In 1922, Rabbi Yitzchak emigrated to Palestine and joined the ranks of the Jerusalem Kabbalists, even as he earned his living for many years as a bookbinder. The Rabbi's fame grew over the years and thousands flocked to him to receive his counsel and blessing. He died on the 29th of Tebet of 2006, 108 years old. Hundreds of thousands attended his funeral in Jerusalem.