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Jean-Philippe de Lespinay

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Jean-Philippe de Lespinay is a French inventor born June 19, 1946 in Paris. He is known for his invention "La Maieutique", part of the Artificial Intelligence, made in 1986[1][2][3].

Contents

Biography

After two consecutive « baccalauréat » diplomas (Math-Elem and Philo), he graduated in 1971 from the Business School of Marseilles, now Euromed. In 1973 he qualified as a sales engineer in computer science at Honeywell Bull company. In 1986 he implemented the principles of Artificial Intelligence expressed 15 years earlier, with Mycin for example, solving a major problem in AI: knowledge engineering[4][5]. He invented an easy solution for knowledge extraction he associates with a reasoning mechanism, preconditions for an intelligent and learning computer. In 1991, due to the results of his R&D work he was awarded a « Research Technician degree in Artificial Intelligence"[6] from the French Ministry of Research. Subsequently, he generalized the concept by making several new discoveries in Artificial Intelligence all based on automated reasoning.

Of his marriage in 1977[7], he had four children. He divorced in 2007.

Professional and scientific background

He began his career as a sales engineer at Honeywell Bull (1973). In 1982, he joined a computer engineering company, Cril, as Commercial Director. Artificial Intelligence (AI), was still in its infancy at that time but promising to make computers more intelligent, more efficient. In 1986, he created an R&D company, A.R.C.A.N.E.[8] (an acronym for “Automatisation du Raisonnement et de la Connaissance, Acquisition Normalisée de l’Expertise” ie “Automated Reasoning and Knowledge, Normalized Acquisition of the Expertise”) to provide French companies with expert systems instead of just IT. At the time, expert systems were prototypes developed by large companies, most of them in the United States[9][10] (IntelliCorp, TecKnowledge, Lisp Machine, etc.).

At Arcane he made a discovery: there exists a method allowing any employee to develop expert systems out of IT departments, in a fast and efficient way. He named this method "La Maieutique"[11].

Mid-1986, for a French bank, the Banque de Bretagne, he produced in four months one of the largest expert systems ever (1200 rules and several external programs), called "Josephine"[12][13]. An industry first, this expert system dialogued with the end customer on-premise and was developed by a former bank employee with virtually no knowledge of computing and Artificial Intelligence[14]. As Josephine was installed in bank agencies to be available to clients, journalists tested it, which earned it some forty articles in the press. Following this achievement, Jean-Philippe de Lespinay was invited to explain his technology in numerous trade conferences and articles.

In the following years, Jean-Philippe de Lespinay gradually generalized his theory on the power of automated reasoning. In 1988, his company developed Moca[15], a universal reasoning engine for sale giving explanations and detecting contradictions. In 1990, he demonstrated the reliability of La Maieutique with "Maïeutica" [16][17], a fully automated software. With Maieutica he developed expert systems for French organizations[18].

In 1991, he invented the "Flow Logic", demonstrating with his software MIAO[19](Maintenance Intelligently Assisted by Computer) that it worked. Thanks to the reasoning, Miao could understand the blueprint of a machine, to deduce every potential failure and how to diagnose each of them, as an engineer would do. Thus, MIAO produced expert systems in fault diagnosis without the knowledge of experts of the machine[20][21].

From 1992, he generalized in various publications his theory by stating that La Maieutique allows people with no training in IT to develop any program, not just expert systems[22][23].

In July 1999, he created a start-up, Tree Logic[24] with the help of venture capital and business angels, in order to realize an intelligent and vocal chatterbot intended to act as an Operating System of which he developed a running prototype: "Tiara"[25][26]. He obtained the French "FCPI" label [27], granted to innovative projects of national importance. In 2001, Tree Logic developed T.Rex ("Tree Rules Extractor"), an application generator in natural language derivative of Maieutica intended for non-computer scientists[28].

Jean-Philippe de Lespinay authored several articles including a 16-page report on the state of the art in Artificial Intelligence for the French scientific journal "Science et Vie", thesis on reasoning Artificial Intelligence and artificial consciousness with La Maieutique, etc. (see a list of main publications by Jean-Philippe de Lespinay hereunder).

