ハプログループD (mtDNA)

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

ハプログループD (mtDNA)(ハプログループD (ミトコンドリアDNA)、: Haplogroup D (mtDNA))とは、分子人類学で用いられる、人類ミトコンドリアDNAハプログループ(型集団)の分類のうち、ハプログループMを祖先に持ち「4883 5178A 16362」により定義されるものである[1]。48000年前に東アジアで誕生した[2]

分布[編集]

ハプログループDは東アジア東南アジア北アジア中央アジアそしてアメリカ大陸に至るまで広範囲に観察される。形質人類学におけるモンゴロイドの分布域と概ね重なる。日本人の約41%-42%がこの系統に属し[3][4][5]、うち下位のD4系統は日本人の30%以上が属す最も高頻度のグループとなっている。

下位系統[編集]

大別するとD4とD5'6という2つの系統がある。


ヒトミトコンドリアDNAハプログループ系統樹

  ミトコンドリア・イブ (L)    
L0 L1-6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6  
  M N  
M7   CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X   N9
M7a C Z B F R0   JT P  U Y
HV J T K
H V

脚注[編集]

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  2. ^ "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock Supplementary material" (PDF). 2009. pp. page89.
  3. ^ a b Asari, M (2007). “Utility of haplogroup determination for forensic mtDNA analysis in the Japanese population”. Leg Med 9 (5): 237–240. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.01.007. PMID 17467322. 
  4. ^ a b Umetsu, Kazuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Yuasa, Isao (2005). “Multiplex amplified product-length polymorphism analysis of 36 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms for haplogrouping of East Asian populations”. Electrophoresis 26 (1): 91–98. doi:10.1002/elps.200406129. PMID 15624129. 
  5. ^ a b Maruyama, Sayaka; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Saitou, Naruya (2003). “Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA control region and phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA lineages in the Japanese population”. Int J Legal Med 117 (4): 218–225. doi:10.1007/s00414-003-0379-2. PMID 12845447. 
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  7. ^ East Asian mtDNA haplogroup determination in Koreans: haplogroup-level coding region SNP analysis and subhaplogroup-level control region sequence analysis
  8. ^ Kong, Qing-Peng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Liu, Mu (2003). “Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms of five ethnic populations from northern China”. Hum Genet 113 (5): 391–405. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1004-7. PMID 12938036. 
  9. ^ Zheng, H-X; Yan, S; Qin, Z-D; Wang, Y; Tan, J-Z (2011). “Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes”. PLoS ONE 6 (10): e25835. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025835. PMC: 3188578. PMID 21998705. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3188578/. 
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  14. ^ Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru (2006). “Phylogeography and Ethnogenesis of Aboriginal Southeast Asians”. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23 (12): 2480–2491. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl124. PMID 16982817. 
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