ピアチェンツァ公会議

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

ピアチェンツァ公会議(ピアチェンツァこうかいぎ、イタリア語: Concilio di Piacenza)は、聖職者と平信徒から成っていたローマカトリック教会の教会会議で、1095年3月1日から3月7日にかけてピアチェンツァで開催[1]

公議会はウルバヌス2世イタリアフランスの視察の終わりに開催された。ウルバヌス2世聖職叙任権闘争で失った権限を、当時の神聖ローマ皇帝ハインリヒ4世から取り戻すことを再主張するために会の発足を呼びかけた。200人の司教が出席し、4000人の教会員と3万人の平信徒が出席した。[2]町の外で公会議が開かれなければならないほどに非常に多くの人間が集まった。

出席者[編集]

一般の出席者の中にはアーデルハイト・フォン・キエフフセヴォロド1世がいた[3]アーデルハイト・フォン・キエフウルバヌス2世に接見し、ウルバヌス2世に強く勧められて、公会議が始まる前に公の場で懺悔をした[3]。(以下懺悔要綱)「私の夫は、私を無理やり拘束し、乱交に駆り立て、息子のコンラートに私の體を捧げ、終には黒ミサで使われそうにもなった。」と彼女は主張した[3]。これらの告発はコンラートによって順番に確認され、彼が彼の父(ハインリヒ4世)に対して反旗を翻した理由であると述べた[3]

Also in attendance were ambassadors from Philip I of France,[4] who came to appeal Philip's recent excommunication over his illegal divorce and remarriage to Bertrade de Montfort: Philip was given until Pentecost to rectify his situation.[5] The rest of the business of the council expressed fairly typical church concerns: there were at least 15 canons published during the council, including a condemnation of the Berengarian heresy;[6] a condemnation of the Nicolaitan heresy; an affirmation of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist; denunciations of the Antipope Clement III and his supporters; and a prohibition of payment to priests for baptisms, burials, or confirmations.

One of Urban II's greatest achievements at Piacenza was the depth of detail of his Canons, in particular Canons 1 through 7 legislating universal condemnation of 'simony': the practice of building to acquire, and acquiring via purchasing, position, or ordination, within the Church. Ecclesiastical appointments stained by simony were decreed to be invalid and powerless. However, a temperate attitude was shown to those ordained by simoniacs who were not simoniacs themselves, and had no prior knowledge that the person ordaining them had no actual ecclesiastical authority to do so. Likewise, churches purchased by parents for their children were allowed to remain within the order; as were children so-ordained, but with benefices (official financial support from Rome) removed. [7]

In hindsight, the most important attendees were the ambassadors sent by Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus. Alexius had been excommunicated by Gregory VII, and been through a series of reinstatements in the Church, but Urban had ultimately lifted the excommunication when he became pope in 1088, and relations between the east and west were at least temporarily friendly.[8] The Byzantine Empire had lost much of its territory in Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks in the aftermath of the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, and Alexius hoped western knights could help him restore it. Upon hearing the Byzantine ambassadors' plea,[9] Urban asked those present to lend aid to the Byzantine Emperor.[10] However it is likely that Urban may have had some idea of an expedition to the East before Alexius's request, as Gregory VII had also called twice for one, but to no avail. [11]

Most of the information about the Council of Piacenza comes from the chronicler Bernold of Constance, who may[12] or may not have been present.[13] No extant contemporary Byzantine sources felt the ambassadors were important enough to mention, although many Byzantine sources from this time no longer exist. For example, the council is mentioned by the 13th century chronicler Theodore Skoutariotes,[14] who quotes now-lost contemporary works.

脚注[編集]

[ヘルプ]
  1. ^ ロバートサマーヴィル、教皇アーバン2世ピアチェンツァ評議会 、(Oxford University Press、2011)、5、11。
  2. ^ ロバートサマーヴィル、教皇アーバン2世ピアチェンツァ評議会 、57。
  3. ^ a b c d 。J.ゴードン・メルトン、時を超えた信仰:5,000年の宗教史 、(ABC-CLIO、2014)、716
  4. ^ Robert Somerville, Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza, 11.
  5. ^ Robert Somerville, Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza, 55.
  6. ^ Robert Somerville, Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza, 56.
  7. ^ Chapter 5, Pope Urban II's Council of Piancenza, Robert Somerville
  8. ^ Papal War Aims in 1096:The Option not Chosen, Bernard S. Bachrach, In Laudem Hierosolymitani, ed. Iris Shagrir, Ronnie Ellenblum and Jonathan Simon, (Ashgate Publishing, 2007), 339.
  9. ^ Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1, (Cambridge University Press, 1951), 105.
  10. ^ Aims of the Medieval Crusades and How They Were Viewed by Byzantium, Peter Charanis, Church History, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jun., 1952), 126.
  11. ^ "Byzanz und die Kreuzfahrerstaaten. English", Ralph-Johannes Lilie, (Oxford, 1993).
  12. ^ John Pryor, The Age of the Dromōn: The Byzantine Navy Ca 500-1204, (Brill, 2006), 101.
  13. ^ Robert Sommerville, Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza, 24.
  14. ^ Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades, (Hambledon Continuum, 2006), 48.