Publications

References

  1. ^ Jean-Philippe de Lespinay, Les Echos, July 11, 1986 : "L'intelligence artificielle chez soi" (ie "Artificial Intelligence at home")
  2. ^ 01 Informatique, April 21, 1987: "Un système en or pour parler argent" (ie "A gold system to talk about money")
  3. ^ JP de Lespinay's conference on La Maieutique, Cesta, November 17, 1987: ""La Maieutique: une méthode de réalisation des systèmes experts opérationnels" (ie "a method of achieving operational expert systems"
  4. ^ Gunnar Johannsen†, and James L. Alty, Knowledge engineering for industrial expert systems, July 30, 1989 (SciencesDirect)
  5. ^ Abdur Rashid Khan, Zia Ur Rehman and Hafeez Ullah Amin, "Knowledge-Based System's Modeling for Software Process Model Selection", (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications,Vol. 2, No.2, February 2011
  6. ^ Degree confirmed by judgement of the Tribunal Administratif de Nantes (June 22, 2000, No 95.2939)
  7. ^ Marital status
  8. ^ ARCANE registration number: 334 667 748 R.C.S. NANTES Greffe du Tribunal de Commerce de NANTES 1986
  9. ^ The History of Artificial Intelligence: "Companies such as Digital Electronics were using XCON, an expert system designed to program the large VAX computers. DuPont, General Motors, and Boeing relied heavily on expert systems"
  10. ^ History of IntelliCorp and AI market : "Principal Competitors: Accenture; Ascential Software; Evolutionary Technologies; International Business Machines Corporation; Information Builders, Inc.; Oracle Corporation; Sun Microsystems, Inc.; Sybase, Inc."
  11. ^ 01 Informatique April 21, 1987: La Maieutique
  12. ^ Le Monde Informatique, May 30, 1988: "Josephine will be a landmark"
  13. ^ Le Point November 2, 1987: "Josephine, small masterpiece of this "artificial intelligence" that starts to rage"
  14. ^ He reported this experience, and more, in a book: Le Séac'h, Michel, Développer un système expert (How to Develop an Expert System), PSI, Paris 1989.
  15. ^ Systèmes Experts, December 10, 1992: "MOCA, moteur d'inférence ou plutôt mécanisme de raisonnement (...) dont le fonctionnement est identique quelque soit le domaine..." (ie "MOCA, inference engine or rather universal reasoning mechanism"), "les raisonnements utilisés peuvent être expliqués par le système à tout moment" (ie "the reasoning can be explained by the system at any time"), "Les systèmes experts d'Arcane fonctionnent tous sur ce principe et sont les seuls quasiment maintenant sur le marché de l'informatique à appliquer la logique d'ordre zéro +" (ie "All the expert systems of Arcane work on this principle and are now virtually the only ones on the computer market to apply the Zero + Logic")
  16. ^ Alain Pauly, CXP Magazine, December 1993
  17. ^ Logiciels & Systèmes, July 1996: Maieutica
  18. ^ Some examples are: Createst an aptitude test for business creation, developed for ANCE (the French agency for business creation); Aloes, an aid to potential students, developed for the University of Nancy[réf.]; Exportest, an assessment test of the exporting abilities of companies, developed for a regional government, Région des Pays de la Loire[réf.]; and more.
  19. ^ Jean-François Cros, Industries et Techniques, February 15, 1990; Hervé Babonneau, Ouest France, February 15, 1990; Marc Feretti, Produktion, June 27, 1991
  20. ^ Marc Feretti : interview with Michel Micheneau (Merlin Gerin company), Maintenance & entreprise, November 1993
  21. ^Systèmes Experts: "Arcane : Avec MIAO2 et Maieutica, le marché devrait redémarrer” (ie "With MIAO2 and Maieutica, the market [of Artificial Intelligence in France] should restart"), Dec. 10, 1992
  22. ^ Bancatique, December 1992: Programming accessible to all
  23. ^ IX-Magazine, March 1995: Programming "for those who do not know"
  24. ^ Tree Logic registration in French trade register
  25. ^ Paul-André Tavoillot, Newbiz, April 20, 2002
  26. ^ Enterprise Europe Network, 08 FR IAPL 0JG9 : Artificial Intelligence - a speaking and user-friendly computer (January 8, 2008)
  27. ^ French FCPI label (ANVAR, March 27, 2000)
  28. ^ Olivier Rafal, Le Monde Informatique, July 13, 2001

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