Women in Armenia
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An Armenian woman in traditional attire, c. 1896
|Gender Inequality Index|
|Rank||59th out of 148|
|Maternal mortality (per 100,000)||30 (2010)|
|Women in parliament||10.7% (2012)|
|Females over 25 with secondary education||94.1% (2010)|
|Women in labour force||49.4% (2011)|
|Global Gender Gap Index|
|Rank||92nd out of 135|
Due to the patriarchal nature of traditional Armenian culture and society, women in Armenia are normally expected to be virtuous and submissive, safeguarding their virginity until marriage. Most Armenian women thus customarily assume the roles of housewives and mothers. Nonetheless, some Armenian women have attained prominence in business and politics.
Work and business
According to the 2011 Grant Thornton International business survey, 29% of top-level managerial positions in Armenia were occupied by women in 2010. However, this figure declined to 23% in 2011. Based on a report by the United Nations, there were 24 female mayors and community leaders in Armenia in 2011; a further 50 women held lower-level administrative positions.
According to the World Health Organization, between 10% and 60% of Armenian women suffered domestic abuse and violence in 2002; the uncertainty of the data was due to the underreporting of domestic violence in Armenia. Underreporting is said to occur because of the treatment of domestic violence as a private family matter. There are no well-established laws against domestic aggression and gender-based prejudice in Armenia; there is a cultural credence in Armenia that "abuse is a normal part of marriage". Furthermore, divorcing a husband – even an abusive one – causes "social disgrace", with the families of women who file for divorce or report domestic violence being considered to be shamed. Other contributing factors include Armenian women's lack of, or lower level of, education regarding their rights and how to protect themselves from abuse.
In May 2007, through the legislative decree known as "the gender quota law", more Armenian women were encouraged to get involved in politics. That year, only seven women occupied parliamentary positions. Among these female politicians was Hranush Hakobyan, the longest-serving woman in the National Assembly of Armenia. The relative lack of women in Armenia's government has led to Armenian women being considered "among the most underrepresented" and "among the lowest in the world" by foreign observers.
Health and welfare
In 2010 and 2011, during Women’s Month and as part of the "For You, Women" charitable program, the Surb Astvatcamayr Medical Center in the Armenian capital of Yerevan offered free gynecological and surgical services to the women of Armenia for a full month. Women from across the country arrived seeking treatment.
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- Politics of Armenia
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- "Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2013. p. 156.
- "The Global Gender Gap Report 2012". World Economic Forum. pp. 10–11.
- Itano, Nicole. Quota Law Puts More Women in Armenia's Election. WeNews. May 10, 2007.
- Domestic Violence Against Women in Armenia. United Human Rights Council (UHRC). May 26, 2010.
- Survey: Women In Armenia Forced Out From The Positions Of Top-Managers. Economy: Arka News Agency.
- Women in Armenia to Receive Free Medical Treatment for One Month. Epress.am. March 11, 2011.
- Արդի հայ գրականութիւն (Modern Armenian Literature). Beirut. pp. 134-138.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Women of Armenia|
- Women’s Resource Center Armenia
- Armenia: Women Suffer in Silence. Amnesty.org, 13 November 2008.
- Women's Organisations Armenia